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NEW WORK ON GARDENING. 

In 1 vol. (pp. 764), illustrated by 383 Engravings, price 16s. 
mHE SUBURBAN HORTICULTURIST; adapted for the Use of 

JL those interested in the Formation and Management of either Large or Small 
Gardens, By J. C. LOUDON, F.L.S. &c. Conductor of The Gardener's Magazine, 
Author of The "Encyclopedias of Gardening, Plants, Agriculture, Trees and Shrubs, 
Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture, The Arboretum Britannicum, 8fc. 8fc. 

No pains have been spared towards rendering this work as complete as possible. It 
contains full instructions for the formation of gardens and their management, according 
to the most approved modes of practice. Extensive information will be found respecting 
the nature of soils and their improvement ; the different kinds of manures and their 
application ; the operations of Planting, Sowing, Budding, Grafting, and the various 
other modes of Propagation ; Pruning and Training of Standard, Dwarf, Espalier, and 
Wall Trees. The formation of borders for Fruit Trees, the construction of Forcing 
Houses, P' ts,and other structures for forcing and protection, and the various modes 
of Heating by Hot Water and otherwise, are treated of in full detail, as are likewise the 
Cropping anu Particular Management of the Kitchen Garden, Forcing of the Pine Apple, 
Vine, Peach, Fig, Cucumber, and Melon. Lists and descriptions of the best varieties of 
Vegetables and Fruits are also included. Those who have a considerable knowledge ot 
Gardening will find in this work much information to which they n\ay advantageously 
refer ; whilst it will enable such as are inexperienced to proceed with every probability ot 
success. 

From the following quotations, the work will appear to be particularly adapted * 
clergymen, and retired citizens or amateurs, who wish to be their own gardeners, and for 
emigrants. 

" Mr. Loudon has made a most successful attempt to teach the science tif gardening to the un- 
initiated ; the instructions given respecting the various branches being so clear and intelligible as 
to be readily understood even by those totally ignorant of the subjects of which they treat ; and, 
in addition to this, everything is illustrated by woodcuts admirably adapted to convey their exact 
meaning, particularly the operations of pruning, training, and propagation, which are exceedingly 
valuable parts of the work, and well worthy the attention of the most experienced. The volume 
before us will be found most invaluable to young gardeners, and those who know little of the science 
of gardening, and areeither desironsof cultivating their gardens personally for health and recreation, 
or of directing their management upon the most approved principles, with a labourer only. For 
accomplishing either of these ends the practical directions are most ample and complete." 

PAXTON'S MAGAZINE OF BOTANY, March 1843, p. 46. 

" The novice in gardening will here find ample instructions in the various branches of labour, 
such as digging, trenching, mowing, &c. as well as for the propagation of plants by budding, 
grafting, inarching, and other methods. A considerable space is j ustly occupied with directions for 
planting, an operation too often considered of minor importance, but which, as daily experience 
proves, cannot be too carefully performed. Those sections of the work which relate to pruning 
and training are well worthy the perusal of even the practical gardener ; were the rules therein 
inculcated, as well as those relative to the proper formation of borders, more strictly attended to, 
we should not have to lament the barren and unsightly state of fruit trees, which is so frequently 
observable." DR. LINDLEY, in GARDENERS' CHRONICLE, Nov. 1842. 

Published by William Smith, 113, Fleet Street. 



THE 



SUBURBAN HORTICULTURIST; 



OB, 



AN ATTEMPT TO TEACH THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF 

(Culture antr Jltanaejement 



THE KITCHEN, FRUIT, & FORCING GARDEN 



THOSE WHO HAVE HAD NO PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE OR PRACTICE IN THESE 
DEPARTMENTS OF GARDENING. 



J. C. LOUDON, F.L.S., H.S., &c., 

AUTHOR OF " THE SUBURBAN (ARCHITECT AND LANDSCAPE) GARDENER," CONDUCTOR OF 
" THE GARDENER'S MAGAZINE," ETC. ETC. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH NUJIEEOIISJENGRAVINGS ON WOOD. 

^ _^^ 

C ) 

^V^/teRA^X 






LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR, 

AND SOLD BY 

WILLIAM SMITH, 113, FLEET STREET, 

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 
MDCCCXLII. 















LONDON : 
11RADBURV AND EVANS, PKJNTERS, WHITKFHIARS. 



PREFACE. 

THE Author submits the following work to the public as by 
far the best Treatise on the Culture of the Fruit and Kitchen 
Garden which has hitherto been produced by his pen ; because it 
contains all the latest improvements, while the Horticulture in 
the last edition of the Encyclopedia of Gardening was pre- 
pared in 1834. He has bestowed more than common care in 
compiling the present Treatise, and he has had the inestimable 
advantage of being assisted by Mr. Thompson, the superin- 
tendant of the fruit and culinary vegetable departments in the 
Horticultural Society's Garden. The selections and descriptions 
of fruits, and of culinary vegetables, have either been made by 
Mr. Thompson, or approved of by him. 

The Author has also had the assistance of various other prac- 
tical gardeners, including Mr. Henry Charles Ogle, who pre- 
pared the Calendarial and General Index, and Mr. Lymburn, who 
furnished most of the Notes in the APPENDIX. The important 
note in p. 706, on the subject of charcoal, and the use of rough, 
rooty, turfy soil, and small stones in potting plants, is extracted 
from an article on this subject in The Gardeners Magazine for 
November 1842, by Mr. James Barnes, gardener to the Right 
Hon. Lady Rolle, at Bicton, near Exeter. 

a 2 



IV PREFACE. 

It was originally intended to have included Floriculture in this 
volume ; but as it would have swelled it to an inconvenient size, 
it has been thought advisable to publish Suburban Horticulture by 
itself, and leave Suburban Floriculture for a third volume. These 
two volumes, added to the volume entitled The Suburban (Archi- 
tect and Landscape) Gardener already published, will form a 
complete cycle of SUBURBAN GARDENING. 

In the mean time, till the Suburban Floriculturist is published, 
an excellent substitute will be found in the Companion to the 
Ladies' Flower-garden, by Mrs. Loudon. 

Corrections, additions, and suggestions for the improvement of 
this work, are earnestly requested from its readers, with a view to 
assisting the author in rendering a future edition, should it be 
called for, as perfect as possible. In the mean time any additions, 
or discussions which may be of importance in themselves without 
reference to this volume, will be published under the head of 
" Retrospective Criticism," in the Gardeners' Magazine. 



J. C. L. 



BAYSWATER, 

Nov. 1st, 1842. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

NAMES OP THE FRUITS AND CULINARY VEGETABLES CULTIVATED IN 

BRITISH GARDENS, IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES, &c. . . xxiv 

LIST OF ENGRAVINGS ..... xxviii 

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . .1 

PART I. 

FACTS RELATIVE TO PLANTS, THE SoiL, MANURES, THE ATMOSPHERE, 

&c., ON WHICH HORTICULTURE is FOUNDED . . .2 

CHAPTER I. 
PLANTS CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR CULTURE IN GARDENS 2 

SECT. I. The Analogy between Plants and Animals, considered with 

reference to Horticulture . . . . .2 

SECT. II. Classification of Plants, with a View to Horticulture . 8 

22. E'xogens. 23. E'ndogens. 24. A'crogens. 28. Thalamiflorse. 
29. Ranunculacese. 30. Cruciferae. 31. Malvaceae. 32. Geraniacese. 
33. Magnoliacese, &c. 34. Calyciflorae. 35. Leguminosze. 36. Rosaceee. 
37. Umbellacese. , 38. Composite. 39. Ericaceee. 40. Rhamnacese, 
&c. 40. Corollifl6rse. 41. Scrophulariacese. 42. Labiacese. 43. 
Epacridacese, &c. 44. Monochlamydeae. 45. Amentaceae. 46. Coni- 
ferge. 47. Plantaginese, &c. 48. E'ndogens. 49. Orchidacese. 50. 
Scitaminaceee. 51. Iridacese. 52. Amaryllidacese. 53. Liliacese. 54. 
Palmacese. 55. Graminacese. 56. Alismacese, &c. 57. A'crogens. 
58. Fillces. 59. Musci. 60. Lichenes. 61. A'lg. 62. Fungi. 63. 
Equisetacese. 66. Evergreens. 67. Subevergreens. 68. Persistent- 
leaved plants. 69. Deciduous-leaved plants. 70. Ligneous plants. 
71. Suffruticose plants. 72. Trees. 73. Shrubs. 

SECT, III. Nomenclature of Plants with a view to Horticulture . 19 

SECT. IV. Structure of Plants with a view to Horticulture . . 20 

80. Elementary organs. 81. Compound organs. 82. The root. 83. 

The stem. 85. The bark. 86. The medullary rays or plates. 89. 

Nodi. 90. Buds. 91. Leaves. 92. Hairs. 93. Flower-buds. 94. 

Inflorescence. 95. The floral envelope. 96. The sexes of plants. 

97. The ovulum. 98. The fruit. 100. The seed. 

SECT. V. Functions of Plants with reference to Horticulture . 24 

102. Germination. 103. Growth. 105. The stem. 109. Wood. 
111. The bark. 113. Leaves. 115. Buds. 126. The Flowers. 129. 
The sexes. 130. The fruit. 

SECT. VI. The Geographical Distribution of Plants, and their sta- 
tions and habitations, with reference to their Culture in Gardens 37 
135. Temperature. 140. Physical circumstances. 142. Stations. 
143. Light. 144. Water. 145. Soil. 146. Soils formed by particular 
rocks. 147. Atmosphere. 148. Stations. 150. The habitations of 
plants. 



VI CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER II. 

PAGE 

SOILS CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE . . .45 

SECT. I. Origin and Kinds of Soils . . . .46 

153. Sandy soil. 155. Clayey soil. 156. Lime. 157. Magnesia. 
158. Iron. 159. Alluvial soils. 160. Peat. 161. Organic matter. 
162. Loose naked sands or gravels. 163. Calcareous soils or gravels. 
164. Loams. 165. Loams are the best soils. 166. Texture. 167. 
Subsoils. 168. The surface of soils. 169. The plants which grow on 
a soil. 

SECT. II. The Improvement of Soils, with a view to Horticulture . 51 

171. Draining. 172. Altering the texture and composition of soil. 
173. Changing the inclination of the surface of soils. 174. Burning of 
soils. 175. Pulverising soils. 177. Rotation of crops. 

CHAPTER III. 
MANURES CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE . . 56 

SECT. I. Organic Manures . . . . . 5G 

181. Fresh and tender vegetables. 182. Spent tanner's bark. 183. 
Peat soil. 184. Principal vegetable manures. 185. Animal manures. 
186. Excrementitious manures. 189. Bones. 190. Vegeto-animal 
manures. 

SECT. II. Inorganic Manures . . . .60 

194. Lime. 195. Mild-lime. 197. Carbonate of lime, or chalk. 
198. Marl. 199. Gypsum. 200. Sea shells. 201. The rationale of 
the action of lime. 202. The most important uses of lime. 203. Lime 
compost. 204. Saltpetre. 205. Common salt. 

SECT. III. Mixed Manures . . . . .64 

207. Coal ashes. 208. Vegetable ashes. 209. Soot. 210. Street 
manure. 21 1. Composts. 212. Mixed manure in a liquid state. 213. 
Application of manures. 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE ATMOSPHERE CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE . 67 

SECT. I. Heat, considered with reference to Horticulture . . 67 

219. Conduction of heat. 220. Radiation. 223. Dew, or hoar-frost. 
224. Dew is never formed upon metals. 225. The formation of dew. 
226. The effects of radiation. 227. Refrigeration. 228. Protecting 
plants. 229. The secondary effect which radiation has upon the climate. 

230. The influence of hills upon the nightly temperature of the valleys. 

231. Exalting the powers of the climate. 232. Houses for growing the 
plants of warm climates. 234. Increasing the heat of the atmosphere 
and the soil. 235. Frost. 236. Straw mats, bast mats, cloth, wool, or 
wood. 237. Wall trees. 238. Tender shrubs and trees. 239. A 
stream or river. 240. Watering. 241. Conclusions. 

SECT. II. Atmospheric Moisture, considered with reference to Horti- 
culture ......... 76 

242. Existence of water in air. 243. Hygrometers. 244. Their utility. 
245. Evaporation. 249. Vapour. 250. Rain. 251. Moisture of the 
free atmosphere. 252. Artificial climates unnaturally dry. 253. Drain 
of moisture. 255. Dryness of the atmosphere of hothouses. 256. 
Coolers of wet porous earthenware. 257. Plants in living rooms. 



CONTENTS. Vll 

SECT. II. Atmospheric Moisture, considered with reference to Horti- 
culture continued. PAOE 

258. Absorbent function. 259. A strict attention to the atmosphere. 
260. Tropical plants. 261. The heat of the glass of a hothouse at 
night. 262. The skilful balancing of the temperature and moisture. 

SECT. III. The Agitation of the Atmosphere considered with refer- 
ence to Horticulture ....... 83 

263. Motion. 264. Perspiration. 265. Shelter. 266. Agitation 
of the air in plant structures. 267. To heat the air before it is admitted 
among the plants. 268. Effect on the human feelings. 269. The im- 
pression of an atmosphere saturated with moisture. 270. Mr. Penn's 
method of warming and ventilating. 271. Heating by pipes in the 
ordinary manner. 272. Greenhouses. 273. Pits and cucumber-frames. 
274. Change of air and ventilation. 275. The climate, during the 
growing season. 276. Ventilators. 277. General principle. 

SECT. IV. Light, considered with reference to Horticulture . . 89 

279. Light follows the same laws as heat. 280. Radiation of light. 
281. Transmitted. 282. Refracted. 283. Disperses. 284. Perpen- 
dicular light. 285. The efficiency of light. 286. A due proportion 
between light and heat. 287. Absence of light. 



CHAPTER V. 

WORMS, SNAILS, SLUGS, REPTILES, BIRDS, &c., CONSIDERED WITH 

REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE . . . . .93 

SECT. I. The Earth-worm, considered with reference to Horticulture 94 

290. Lumbricus terrestris. 293. Natural uses. 294. Injury. 
SECT. II. Snails and . Slugs, considered with reference to Horticulture 96 

297. Helix asp^rsa, and H. nemoralis. 298. Slugs. 299. Snails 
and slugs. 300. Snails and slugs are hermaphrodite and oviparous. 
301. Natural uses of the snail. 302. Retires. 303. To destroy snails. 
304. To destroy slugs. 

SECT. III. Insects, considered with reference to Horticulture . . 99 
SUBSECT. I Of the Nature of Insects, and their Classification . .99 

306. Insects. 307. Winged insects. 308. Insects without wings. 
309. Crabs and spiders. 310. Arrangement here given. 

SUBSECT. II. Transformation of Insects 101 

311. Eggs. 312. Larvae. 313. Nymphae or pupse. 314. Perfect 
insect. 

SUBSECT. III. Food of Insects 102 

315. Nourishment. 316. Roots, stem, and branches. 317. Fo- 
liage. 318. Flowers. 319. Number. 320. Food. 322. Transforma- 
tion. 323. Gluttonous. 324. No nourishment. 325. Eat . . 

SUBSECT. IV. Distribution and Habits of Insects . . . .104 

326. Distribution. 327. Water. 328. Land insects. 329. Other 
animals. 

SUBSECT. V. Uses of Insects 105 

332. Uses. 333. Medicine. 334. Insects destroyed by other in- 
sects. 335. Consume dead animal substances. 
SUBSECT. VI. Means contrived by Nature to limit the Multiplication 

of insects 105 

336. Continued rain. 337. Late frosts. 338. Inundations. 339. 
Enemies. 340. Insectivorous Mammalia. 341. Birds. 342. Wood- 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

SECT. III. Insects, considered with reference to Horticulture 

continued. PAGE 

pecker race. 343. Sparrow tribe. 344. Cuckoo. 345. Crows. 346. 
Insectivorous birds, sometimes granivorous. 347. Amphibious ani- 
mals. 348. Equilibrium. 349. Beetles. 350. Ichneumdnidse. 351. 
Ants, and field or tree bugs. 

SUBSECT. VII Means devised by Art for arresting the Progress of 
Insects in Gardens, or of destroying them there . . .108 

352. Insects may be destroyed in all their different stages. 353. De- 
terring the perfect insect. 354. Preventing the perfect insect from 
laying its eggs. 355. Catching the perfect insect. 356. Destroy- 
ing the perfect insect. 357. Luring away the perfect insect. 358. Col- 
lecting the eggs of insects. 359. Preventing eggs from being hatched. 
360. Collecting or destroying larvae. 361. Collecting the pupae, or 
chrysalids. 

SECT. IV. Amphibious Animals, considered with reference to Hor- 
ticulture . . .114 

SECT. V. Birds, considered with reference to Horticulture . .115 

364. Raptores (seizers). Insessores (perchers). 367. Rasores 
(scratchers). 368. Grallatores (waders). 369. Natatores (swimmers). 
370. The different modes of deterring birds. 371. The destruction of birds. 

SECT. VI. The smaller Quadrupeds, considered with reference to 

Horticulture 120 

372. Ferae (wild beasts). 373. Glires (dormice). 374. Ungulata 
(hoofed animals). 

CHAPTER VI. 

DISEASES AND ACCIDENTS OF PLANTS, CONSIDERED WITH REFER- 
ENCE TO HORTICULTURE . . . . . . . 123 

375. Canker. 376. To prevent canker. 377. Cure. 378. Gum. 
379. Mildew. 380. Honey-dew. 381. Blight. 382. Flux of juices. 
383. Accidents. 384. Other plant diseases. 



PART II. 

IMPLEMENTS, STRUCTURES, AND OPERATIONS OF HORTICULTURE . 127 

CHAPTER I. 

IMPLEMENTS OF HORTICULTURE . . . . . . 127 

385. Tools, instruments, utensils, machines, and other articles. 
SECT. I. General Observations on the construction and uses of the 
Implements used in Horticulture ...... 128 

387. The mechanical principles on which they act. 388. Construc- 
tion of implements. 389. Repairs. 

SECT. II. Tools used in Horticulture . . . . . . 129 

390. The common lever. 391. Perforators. 392. The dibber. 
393. Picks. 394. Draw-hoes. 395. Scrapers. 396. Thrust-hoes. 
397. Spades. 398. Turf-spades. 399. Turf-racers. 400. The trowel 
and the spud. 401. Transplanters. 402. Forks. 403. Rakes. 404. 
Besoms. 405. Beetles and rammers. 406. The mallet. 407. The 
garden hammer. 408. The garden pincers. 



CONTENTS. IX 

PAGE 

SECT. III. Instruments used in Horticulture .... 137 

409. Garden knives. 410. Bill-knives, or hedge-bills. 411. Prun- 
ing-saws. 412. Pruning-chisels. 413. Shears. 414. The axe. 415. 
Verge shears. 416. Grass shears. 417. The short grass scythe. 418. 
Other instruments. 419. Chests of tools, and instruments. 

SECT. IV. Utensils used in Horticulture . . ... 142 

420. Earthenware pots for plants. 421. Porosity. 422. Earthen- 
ware saucers for pots. 423. Rectangular boxes. 424. Wooden tubs. 
425. Watering-pots. 426. Money's inverted rose watering-pot. 427. 
Sieves and screens. 428. Carrying utensils. 429. Baskets. 430. 
Basket-making. 431. Carrying-baskets. 432. Measuring-baskets. 433. 
Baskets for growing plants. 434. Portable glass utensils. 435. Sub- 
stitute for bell glasses. 436. Powdering boxes. 437. Other utensils. 

SECT. V. Machines used in Horticulture . . , .153 

438. Wheelbarrows for gardens. 439. Rollers. 440. The watering 
engines. 441. Garden bellows. 442. The mowing-machine. 443. 
Other machines. 

SECT. VI. Miscellaneous articles used in Horticulture . . . 158 

444. Articles for protection. 445. Mats of straw or reeds. 446. 
Wooden shutters. 447. Asphalte covers. 448. Oiled paper frames. 
449. Oiled paper caps. 450. Wicker-work hurdles. 451. Props for 
plants. 452. The durability of wooden props. 453. Garden tallies 
and labels. 454. Nails, lists, and ties. 455. The garden line. 456. 
Ladders. 457. A levelling instrument. 458. Thermometers. 459. 
A hydrometer. 460. Other articles. 

CHAPTER II. 

STRUCTURES AND EDIFICES OF HORTICULTURE .... 171 
SECT. I. Portable, Temporary, and Movable Structures . . . 171 

461. Wicker-work structures. 462. Portable substitutes for hand- 
glasses. 463. Canvas coverings. 464. Canvas shades to hothouses. 
465. The common hotbed frame. 

SECT. II. Fixed Structures used in Horticulture . . . 176 
SUBSECT. I. Walls, Espalier rails, and Trellis work . . . 176 

466. Walls. 467. Direction and material. 468. The materials of 
walls. 469. The height of garden walls. 470. The foundations. 471. 
The copings of walls. 472. On the construction of walls. 473. Trel- 
lised walls. 474. Colouring the surface of walls black. 475. Flued 
walls. 476. Conservatory walls. 477. A substitute for a wall of brick. 
478. Espalier rails. 479. Trellises and lattice-work. 

SUBSECT. II Fixed Structures for growing Plants with Glass roofs . 187 

480. Plant houses. 481. Situation. 482. The form. 483. Cur- 
vilineal roofs. 484. Ridge and furrow roofs. 485. Materials. 486. 
The law of the reflection of light from glass. 487. Iron roofs. 488. 
Heat. 489. Fermenting substances. 490. Fermenting materials and 
fire heat combined. 491. Heating from vaults, or from stacks of flues. 
492. Flues. 493. The best materials for building flues. 494. The 
furnace. 495. On substitutes for smoke flues. 496. Steam. 497. 
Hot water. 498. The modes of heating by hot water. 499. A reser- 
voir of heat. 500. The pipes. 501. The situation in which the pipes 
are placed. 502. The boiler. 503. The furnace. 504. Rogers's co- 
nical boiler and hot-water apparatus. 505. Rain-water. 506. To pre- 
vent the water in the apparatus from freezing. 507. Open gutters. 
508. Retaining heat by coverings. 509. Atmospheric moisture. 510. 
Steaming. 511. Ventilation. 512. The agitation. 513. Light. 513. 
Water. 514. The different kinds of fixed structures for plants. 515. 



X CONTENTS. 

SECT. II. Fixed structures used in Horticulture continued. PA QE 

Pits. 516. The greenhouse. 517. The orangery. 518. The conser- 
vatory. 519. Botanic stoves. 520. The pine stove. 521. Forcing, 
houses. 522. A plant structure for all or any of the above purposes. 

SUBSECT. III. Edifices used in Horticulture 224 

523. Gardener's house. 524. Journeyman gardener's lodge. 525. 
The fruit-room. 526. Seed-room. 527. Root-cellar, and other con- 
veniences. 528. Tool-house. 529. Open sheds. 

CHAPTER III. 
OPERATIONS OF HORTICULTURE ....... 227 

SECT. I. Horticultural Labours ....... 227 

SUBSECT. I. Horticultural Labours on the Soil .... 227 

531. Object of labours on the soil. 532. Marking with the garden 
line. 533. Digging. 534. Trenching. 535. Trenching ground that is 
to be cropped with culinary^ vegetables. 536. Operation of trenching. 
537. Forking soil. 538. Hoeing. 539. Raking. 540. Rolling. 
541. Screening or lifting. 542. Other labours on the soil. 

SUBSECT. II. Garden Labours with Plants 235 

544. Sawing. 545. Cutting. 546. Clipping. 547. Clipping hedges. 
548. Mowing. 549. Weeding. 550. Other labours with plants. 

SECT. II. Operations of Culture 239 

SUBSECT. I. Propagation ........ 239 

% I. On Propagation by Seed . 240 

552. The seed. 553. Process of germination. 554. The period neces- 
sary to complete the process of germination. 555. The quantity of 
moisture most favourable to germination. 556. The water requi- 
site to cause old seeds to germinate. 557. The depth to which a seed 
is buried in the soil. 558. The degree of heat most favourable for the 
germination of seeds. 559. The degree of heat which the seeds of plants 
will endure. 560. The degree of cold which seeds will endure. 561. 
Atmospheric air. 562. The influence of light. 563. Accelerating the 
germination of seeds. 564. Various experiments have been made 
to accelerate germination. 565. Electricity and alkalies as stimu- 
lants to vegetation. 566. The length of time during which seeds 
retain their vitality. 567. The length of time that seeds will lie in 
the ground without growing. 568. The season for sowing seeds. 
569. The mechanical process of sowing. 570. Sowing seeds in pow- 
dered charcoal. 571. Sowing seeds in snow. 572. The discoveries 
daily making in chemical science. 

2. On Propagation by Cuttings 249 

573. A cutting. 574. Selecting plants from which the cuttings are 
to be taken. 575. Selecting the shoot. 576. Shoots which have formed 
blossom-buds. 577. As general rules. 578. The time of taking off 
cuttings. 579. Preparation of the cutting. 580. The number of 
leaves which are left on the cutting. 581. Taking off a cutting. 
582. Treatment of cuttings from the time they are made till they are 
planted. 583. Cuttings of succulent or fleshy plants. 584. The soil 
in which cuttings are planted. 585. The depth. 586. Planting 
cuttings. 587. The distance at which cuttings are planted. 588. 
After-treatment of cuttings. 589. The most proper form of bell-glass 
for covering cuttings. 590. Watering cuttings. 591. The temperature 
most suitable for cuttings. 592. Cuttings of hardy deciduous trees 
and shrubs. 593. Cuttings of hardy evergreens. 594. Cuttings of 
all the Coniferse and Taxacese. 595. Cuttings of hardy or half-hardy 
herbaceous plants. 596. Piping. 597. Cuttings of soft-wooded green- 
house plants. 598. Cuttings of hard-wooded greenhouse plants. 59.0. 



CONTENTS. XI 

SECT. II. Operations of Culture continued. PAGE 

Cuttings of heath-like plants. 600. Cuttings of succulent plants. 
601. Cuttings of the underground stems and roots. 602. Striking cut- 
tings in water or moist moss. 603. Striking plants in powdered char- 
coal. 604. Propagation by joints and nodules. 605. A nodule. 606. 
Propagating by joints of the vine. 607. Propagation by bulbs and 
entire tubers and tubercles. 608. Propagating by bulb-bearing leaves. 

3. Propagation by Leaves 266 

609. The principle on which the propagation of plants by leaves is 
founded. 610. The conditions generally required for rooting leaves. 
611. Rooting portions of leaves. 612. The plants usually raised by 
leaves in British gardens. 613. Propagation by the leaves of bulbs. 
614. Rooting leaves and parts of leaves in powdered charcoal. 615. 
Leaves with the buds in the axils root freely. 616. Immature fruits have 
even been made to produce plants. 617. The essence of all the differ- 
ent modes of forming plants from cuttings. 618. To induce stems or 
shoots to produce leaves or growths from which cuttings may be formed. 

4; Propagation by Layers .... .... 272 

619. The theory of layering. 620. The operation of layering. 621. 
The state of the plant most favourable for layering. 622. Hardy trees 
and shrubs. 623. Shrubs with very long shoots. 624. Layering by 
insertion of the growing point. 625. Plum and paradise stocks. 626. 
Roses. 627. Hardy herbaceous plants. 628. Shrubby plants in pots 
kept under glass. 629. The soil in which plants are layered. 630. 
Hooked pegs. 631. The time which layers require to produce roots. 

5. Propagation by Suckers f Slips, Offsets, Runners, and Simple 

Division 277 

632. A sucker. 633. Stem suckers or slips. 634. Offsets. 635. 
Runners or stolones. 636. Simple division. 

6. Propagation by grafting, inarching, and budding . . . 280 

637. The term graft. 638. The origin of grafting. 639. The 
phenomena of grafting. 640. The condition. 641. Anatomical 
analogy. 642. Physiological analogy. 643. The modifications effected 
by the graft. 644. The influence of the scion on the stock. 645. The 
uses of grafting. 646. The different kinds of grafting. 647. The ma- 
terials used in grafting. 648. Grafting-clay. 649. Grafting-wax. 

7. Grafting by detached Scions 287 

651. Splice-grafting. 652. Splice-grafting the peach. 653. Cleft- 
grafting. 654. Cleft-grafting the vine. 655. Saddle-grafting. 656. 
Side-grafting. 657. Wedge-grafting. 658. Grafting the mistletoe. 
659. Root-grafting. 660. Herbaceous grafting. 661. Grafting the 
pine and fir tribe. 662. Grafting the tree-peony. 663. Grafting on 
fleshy roots. 664. Herbaceous wedge-grafting. 665. Herbaceous 
grafting for shoots with opposite leaves. 666. Herbaceous grafting 
annual or perennial plants- 667. Grafting herbaceous shoots of succu- 
lents. 668. Grafting the melon, 669. The greffe etouffee. 

8. Grafting by approach or inarching 297 

671. Side inarching. 672. Terminal inarching. 673. Inarching 
with partially-nourished scions. 

9. Budding or grafting by detached buds 300 

675. The uses of budding. 676. Performing the operation. 677. 
Prepared wax for budding. 678. Plastic wax. 679. Shield-budding 
in the end of summer. 680. Shield- budding in June. 681. Shield- 
budding in spring. 682. Shield- budding without a bud or eye. 683. 
Budding with a circular shield. 684. Budding with a shield stamped 
out by a punch. 685. Budding with the shield reversed. 686. Bud- 
ding with the eye turned downwards. 687. Shield-budding for resinous 
trees. 688. Budding with the shield covered. 689, Budding with a 



Xll CONTENTS. 

SECT. II. Operations of Culture continued. PAGE 

square shield. 690. Shield-budding with a terminal bud. 691. Flute- 
budding, or tube-budding. 692. Flute-budding in spring. 693. Ter- 
minal flute -budding. 694. Flute-budding with strips of bark. 695. 
Annular budding. 696. The after-care of grafts by budding. 

SUBSECT. II. Rearing 308 

1. Transplanting and Planting ' 309 

698. To transplant. 699. The uses of transplanting. 700. The 
theory of transplanting. 701. Seedlings. 702. Deciduous trees and 
shrubs, and perennial herbaceous plants. 703.Whether deciduous trees 
and shrubs ought to be transplanted in autumn or spring. 704. Different 
modes of transplanting large trees and shrubs. 705. Transplanting with 
large balls of earth. 706. Transplanting by shortening the roots, so 
as to induce them to throw out fibres. 707. Sir Henry Steuart's prac- 
tice in transplanting large trees. 708. Pulling down the tree and rais- 
ing it out of the pit. 709. Transporting and replanting the tree. 
710. Transplanting by shortening the roots, without permitting them 
to throw out fibres at their extremities. 711." Transplanting by thin- 
ning and pruning the roots and branches. 712. The removal of large 
trees and shrubs. 713. Transplanting by heading-in, that is, cutting 
in the branches. 714. The staking or supporting of newly-trans- 
planted trees, and the protection of their stems from cattle. 715. The 
machinery for moving large trees. 716. Transplanting evergreens. 
717. The best season for transplanting evergreens. 718. The drying 
of the roots of evergreens. 719. Planting evergreens. 720. Trans- 
planting evergreens with balls. 721. The machines and implements 
for transplanting large shrubs with balls. 722. Packing evergreens. 
723. Methods of planting small plants. 724. Planting with the dibber. 
725. Planting with the trowel. 726. Planting in drills. 727. Laying 
in by the heels. 728. Trench-plan ting. 729. Slit-planting. 730. Hole- 
planting. 731. Planting in pits. 732. Hole-planting, and fixing with 
water. 733. Planting in puddle. 734. Planting out plants which have 
been grown in pots. 735. Watering, mulching, and staking newly- 
planted plants. 736. Taking up previously to~ planting. 737. As a 
summary of general rules for planting. 

2. Potting and Repotting or Shifting . . . .329 

738. To pot a plant. 739. The main object of growing plants in pots. 
740. The disadvantages of growing plants in pots. 741. Potting. 742. 
The same soil which is suitable for the open garden is not always suitable 
for using in pots. 743. Bottom drainage. 744. The mode of sowing or 
planting in a pot. 745. Transplanting from the free soil into a pot or 
box. 746. Care of newly potted or shifted plants. 747. Shifting or re- 
potting. 748. Seasons and times for potting and shifting. 749. The most 
difficult plants to manage in pots. 750. Growing hardy plants in pots. 

3. Pruning . . . . . . 335 

752. The specific principles on which pruning is founded, and 
its general effects. 753. Forest-trees. 754. Ornamental trees. 
755. Ornamental shrubs. 756. Fruit-trees and shrubs. 757. 
Herbaceous plants. 758. Close pruning. 759. Shortening-in. 760. 
Fore-shortening. 761. Spurring-in. 762. Heading-in. 763. Lopping. 
764. Close lopping. 765. Snag-lopping. 766. Lopping-in. 767. 
Cutting down. 768. Stopping and pinching out. 769. Disbarking. 
770. Ringing. 771. Disbudding. 772. Disleafing. 773. Slitting and 
splitting. 774. Bruising and tearing. 775. Clipping. 776. Root- 
pruning. 777. Girdling and felling. 778. The girdling machine. 
779. The seasons for pruning. 

l. Thinning . . . . . 349 

781. Seedling crops in gardens. 782. Thinning plantations. 783. 

Thinning ornamental plantations. 

5,_ Training . . . . . . .351 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

SECT. II. Operations of Culture Training continued. PAGK 

784. To train. 785. The principles. 786. Manual operations of 
training. 787. Training herbaceous plants. 788. Herbaceous and 
shrubby plants in pots. 789. Training hardy flowering shrubs in the 
open ground. 790. Evergreen shrubs. 791. Training fruit-trees. 
792. The different modes of training bushes and trees in the open 
garden. 793. The different modes of training fruit-trees against walls 
or espaliers. 794. Dwarfs in the open garden. 795. Spiral cylinders. 
796. Standards in the open garden. 797. The spurring-in system. 
798. Conical standards. 799. Hayward's quenouille- training. 800. 
Fan-training. 801. Fan-training in the common English manner. 
802. Fan-training according to Seymour's mode. 803. Fan-training 
in the wavy or curvilinear manner. 804. Wavy fan-training with two 
stems. 805. Wavy fan-training with a single stem. 806. Horizontal 
training. 807. Fan-training and horizontal training combined. 808. 
Perpendicular training. 809. Instruments and materials. 810. Com- 
parative view of the different modes of training. 811. A standard tree. 

6 Weeding . ...... 378 

813. A weed. 814. Annual weeds. 815. Perennial weeds. 816. 
Weeds in gravel-walks. 817. Weeds in lawns or on grass-walks. 
818. Weeds in shrubberies and plantations. 819. Weeds in woods and 
park scenery. 820. Weeding ponds, rivers, and artificial waters. 
7. Watering . . . . . . .382 

821. Water. 822. The specific purposes for which water is used in 
horticulture. 823. The ordinary sources from which water is obtained 
in gardens. 824. The distribution of water. 825. The ordinary mode 
of giving water to plants. 826. When it is proper to water, and 
how much water to give. 827. Whether plants should be watered over 
the leaves, or only over the soil in which they grow. 828. Watering 
plants in pots. 829. Aquatic and marsh plants. 830. Watering with 
liquid manure. 831. To economise the water given to plants. 
8. Stirring the soil and manuring . ... 388 

9. Blanching . . . . . . 389 

10. Protection from atmospherical injuries . . . 389 

835. The object of shading. 836. Sheltering from wind. 837. The 
principles of protecting from cold. 838. Protecting from rain. 
11. Accelerating vegetation ..... 391 

839. Acceleration. 840. Artificial heat. 841. Hotbeds. 842. Pre- 
paration of materials for hotbeds. 843. M'Phail's hotbed or pit. 
844. The formation of common hotbeds. 845. Ashes, tan, and leaves. 
846. The nightly covering to hotbeds and pits. 847. Management of 
hotbeds and pits heated by dung. 

12. Retarding vegetation 395 

13. Resting vegetation 396 

849. In the natural state of vegetation. 850. Nightly temperature. 

851. What the night temperature of a hotbed or hothouse ought to be. 

852. Double glass roofs. 853. The annual resting of plants. 854. The 
natural period of rest in hardy plants. 855. The advantages of putting 
trees that are to be forced into a state of rest. 

14. Operations of gathering, preserving, keeping, and packing . 401 
856. Gathering. 857. Preserving. 858. Keeping fruits. 859. Packing 

and transporting plants and seeds. 860. Packing fruits and flowers. 

15. Selecting and improving plants in culture .... 403 
8G2. Cultivation. 863. Selection. 864. Selecting from accidental 

variations. 865. Cross-breeding. 866. Precautions against promiscuous 

fecundation. 867. Fixing and rendering permanent the variety produced. 

868. The production of double flowers. 869. Duration of varieties. 

16 Operations of order and keeping 409 

871. Order. 872. Keeping. 873. Rules. 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IV. 

PAGE 

OPERATIONS OP HORTICULTURAL DESIGN AND TASTE . 411 

875. Taking plans. 876. Carrying plans into execution. 877. Re- 
ducing a surface to a level, or to a uniform slope. 

CHAPTER V. 
OPERATIONS OF GENERAL MANAGEMENT . . . . . . 412 

879. General management of a garden. 880. On undertaking the 
charge of a garden. 881. The books to be kept by a gardener. 882. 
The ordering of seeds and plants. 883. The management of men and 
the distribution of work. 884. The wages of a gardener. 



PART III. 

THE CULTURE OP THE KITCHEN, FRUIT, AND FORCING GARDEN . 416 

CHAPTER I. 

LAYING OUT AND PLANTING THE KITCHEN AND FRUIT GARDEN . 416 
SECT. I. Laying out the Kitchen Garden . . . . 416 

885. The situation and general management of the kitchen garden. 
886. Trenching and levelling. 

SECT. II. The Distribution of Fruit-trees in a Kitchen Garden . 420 

SUBSECT. 1. Wall-fruit Trees 422 

888. Select list of fruit-trees adapted for walls of different aspects. 890. 
The distance. 891. For low walls. 892. Training. 893. Planting. 
SUBSECT. II. Fruit-trees for Espaliers and Dwarfs .... 424 

894. Espaliers. 895. Dwarfs or standards trained in the conical 
manner. 896. Espalier-rails. 897. A wooden espalier rail. 898. Es- 
palier rails of cast iron. 899. Espalier rails of wrought iron. 900. 
Dwarfs. 901. Select list. 902. The plants. 903. Standard fruit-trees. 

SUBSECT. III. Fruit Shrubs 429 

904. Gooseberries and currants. 905. Select list. 906. Plants. 
SUBSECT. IV. Selection of Fruit-trees adapted for an Orchard . . 430 

907. A plantation or orchard. 908. The plants. 909. Select list. 
910. Training. 911. Culture of the soil. 

CHAPTER II. 

CROPPING AND GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF A KITCHEN GARDEN . 434 
SECT. 1.- Cropping 434 

913. The herbaceous vegetables grown in kitchen gardens. 914. Gene- 
ral proportions of crops. 916. The quantity of seed. 

SECT. 11. Rotation of Crops 435 

918. Successional cropping. 919. The object to be obtained by a 
system of cropping. 920. Successional cropping. 921. The simulta- 
neous mode of cropping. 922. Modes of cropping. 923. Successional 
and simultaneous cropping combined. 924. Order of rotation. 925. 
Secondary crops. 926. Times of sowing and planting. 
SECT. III. Planting, Sowing, Cultivating, and Managing . . 439 

928. Management of the fruit-tree borders. 929. Management of 
the culinary crops. 930. Gathering, storing, and keeping of fruit. 
931. Management of the fruit-room. 



CONTENTS. XV 



CHAPTER III. 

PAGE 

THE FORCING DEPARTMENT . ..... 442 

SECT. I. Culture of the Pine-apple, and Management of the Pinery 443 

SUBSECT. I. Natural data on which the Culture of the Pine-apple is 

founded 443 

932. The conclusions to be drawn from these data. 933. Soil. 934. 
Water. 

SUBSECT. II. Culture of the Pine-apple in British Gardens . . 444 

935. Construction of the pit. 936. Kinds grown. 937. Water- 
ing and sprinkling. 938. Worms. 939. Heat, air, and moisture. 941. 
Jamaica pines. 942. Starting pine plants into fruit. 943. Air. 
944. Propagation. 945. Bottom-heat. 946. As the season declines, the 
temperature is lowered. 947. Culture of the queen pine, so as to have 
the fruit ripe in February and March. 948. Sizes of the pots in which 
the plants are grown. 949. Culture of queen pines for early fruit. 
950. Growing the pine-apple in beds of soil. 951. Fruiting suckers 
on the stools. 952. To grow the pine-apple to an extraordinary size. 
953. Insects. 

SECT. II. Culture of the Grape Vine under Glass and on Walls . 452 

SUBSECT. I. Natural data on which the Culture of the Grape Vine is 

founded 452 

954. The grape vine. 955. With respect to atmospheric moisture. 
956. Soil. 957. Form of house. 

SUBSECT. II. Propagation, Pruning, and Training the Vine . . 454 

958. Propagation. 959. Pruning. 960. Training. 961. Essential 
points. 962. The long, or the renewal system of pruning. 963. The 
spurring-in method of pruning. 964. The fan-system of vine- training. 
965. The Thomery system. 

SUBSECT. Ill Culture of the Grape Vine under Glass . . . . 457 

966. Vine border. 967. Planting. 968. To raise the plants. 969. 
When planted in the vinery. 970. The sorts. 971. A diary of the 
course of culture applied to the grape vines at Oakhill. 972. Growing 
two or three crops of grapes in one house. 973. Growing three crops 
of grapes in one house together with pines. 974. Another mode of 
growing three crops of grapes in one house. 975. Keeping grapes. 

SUBSECT. IV. Growing the Grape on open walls, and on cottages . 464 

976. Fruit-bearing powers of the vine. 977. Aspect. 978. Soil. 
979. Manure. 980. Walls. 981. Propagation. 982. Pruning. 983. 
Training. 984. Mr. Hoare's mode of training. 985. Training the 
vine on the walls of cottages. 986. The appearance of a portion of the 
front of a house covered with vines in Mr. Hoare's manner. 987. The 
walls and roof of a cottage of the most irregular architecture. 988. 
Kinds of grapes most suitable for the open wall or for cottages. 

SUBSECT. V. Insects, Diseases, <|c., of the Grape Vine .... 472 

SECT. III. Culture of the Peach and Nectarine under Glass . . 472 

SUBSECT. I. Natural data on which the Culture of the Peach is founded. 472 

989. The peach. 990. Natural and experimental data. 
SUBSECT. II. Culture of the Peach under Glass in British Gardens . 474 

991. Construction of the peach-house. 992. Peaches and nectarines 
best adapted for forcing. 993. Plants and mode of training. 994. 
Pruning. 995. The summer pruning, 996. The fruit is thinned before 
and after the stoning season. 997. The peach border. 998. General 
treatment. 999. Insects and diseases. 1000. Peaches may be forced 
in pots. 



XVI CONTENTS. 

SECT. III. Culture of the Peach and Nectarine under Glass 

continued. PA^ 

SUBSECT. Ill The details of a routine course of forcing the Peach 

for two years ........... 477 

1001. Soil. 1002. Border. 1003. Planting. 1004. Forcing in the 
first season. 1005. Watering and fumigating. 1006. Summer 
pruning. 1007. Routine treatment during the first season. 1008. 
Winter treatment. 1009. Forcing in the second season. 1010. 
Applying a preventive composition. 1011. Forcing in February. 
1012. March. 1013. Thinning the shoots and fruit. 1014. Stoning. 
1015. Watering. 1016. Ripening. 1017. Duration of the crop. 

SECT. IV. Culture of the Cherry under Glass . . . 480 

SUBSECT. I. Natural Data for the Culture of the Cherry . . . 480 

SUBSECT. II. The practice of Cherry Forcing in British Gardens . . 480 

1019. The cherry-house. 1020. Kinds of cherries for forcing, pot- 
ting the plants, &c. 1021. Time of commencing to force. 1022. 
Progress. 1023. Insects. 1024. Thinning and stoning, &c. 1025. 
Treatment of the plants in pots after they are taken out of the house. 
1026. To have a constant succession of cherries. 1027. Forcing cher- 
ries by a temporary structure. 1028. German practice. 

SECT. V. Culture of the Fig under Glass . . . . 485 

SUBSECT. I. Natural data on which the Culture of the Fig is founded . 485 
SUBSECT. II. The forcing of the Fig as practised in British Gardens . 485 

1031. The construction of the fig-house. 1032. The varieties best 
adapted for forcing. 1033. The time of beginning to force. 1034. 
The forcing of fig-trees in pots. 1035. Winter treatment. 

SECT. VI. On forcing the Plum, Apricot, Gooseberry, and other 

Fruit-trees, and Fruit-shrubs . . 487 

SECT. VII. Culture of the Melon . . . 487 

SUBSECT. I Natural and experimental data on which the Culture of the 

Melon is founded 487 

SUBSECT. II. Culture of the Melon as practised in British Gardens . 490 

1038. The sorts. 1039. Very early melons. 1040. Seedlings. 1041. 
Cuttings. 1042. Planting out. 1043. General treatment. 1044. 
Persian melons. 1045. Culture of the melon in the open air. 1046. 
Insects and diseases. 1047. The red spider and the damp. 

SECT. VIII. Culture of the Cucumber ... . 494 

SUBSECT. I. Data on which the Culture of the Cucumber is founded . . 494 
SUBSECT. II. Culture of the Cucumber in a Dung -bed . . . 496 

1051. The formation of a dung-bed. 1052. The seed-bed. 1053. 
Soil. 1054. Seeds and treatment of the young plants. 1055. Raising 
plants from cuttings. 1056. Fruiting-bed. 1057. Ridging out the 
plants. 1058. A temporary lining. 1059. Air. 1060. Earthing-up. 
1061. Linings of cucumber beds and their management. 1062. 
Water. 1063. Stopping. 1064. Moulding up. 1065. The covering 
at night. 1066. Setting or impregnating the fruit. 1067. To procure 
seed. 1068. Inlaying, or earthing in, the vines of the cucumber. 
1069. When extraordinary fine fruit is desired. 

SUBSECT. III. Culture of the Cucumber in pits heated by dung linings, 

flues, or hot water 503 

1070. Of pits heated wholly or in part by dung linings. 1071. Pits 
to be heated by flues or hot water. 1072. A pit to be heated by a flue. 



CONTENTS. XV11 

SECT. VIII. Culture of the Cucumber continued. PAGK 

1073. A pit to be heated by hot water, and by a flue from the fire which 
heats the boiler. 1074. Corbett's cucumber pit. 1075. Green's 
cucumber pit. 1076. The advantages gained by this pit. 1078. The 
culture of the cucumber in pots. 1079. Construction of the cucumber 
house. 1080. Treatment of the plants. 

SUBSECT. IV. Culture and treatment of the Cucumber for Prize Ex- 
hibitions 510 

SUBSECT. V. Cultivation of the Cucumber in the open air . . . 510 

1082. Cucumbers grown in the open air are commonly protected by 
hand or bell glasses. 1083. Increasing the atmospheric heat of the 
soil. 1084. Cucumbers against a south wall. 1085. Growing 
cucumbers on balconies, or in court-yards. 1086. Watering cucumbers 
in the open garden. 1087. Cucumber and melon culture compared. 

SECT. IX. Culture of the Banana ...... 512 

SECT. X. Forcing the Strawberry . . . . . 514 

1090. Data,on which the forcing of the strawberry is founded. 1091. 
Routine practice in forcing Keen's seedling, and the old scarlet or 
Virginian strawberries. 1092. How grown and protected before forcing. 
1093. After forcing. 1094. The Alpine strawberry. 

SECT. XI. Forcing the Asparagus, Sea Kale, Rhubarb, Chicory, 

and other fleshy roots . . . . . . .516 

SECT. XII. Forcing the common Potato, the sweet Potato, and 

other tubers . . . . . . . . .519 

1100. The common potato. 1101. A substitute for new potatoes. 
1102. The sweet potato. 1103. O'xalis Deppei. 

SECT. XIII. Forcing Kidney Beans and Peas . . . . 520 

SECT. XIV. Forcing Salads, Pot-herbs, Sweet-herbs, and other 

culinary Plants ........ 521 

1106. Lettuce, chicory, radish, cress, mustard, rape, parsley, chervil, 
carrot, turnip, onion, and similar plants. 1107. Small salading. 
1108. Radish. 1 1 09. To produce full-grown cabbage-lettuces through- 
out the winter. 1110. Perennial pot and sweet herbs. 

SECT. XV. Forcing the Mushroom . . . . . 523 
SUBSECT. I. Data on which the Culture and Forcing of the Mushroom 

is founded 523 

SUBSECT. II. Forcing the Mushroom in British Gardens . . . 524 

1112. The ordinary form of a mushroom-house. 1113. Thespawn. 
1114. To grow the mushroom. 1115. Growing the mushroom in a 
cellar. 1116. Management of the bed. 1117. Mushroom spawn. 
1118. Gathering mushrooms. 1119. The duration of a crop of 
mushrooms. 

/ CHAPTER IV. 

CATALOGUE OF FRUITS ........ 526 

1120. The fruits usually cultivated in British gardens. 1121. Ar- 
ranged botanically. 1122. Geographically and horticulturally. 1123. 
Suitable for climates analogous to that of Britain. 1124. For climates 
analogous to that of the South of France. 1125. For climates sub- 
tropical, or tropical. 

SECT. I. Hardy or Orchard Fruits 528 

SUBSECT. \.~The Apple 52g 

1128. The uses of the apple. 1129. Properties of a good apple. 

b 



XVlli CONTENTS. 

SECT. I. Hardy or Orchard Fruits The Apple continued. 

1130. Varieties. 1131. Early dessert apples. 1132. Dessert apples 
to succeed early kinds. 1133. Early kitchen apples. 1134. Kitchen 
apples for winter and spring use. 1135. Cider apples. 1136. Dessert 
apples which may be used as kitchen apples. 1137. Kitchen apples 
which may be used as dessert apples. 1 138. Apples for cottage gardens, 
where the soil and situation are favourable, and which may be used either 
for the table or the kitchen. 1139. Apples for training against the 
walls or on the roofs of cottages, or on the walls of cottage gardens. 

1 140. Apples for cottage gardens in situations liable to spring frosts. 

1141. Apples for a cottage garden in an unfavourable climate. 1142. 
Apples adapted for walls of different aspects. 1143. Apples adapted 
for espaliers, dwarfs, or conical standards. 1144. Apples suitable for 
an orchard. 1 145. Apples remarkable for the form of the tree, or the 
beauty of the blossoms or fruit. 1146. General principles of selecting 
varieties of the apple. 1147. Propagation. 1148. Soil and situation. 
1149. Mode of bearing, pruning, and training. 1150. Spurring-in 
pruning. 1151. Pruning with reference to the entire tree. 1 1 52. Ga- 
thering and keeping. 1153. Diseases, insects, casualties, &c. 

SUBSECT. II. The Pear 545 

1155. Uses. 1156. Properties of a good pear. 1157. The varieties. 
1 1 58. Dessert pears arranged in the order of their ripening and keep- 
ing. 1159. Kitchen pears arranged in the order of their ripening and 
keeping. 1160. Perry pears arranged in the order of their merits. 
1161. A list of pears adapted for walls of different aspects. 1162. A 
list of pears for espaliers, dwarfs, or standards, trained conically or 
spurred-in. 1163. A list of pears adapted for an orchard, or being 
grown as standards. 1164. A selection of Pears where the space is 
very limited, or for cottage gardens. 1165. Pear-trees of forms adapted 
for landscape scenery. 1166. The propagation, nursery, culture, and 
choice of plants. 1167. Soil, situation, and final planting. 1168. The 
mode of bearing, pruning, and training. 1 169. Gathering and keeping. 
1170. The diseases, insects, and casualties. 

SUBSECT. III. The Quince 551 

1172. Varieties. 1173. Propagation, soil, and other points of cul- 
ture and management. 

SUBSECT. TV. The Medlar 552 

1175. Varieties. 1176. Propagation, soil, and other points of cul- 
ture and management. 

SUBSECT. V. The True Service 552 

1177. The true service. 1178. Pyrus t6rminalis. 1 179. Pyrus A'ria 
var. cretica. 

SUBSECT. VI. The Cherry 553 

1181. Use. 1183. Varieties. 1183. Dessert cherries, arranged in 
the order of their ripening. 1184. Cherries for preserving. 1185. 
Cherries adapted for being trained against walls of different aspects. 
1186. Cherries adapted for espaliers or dwarfs. 1 1 87. Cherries adapted 
for being grown as standards. 1188. Cherries for a cottage garden. 
1 189. Cherries for the north of Scotland. 1190. Propagation, nursery 
culture, and choice of plants. 1191. Soil, situation, and final planting. 
1192. Mode of bearing, pruning, and training. 1193. Gathering and 
keeping. 1194. Diseases, insects, casualties, &c. 1195. A Dutch 
cherry garden. 

SUBSECT. VII. The Plum 558 

1197. Use. 1198. Varieties. 1199. Dessert plums arranged in the 
order of their ripening. 1200. Kitchen plums arranged in the order of 
their ripening. 1201. A selection of plums for walls of different aspects, 
espaliers and dwarfs, and for an orchard. 1202. Dessert and kitchen 
plums for a garden of limited extent. 1203. A selection of dessert 



CONTENTS. XIX 

SECT. I. Hardy or Orchard Fruits The Plum continued. PAGK 

plums for a very small garden. 1204. Dessert and kitchen plums for 
a cottage garden. 1205. Propagation, nursery culture, and choice of 
plants. 1206. Soil, situation, and final planting. 1207. Mode of 
bearing, pruning, and training. 1208. Gathering, keeping, packing, &c. 
1209. Insects, diseases, casualties, &c. 1210. The plum may be forced. 

SUBSECT. VIII The Gooseberry 560 

1212. Use. 1213. Varieties. 1214. A selection of gooseberries for 
a suburban garden. 1215. The largest prize gooseberries. 1216. 
Gooseberries for a cottage garden. 1217. Large Lancashire goose- 
berries adapted for a cottage garden. 1218. Propagation, nursery cul- 
ture, and choice of plants. 1219. Soil, situation, and final planting. 
1220. Mode of bearing, pruning, and training. 1221. The growers of 
gooseberries for prizes. 1222. Gathering and keeping. 1223. Insects, 
diseases, and casualties. 1224. Forcing. 

SUBSECT. IX. The Red and White Currant 566 

1226. Use. 1227. Varieties. 1228. The propagation and future 
treatment. 

SUBSECT. X. The Black Currant 567 

SUBSECT. XI. The Raspberry 567 

1231. Varieties. 1232. Propagation, soil, and other points of cul- 
ture. 1233. Gathering. 1234. Forcing. 1235. The cloudberry. 
1236. The Nootka raspberry. 

SUBSECT. XII. The Strawberry 570 

1238. Use. 1239. Varieties. 1240. Selection of strawberries from 
the above classes in the order of their ripening. 1241. A selection for 
a small garden. 1242. A selection for a cottage garden. 1243. A 
selection for a confined, shady situation. 1244. Propagation, soil, &c. 
1245. Culture. 1246. Culture in rows. 1247. Culture in beds. 
1248. Mulching and watering. 1249. Culture of particular kinds. 
1250. Retarding a crop. 1251. Accelerating a crop in the open garden. 
1252. Gathering. 1253. Forcing. 

SUBSECT. XIII. The Cranberry 576 

SUBSECT. XIV. The Mulberry 577 

SUBSECT. XV. The Walnut 578 

1257. The Walnut. 1258. Pacane-nut hickory, and the shell-bark 
hickory. 

SUBSECT. XVI The Sweet Chestnut 578 

SUBSECT. XVII. The Filbert 579 

SUBSECT. XVIII. The Berberry, Elderberry, Cornelian Cherry, Buf- 
falo-berry, and Winter Cherry 580 

1261. The berberry. 1262. The Magellan sweet berberry. 1263. The 
Nepal berberry. 1264. The alder-tree. 12.65. The cornelian cherry: 
1266. The buffalo berry. 1267. The winter cherry 

SECT. II. Half-hardy or Wall-fruits 582 

SUBSECT. I The Grape 582 

1270. A selection of grapes for early forcing. 1271. The selection of 
grapes grown at Hungerton Hall. 1272. A selection of grapes of va- 
rious flavours and colours. 1273. Grapes for a late crop in a vinery. 
1274. Grapes for a house in which pines are grown. 1275. Grapes 
with small leaves, and hardy ; adapted for the rafters of a greenhouse. 
1276. Grapes with small leaves, less hardy than the preceding selec- 
tion, and fit for the rafters of a plant or stove. 1277. Grapes with 
small bunches and berries, adapted for being grown in pots or boxes. 
1278. Grapes for a cottage garden where the climate is not very favour- 

b2 



XX CONTENTS. 

SECT. II. Half-hardy or Wall-fruits The Grape continued. PAGK 

able. 1279. Grapes suitable for the open wall, or for cottages. 1280. 
Propagation. 1281. Culture, pruning, training, &c. 1282. Pruning. 
1283. Thinning. 1284. Setting the blossom. 1285. Growing grapes 
in pots. 1286. General treatment of the vine. 1287. Growing grapes 
for wine-making. 

SUBSECT. 11. The Peach and Nectarine 586 

1289. Use. 1290. Properties of a good peach or nectarine. 1291. 
Varieties. 1292. Select peaches arranged in the order of their ripening. 
1293. Select nectarines arranged in the order of their ripening. 12.94. 
Peaches and nectarines for a wall to come in, in succession. 1295. 
Peaches for a cold late situation. 1296. A selection of peaches for 
forcing. 1297. Propagation and nursery culture. 1298. Soil, situa- 
tion, &c. 1299. Mode of bearing, pruning, &c. 1300. Mr. Callow's 
mode of training. 1301. Shortening the young wood of the peach. 
1302. In summer-pruning the peach. 1303. Thinning the fruit. 1304. 
Treatment of the peach border. 1305. Over-luxuriant peach trees. 
1306. Old decaying peach trees. 1307. Protecting peach trees during 
winter and spring. 1308. Growing the peach on a flued wall. 1309. 
The acceleration of the ripening of a crop of peaches. 1310. Gathering. 
1311. Diseases, insects, &c. 1312. The essential points of peach cul- 
ture. 1313. Forcing the peach and nectarine. 

SUBSECT. III. The Almond 595 

SUBSECT. IV. The Apricot 596 

1316. Varieties. 1317. Apricots for walls of different aspects. 

1318. Apricots for the walls of a cottage. 1319. Propagation, nursery 

culture, &c. 1320. Final planting, pruning, &c. 

SUBSECT. V. The Fig ... 598 

1322. Selections of the best figs for forcing, and for walls of different 
aspects. 1323. Propagation, culture, &c. 

SUBSECT. VI. The Pomegranate ....... 599 

SUBSECT. VII. The Peruvian Cherry 600 

SECT. III. Tropical or Sub-tropical Fruits .... 600 

SUBSECT. I. The Pine- Apple 600 

1328. Pines cultivated chiefly for their kigh flavour. 1329. Pines 
cultivated chiefly for their large size. 1 330. Culture. 

SUBSECT. II. The Banana 601 

SUBSECT. III. The Melon 602 

1334. Melons with red flesh. 1335. Melons with green flesh. 1336. 
Persian melons. 1337. Winter melons. 1338. Water melons. 

SUBSECT. IV. The Cucumber 603 

SUBSECT. V. The Pumpkin and Gourd 604 

SUBSECT. VI. The Tomato, the Egg-plant, and the Capsicum . . 606 

SUBSECT. VII. The Orange Family 608 

1347. The common orange. 1348. Bigarade, Seville, or bitter orange. 
1349. Thebergamot orange. 1350. The lime. 1351. The shaddock. 
1352. The sweet lemon. 1353. The true lemon. 1354. The citron. 
1355. Propagation and culture. 

SUBSECT. VIII The Guana, Lo-quat, Granadilla, and other fruits 

little known in British Gardens 611 

1356. The guava. 1357. The lo-quat. 1358. The granadilla. 1359. 
The Indian fig. 1360. The pawpaw. 1361. The olive. 1362. Other 
exotic fruits. 

SUBSECT. IX. Remarks applicable to Fruit-trees, and Fruit-bearing 

Plants generally 613 



CONTENTS. XXI 



CHAPTER V. 

PAGE 

CATALOGUE OP CULINARY VEGETABLES . . . . .616 

1364. The culinary vegetables usually cultivated in British gardens. 
1365. Classed Horticulturally and Economically. 1366. Propagation 
and seed-sowing. 1367. The selection of varieties. 1368. Whether 
a crop;which is raised from seed ought to be sown where it is finally to 
remain, or sown in a seed-bed and transplanted. 1369. Soils. 1370. 
Proportion of each crop. 

SECT. I. Brassicaceous Esculents^ or the Cabbage Tribe . . 622 

1372. The white cabbage. 1373. The couve tronchuda. 1374. 
Cabbage coleworts. 1375. The red cabbage. 1376. The savoy. 1377. 
Brussels sprouts. 1378. Borecole. 1379. Cauliflower. 1380. Broc- 
coli. 1381. The turnip cabbage. 1382. The Chinese cabbage. 1383. 
General culture and management of the cabbage tribe. 1384. Substi- 
tutes for the cabbage tribe. 

SECT. II. Leguminaceous Esculents ..... 630 
SUBSECT. I. The Pea 630 

1386. Varieties. 1387. Culture. 1388. The earliest crops. 1389. 
Portable walls for early crops of peas, &c. 1390. The summer and 
autumn crops. 1391. Diseases, vermin, &c. 

SUBSECT. II. The Bean 634 

SOBSECT. Ill The Kidney-bean 635 

1396. Varieties. 1397. Culture of the dwarf sorts. 1398. Culture 

of the twining sorts. 1399. Gathering. 1400. The lima bean. 1401. 

The common lentil. 1402. The white lupin. 1403. Substitutes. 

SECT. III. Radicaceous Esculents ..... 638 

SUBSECT. I. The Potato 638 

1406. Varieties. 1407. Culture. 1408. For an early crop. 1409. 
The Lancashire practice. 1410. Gathering. 1411. Messrs. Chap- 
man's new spring potatoes. 1412. For a main or late crop. 1413. 
Young potatoes during winter. 1414. Selecting and preparing the 
sets. 1415. Greening potatoes for sets. 1416. Taking up and pre- 
serving a crop. 1417. Diseases, insects, &c. 

SUBSECT. II. The Jerusalem Artichoke 646 

SUBSECT. III. The Turnip 647 

. 1420. Varieties. 1421. Culture. 1422. In gathering. 1423. Pre- 
serving turnips through the winter. 1424. To save seed. 1425. Dis- 
eases, insects, &c. 1426. Forcing the turnip. 

SUBSECT. IV. The Carrot 649 

1428. Varieties. 1429. Culture. 1430. Gathering and keeping. 
1431. Diseases and insects. 1432. Seed saving. 

SUBSECT. V. The Parsnep 651 

SUBSECT. VI. The Red Beet 651 

SUBSECT. VII. The Skirret, Scorzonera, Salsify, and (Enothera . 652 

1436. The skirret. 1437. The scorzonera. 1438. The salsify. 1439. 
The Spanish salsify. 1440. The tree-primrose. 

SUBSECT. VIII. The Hamburgh Parsley 653 

SUBSECT. IX. The Radish 653 

1443. Varieties. 1444. Soil. 

SUBSECT. X. Oxalis Deppei, O. crenata, and Tropaeolum tuberosum . 654 



:Xll CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

SECT. IV .Spinaceous Esculents ...... 656 

SUBSECT. I. The common Spinach 656 

SUBSECT. II. Orach or French Spinach . . . . , . 657 

SUBSECT. III. New Zealand Spinach .... . 657 

SUBSECT. IV. Perennial Spinach 657 

SUBSECT. V. The Spinach Beet, and the Chard Beet . . . 658 

SUBSECT. VI. Patience Spinach 658 

SUBSECT. VII. The Sorrel 658 

SECT. V. Alliaceous Esculents 650 

SUBSECT. 1. The Onion 659 

1462. Varieties and species. 1463. Propagation and culture. 1464. 
An autumn and winter crop of onions. 1465. A transplanted crop. 
1466. The potato onion. 14(>7. The bulb-bearing onion. 1468. Treat- 
ment common to all the kinds. 1469. Diseases, insects, &c. 1470. The 
onion fly. 1471. Gathering the crop. 1472. To save seed. 

SUBSECT. II. The Leek 663 

SUBSECT. III. The Shallot . . 664 

SUBSECT. IV. The Garlic 664 

SUBSECT. V. The Chive 664 

SUBSECT. VI. The Rocambole 664 

SECT. VI. Asparagaceous Esculents ..... 665 

SUBSECT. I. The Asparagus 665 

1481. Soil, and sowing or planting the asparagus. 1482. Routine 
culture. 1483. Gathering. 1484. Culture after gathering. 1485. 
The duration of an asparagus plantation. 1486. To save seed. 

SUBSECT. II. The Sea-Kale 668 

1488. Propagation and culture. 1489. Gathering. 1490. The cul- 
ture after gathering. 1491. Diseases and insects. 1492. The dura- 
tion of a plantation of sea-kale. 1493. To save seed. 1494. Forcing. 

SUBSECT. III. The Artichoke 670 

SUBSECT. IV. The Cardoon 671 

1498. Cookery of thejcardoon. 1499. Varieties, propagation, &c. 

SUBSECT. V The Rampion 672 

SUBSECT. VI. Substitutes for Asparagaceous Esculents . . . 672 
SECT. VII. Acetariaceous Esculents ..... 673 

SUBSECT. I. The Lettuce 673 

1504. Varieties. 1505. Propagation and culture. 1506. Lettuces 
as small salad. 1507. To save seed. 

SUBSECT. II. The Endive 675 

SUBSECT. Ill The Succory 676 

1512. An excellent substitute for the succory. 

SUBSECT. IN. The Celery 677 

1514. Varieties. 1515. Propagation and culture. 1516. Trans- 
planting into trenches. 1517. Blanching. 1518. Late spring celery. 
1519. Taking the crop. 1520. Celeriac. 1521. Diseases, insects, &c. 
1522. To save seed. 1523. The alisanders. 1524. The Naples parsley. 

SUBSECT. V. The Lamb's Lettuce, Burnet, the Garden Cress, Winter 

Cress, American Cress, and Water Cress . . . .681 

SUBSECT. VI. Small Salads 682 

SUBSECT. VII. Substitutes for Acetariaceous Esculents f . . . 693 



CONTENTS. XX111 

r-AOE 

SECT. VIII. Adornaceous Esculents . . . C83 

SUBSECT. I. The Parsley 684 

SUBSECT. II. The Chervil, the Coriander, the Anise, Dill, Fennel, 

Tarragon, and Purslane 684 

SUBSECT. III. The Indian Cress, Borage, and Marigold . . . 686 
SUBSECT. IV. The Horse Radish and Substitutes . . . .686 

SECT. IX. Condimentaceous Esculents ..... 687 

SUBSECT. I The Rhubarb 687 

1551. Propagation and culture. 1552. Substitutes. 
SUBSECT. II. The Angelica, Elecampane, Samphire, Caper, Qc. . 688 

1559. Excellent substitutes. 1560. The ginger. 1561. The flowers 
of Magnolia grandifl6ra. 

SECT. X. Aromaceous Esculents ...... 690 

1563. The common thyme. 1564. The lemon thyme. 1565. The 
sage. 1566. The clary. 1567. The common mint. 1568. The pen- 
nyroyal mint. 1569. The pot marjoram. 1570. The sweet marjoram. 
1571. The winter marjoram. 1572. The winter savory. 1573. The 
summer savory. 1574. The sweet basil. 1575. The bush basil. 1576. 
The tansy. 

SECT. XI. Fungaceous Esculents ..... 691 

1577. The garden mushroom. 1578. The truffle. 1579. The morel. 
1580. Substitutes. 

SECT. XII.- Odoraceous Herbs 693 

1582. The lavender. 1583. The rosemary. 1584. The peppermint. 

SECT. XIII. Medicaceous Herbs 693 

1586. The medicinal rhubarb. 1587. The chamomile. 1588. The 

wormwood. 1589. The rue. 1590. The horehound. 1591. The 

hyssop. 1592. The balm. 1593. The blessed thistle. 1594. The 
liquorice. 1595. The blue melilot. 

SECT. XIV. Toxicaceous Herbs 694 

1597. The tobacco. 1598. Propagation and culture. 1599. After 
management. 1600. Curing. 1601. The white hellebore. 1602. The 
foxglove. 1603. The henbane. 1604. Walnut leaves. 

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ....... 697 

A MONTHLY CALENDAR OP OPERATIONS . ... 715 

January, 715. February, 715. March, 716. April, 716. May, 
717. June, 717. July, 718. August, 718. September, 719. Octo- 
ber, 719. November, 719. December, 720. 

GENERAL INDEX ........ 721 

ERRATA 731 



NAMES OF THE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 



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CULTIVATED IN BRITISH GARDENS. 



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NAMES OF THE FRUITS AND VEGETABLE! 



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LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



TOOLS. 

FIG. PAGE 

12. The common lever . .130 

13. Kneed lever and crow-bar . 130 

14. 15. Perforators . . . 30 

16. Dibbers . . . .31 

17. Potato-dibber . . . . 31 

18. Cast-iron sheaths for dibbers . 31 

19. Picks 131 

20. Draw-hoes . . . .131 
162. The Leicestershire, or shifting- 
blade, draw-hoe . . 232 

21. Spanish hoes . . . . 132 

23. Thrust hoes . . .132 

381. Sickle hoe . ... 660 

382. Drill hoe .... 660 

22. Lawn scraper . . . . 132 

24. Spades . . . .133 

25. Turf spades . . . . 134 

32. Transplanting spades . .135 

26. 27. Verge-cutters or turf-racers 134 

28. Garden spud . , .134 

29. Trowels . . . . 1 35 

30. Daisy weeder . . .135 

31. Saul's transplanter . . . 135 

33. Dung and tan forks . .135 

34. Digging forks . . .135 

36. Garden rakes . . . . 136 

35. Daisy and grass rakes . .136 

383. Drill-rake . . . . 660 

37. Beetles and rammers . .136 

38. Wooden mallet and garden 

hammer . . . . 137 

39. Garden pincers . . .137 
324. Weeding pincers . . . 381 
335. Orchardist's crook , 441 



INSTRUMENTS. 

40. Garden knives . . .137 
95. Grafting-knife, made to serve 

also for a budding-knife . 286 



FIG. PACK 

236. Godsall's budding-knife im- 
proved . . . . 302 

203. Splitting-knife and opening pick, 

for using in cleft-grafting . 29Q 

41. Asparagus knife. . . . 138 

42. The scimitar bill-knife . . 138 

43. Dress bill-knife . . . 138 

48. Garden-axe . . . 140 
50. Garden-scythes . . . 140 

44. Garden-saws . . .139 
202. Bow-saw for cutting off branches 

of trees .... 290 

45. Pruning chisels . . .139 

46. Shears for clipping hedges and 

box-edginga . . .139 

49. Verge and grass shears . .140 

47. Pruning shears . . .139 
243. Punch used for punching out 

shield-buds . 306 



UTENSILS. 

6. A fly glass . . . .111 
10. Inverted flower-pot for catch- 
ing mice . . . .121 
5. Cap for covering the holes in 

the bottoms of pots . . 96 
65. Pot carrier . . . . 148 

51. Sizes of flowerpots . . 142 

52. Propagating pot . . . 143 

53. 54. Pots with raised bottoms to 

prevent the entrance of worms 143 

55. Pot with channelled bottom, 

to facilitate the escape of water 143 

56. Ornamental flowerpot, with the 

base serving as a receptacle 
for drainage water . . 143 
259. A double pot . . . . 331 

57. Pot with pierced rims and bands 

for introducing wire-work . 143 
333-342. Sections of pots for pines 448, 449 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



XXIX 



FIG. PAGE 

58. Blanching pot . . .143 

59. Isolating saucer . 144 

60. Annular water saucer . . 144 

61. Plant box . . . . 145 

62. Sucker, kneed-spouted, and 

over-head watering-pot8 . 146 

63. Money's inverted-rose watering 

pot 147 

64. Wire screen for soil, old tan, 

or gravel . . . .147 
66 74. Baskets, and illustrations 

of the mode of making 

them . . . 149, 151 

75. Punnet baskets". . . . 152 
323. Trainer's basket . . . 376 

76. Bell glasses. . . . . 152 

78. Substitutes for bell glasses . 152 

77. Cast-iron hand glass . . 152 
79 Mode of preparing hand glasses 

to serve as fly traps . Ill, 112 

MACHINES. 

79. Garden wheelbarrow . .153 

80. Read's garden syringe . . 154 

81. Read's pneumatic hand-engine 154 

82. Section of Read's pneumatic 

hand-engine . . . 155 

83. Read's barrow-engine . . 155 

84. Read's fumigating bellows . 156 

85. Section of the canister of Read's 

fumigating bellows . . 156 
87. Powdering bellows . . .157 

86. Iron fumigating pot . . 156 
258. Shrub and tree transplanter . 323 
261, 262. Side, and perspective view 

of the girdling machine 347, 348 
325, 326. Water-barrow and distri- 
butor .-x .384 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 

4. Eggs of the earthworm . . 95 

88. Wisps of straw used as pro- 

tectors .... 158 

89. Mode of making straw mats . 159 
90 93. Oiled paper cap for pro- 
tecting flowers . . . 162 

94. Props for climbers . .163 

95. Cast and wrought iron props 

for supporting climbers . 1 64 
96 99. Labels and tallies . 165,166 

100. Nailing wallet . . . 167 

101. Iron reel and pin for a garden 

line 168 

102. 103. Portable ladder open and 

shut . . . .168 

104, 105. Rule joint and orchard 

ladder . . . . 169 

106. Garden level . . .169 

107. Bridge plank for wheeling 

across box edgings . . . 1 70 



FIG. 

108. Leather bearing straps . 

264. Wire frame work for climbing 

plants in pots 
266, 267. Wire standard and rings 

for supporting climbing plants. 

270. Umbrella trellis for climbing 

plants .... 

271. Trellis over a walk . . . 
361. Netting for covering a cherry 

garden .... 

373. Hooked stick for training prize 

gooseberry bushes . 

374. Forked stick for training prize 

gooseberry bushes 



PAGE 

170 

355 
355 

355 

357 

557 
564 
564 



DIAGRAMS. 



31 



1 . Part of the trunk of a disbarked 
lime tree . . . . 

11. Mode of forming a triple fence 
for excluding cattle, sheep, 
and hares . . . .123 

6674. Illustration of the mode 

of making baskets . 149 151 

130. Section of an iron sash-bar . 191 

131. Section of a wooden sash-bar . 191 

133. Vertical profile of part of a 

ridge and furrow roof . . 192 

134. Section of a dung bed, with a 

tube for supplying hot air . 196 
155. Lap of glass panes puttied and 

painted .... 219 

161. Diagrams showing the angle 
which the blades of draw-hoes 
ought to make with the 
handle . . . .232 
163. Section of the head of a garden 

rake 233 

253. Modes of protecting trees from 

cattle .... 318 

254. Mode of securing newly planted 

trees from the effects of high 

winds 319 

255257. View, profile, and section 

of a tree guard . . . 320 
328. Details of a mode of fastening 

coverings on frames . . 394 
359. Outline of a Pearmain apple . 531 
270. The term oblate exemplified . 554 
372. Section through a cherry garden 

covered with netting . . 557 
378, 379. Section and view of a prop 

for climbing plants . . 637 

380. Sections of ground prepared for 

planting potatoes . . 642 



MOVEABLE AND PORTABLE GARDEN 
STRUCTURES. 

109. Wickerwork protector for low 

shrubs . . 171 



XXX 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



110. Wickerwork protectors of va- 
rious kinds 

111 113. Details of a hand box, as 
a substitute for a hand glass. 

114. Iron bracket for supporting a 

temporary wooden coping 

115. Apparatus for rolling up and 

letting down canvas shades . 

322. Thatched hurdles for protect- 
ing plants in the open garden. 

377. Cover for peas and other early 
crops 



172 
172 

174 
175 
401 
633 



FIXED GARDEN STRUCTURES. 

2. Section of a hothouse heated by 

hot-water according to Mr. 
Penn's manner ... 85 

3. Section of a hothouse heated by 

hot-water in the ordinary 
manner . . 86 

116. A stone for fixing temporary 

rafters . . . .179 

117. Mode of fixing temporary rafters 179 

118. Plan of a hollow brick wall . 180 

1 19. 120. Plan and end view of a 

brick wall 7 inches thick . 180 
121. Longitudinal section of a flued 

wall 182 

122, 123. Plan and section of a reed 

wall .... 183, 184 

124. Trellised arcade for fruit-trees . 186 

125. Trellis for climbers . .186 

126. Plan showing the intersection 

of trellised walks . . 186 

127. Steep-roofed house for winter 

forcing of plants in pots . 189 
128 Curvilineal glass roofs . . 189 
129. Ground plan of curvilineal 

plant house . . .190 
132. Perspective view of the original 

ridge and furrow house at 

Chatsworth . . .191 

135. Perspective elevation and section 

of a pinery heated by dung 
linings . . . .196 

1 36. Section of a vinery heated by 

dung 196 

137. Section of a furnace and double 

flue 198 

138. Section of a greenhouse, with 

reserve flue and common flue 199 

139. Section of a common brick flue, 

with a zinc cistern over it . 200 
156. Section of a span-roofed pit, . 
with the roof over the path 



157. 
158. 



Ground plan of a pit to be heated 
in Mr. Corbett's manner 

Section of a pit to be heated by 
Corbet's system, or by smoke 
flues. 



221 
222 



222 



FIG. PAGE 

317. Section of a pit on M'Phail's 

principle . . . .393 

332. Stake espalier rail . . . 425 

333. Cast-iron espalier rail . . 426 

334. Strained wire espalier rail . .427 

336. Section of a pine-pit at Oakhill 445 

337. Section of a pit at Oakhill for 

fruiting Queen pines . . 448 

356. Section of Corbet's cucumber 

pit 504 

357. Section of Green's cucumber 

pit 506 

358. Section of Ayres' cucumber 

house . , 508 



HOT-WATER APPARATUS. 

140. A hot-water apparatus for cir- 

culation on a level . . 202 

141. Boiler and furnace for heating 

by hot water in rising and 
falling pipes . . . 202 

142. Apparatus for circulating hot 

water below and above the 
level of the boiler . . 202 

143. Syphon mode of circulating hot 

water .... 203 

144. Hot-water pipe, and reserve 

cistern for hot water . . 203 

145. Section of a reserve cistern and 

hot-water pipes . . . 204 

146. Perkins's double boiler . . 206 

147. Roger's conical boiler . . 208 

148. Mode of setting Rogers's boiler 208 

149. Rogers's boiler set with the 

chimney added . . . 209 

150. Rogers's boiler with the heat- 

ing pipe joined to it . . 210 

151. Rogers's substitute for a stop- 

cock . . 210 

666- Rogers's hot- water reservoir . 210 
154. Zinc cisterns for double ' and 

single pipes . . .216 

DIGGING, TRENCHING, AND RIDGING. 

159. A plot of ground properly marked 

off for digging or trenching . 229 

160. A plot of ground disadvantage- 

ously marked off for digging 

or trenching . . . 229 

160*. A section showing the differ- 
ence between proper and im- 
proper trenching . .231 

380. Section of ridges prepared for 

planting potatoes . . 642 

PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS, LAYERS, &c. 
164. A shoot improperly, and one 



properly cut 
166. Prepared cutting of a Shaddock 



236 
254 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



XXXI 



167. A cutting of a Capo Heath pre- 

pared and planted . . 256 

168. A cutting of an Epacris prepared 

and planted . . . 256 

169. A cutting of Acacia alata pre- 

pared and planted . .257 

170. Forsyth's mode of striking cut- 

tings . . . .259 

171. A cutting of Rosa semperfl orens 

prepared and planted . . 259 

172. A piping of a pink prepared and 

planted . . . .261 

173. A cutting of a pelargonium pre- 

pared and planted . .261 

174. A cutting of a fuchsia prepared 

and planted . . .262 

175. A cutting of a camellia prepared 

and planted . . . 262 

176. 177. Eyes of vines prepared 

and planted . . .265 
178, 179. The lower and upper half 
of the leaf of theophrasta 
rooted and sending up a shoot 268 

180. Wedges inserted above and be- 

low buds to check the flow of 

the sap . . . 270 

181. A ringed shoot, to accumulate 

sap at the base of the buds, &c. 270 

182. A shoot bent to cause the buds 

at the angles to break . . 271 

183. 184. Layering with the tongue 

made in the under and upper 
side of the shoot . . 273 
J 85. A stool with shoots layered . 274 

186. A petunia layered " . . 275 

187. A carnation layered . . . 276 

188. A cutting layered . . . 276 

189. A branch ringed, and prepared 

for rooting in a case . . 276 

190. Branch layered in a tin case . 276 

191. Branches of a coniferous plant 

pegged down, to force it to 

throw up a leader . . 279 
192, 193. Injured bulbs throwing up 

offsets 279 

593. Branch of a peach tree protected 

by fern t . . .593 

GRAFTING ILLUSTRATED. 

194. Scion and stock illustrative of 
the principles on which they 
are united . . . . 280 

196. Splice-grafting in its different 

stages .... 288 

197. The scion with its young shoots 

on and the heel of the stock 
cutoff . . . . 289 

198. Splice-grafting with a tongue . 289 

199. Splice-grafting with a shoulder 289 

200. Splice-grafting the peach . . 290 

201. Cleft-grafting . . .290 



FIG. PAGE 

204. Rind-grafting . ... 290 
205-207. Cleft-grafting the vine, rose, 

and camellia . . .291 

208. Epiphyllum truncatum grafted 

on Pereskia acule&ta . . 291 

209, 210. Saddle-grafting . . 292 

211. Grafting the lateral branches of 

fruit-trees . . . . 292 

212. Side-grafting the orange . . 293 

213. Side-grafting the vine . . 293 

214. Wedge-grafting . . .293 

215. Herbaceous grafting the pine 

and fir tribe . ... 294 

216. Grafting the tree peony on the 

tubers of the herbaceous peony 295 

217. Cleft-grafting the dahlia on its 

own tubers . . . 295 

218. Peg-grafting the dahlia on its 

own tubers . . . . 295 
219-223. Different modes of herba- 
ceous-grafting . . .296 

BUDDING ILLUSTRATED. 

237. The different steps in the pro- 
cess of shield-budding . 303 
238." Shield-budding the roseinspring 305 

239. Shield-budding the camellia in 

spring .... 305 

240. Shield-grafting without a bud . 305 

241. Budding with a circular shield 305 

242. Budding by the aid of a punch 305 

244. Budding with the shield re- 

versed .... 306 

245. Budding with a pointed shield 

for resinous trees . . 306 

246. Budding with a double shield 306 

247. Budding with a square shield . 306 

248. Budding with a terminal eye . 306 

249. Flute-budding the mulberry in 

spring . . . .307 

250. Terminal flute-budding in spring 

or summer . . . 307 

251. Flute-budding with strips of bark 307 

252. Annular budding . . 308 

INARCHING ILLUSTRATED. 

224. A scion and stock prepared for 

inarching . . . 298 

225. The scion inarched to the stock 

and bandaged . . .298 

226. Inarching with the ecion and 

stock tongued and united but 

not bandaged . . .298 
227, 228. A stock and scion prepared 

for saddle inarching . . 299 
229. A scion and stock united by 

saddle inarching . . 299 

230232. Stocks and scion prepared 

for inarching . . . 299 
233. A large stock and small scion 

united by inarching . . 300 



xxxn 



LIST OP ENGRAVINGS. 



FIG. PAGE 

234. Inarching with the scion nou- 

rished by water . . .300 

235. The camellia inarched with the 

scion nourished by water . 300 

DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATIVE OF PRUNING AND 
TRAINING. 

260. Mode of causing a pear-tree to 

produce blossom buds . . 345 

263. Mode of nailing a bent shoot 

straight .... 352 

265. Mode of training the grape-vine 

in pots .... 355 

268. Mode of training climbers on a 

wall .... 355 

269. A rose trained in the balloon 

manner .... 356 
272. Spiral training, first stage . 359 
2 73. Plan of spiral training . . S59 
274. Elevation of spiral training . 360 
275 277. Progressive stages of the 

spurring-in system . 360, 361 
278. Quenouille training . .361 
280. Conical training . . 361 
281 284. Hayward's quenouille 

training .... 362 
285 288. Progressive stages of fan- 
training . . . 363, 364 
289 295. Progressive stages of Sey- 
mour's fan-training . 365368 
296298. Wavy-training . 368, 369 



FIG. 

299 306. Progressive stages of 

wavy-training . . 369372 

307 311. Progressive stages of hori- 
zontal-training . . 372, 373 

312, 313. Horizontal. and fan-train- 
ing combined . . . 374 

314. Horizontal and perpendicular 

training combined . .374 

315 318. Progressive stages of half- 
fan training . . 374, 375 

319 322. Progressive stages of per- 
pendicular-training . 375, 376 

343 347. Progressive stages of prun- 
ing the vine . . 456, 457 

348. The Thomery system of train- 
ing vines .... 458 

349 355. Hoare's system of train- 
ing the vine . . 469472 

360 368. Spur-pruning the apple 

exemplified . . 538542 

369. Method of training shy-bearing 

pears 550 

375. A trained prize gooseberry-bush 564 



PLANS OF KITCHEN GARDENS. 

330. A plan containing one acre 

within the walls, and half an 

acre in the surrounding slip . 419 

331. A plan containing one acre 

within the walls, and three- 
quarters of an acre in the slips 421 



THE 



SUBUEBAN HOETICULTURIST. 



INTRODUCTION. 

HAVING in a twin volume* treated of Gardening as an Art of 
Design and Taste, our object in the present work is to complete the 
subject of Suburban Residences, by treating of Gardening as an Art 
of Culture. We shall consider ourselves as writing for grown up 
pupils who have previously known little of the subject; and we shall 
embrace all that we think will be useful to the possessors of small 
gardens, whether in town or country, at home or abroad, and whether 
they belong to the retired citizen, the clergyman, the farmer, the 
mechanic, the labourer, the colonist, or the emigrant. 

The possessor of a garden may desire to know the science and the 
art of its cultivation for several reasons. He may wish to know 
whether it is properly cultivated by his gardener ; he may wish to 
direct its culture himself ; he may desire to know its capabilities of 
improvement or of change ; he may wish to understand the principles 
on which the different operations of culture are performed, as a source 
of mental interest ; or he may wish to be able to perform the opera- 
tions himself as a source of recreation and health. The two last are by 
far the most important purposes which this volume is intended to 
serve ; and hence we shall give, as far as we find practicable, the 
philosophy of every operation of culture, as well as practical directions 
for the manner in which it should be performed. Some topics we shall 
illustrate by Notes, in an Appendix at the end of the work, and all 
the technical terms will be found explained in the General Index. 

We shall commence with some preliminary chapters on Plants, 
Soils, Manures, and the Operations common to all the departments of 
garden cultivation ; and we shall next treat, in succession, of the kitchen 
and fruit garden, the forcing garden, the flower garden, the shrubbery, 
and the pleasure grounds, including the ornamental plantations. 

* The Suburban Architect and Landscape Gardener. 1839. 1 vol. 8vo. 



PART I. 

FACTS RELATIVE TO PLANTS, THE SOIL, MANURES, THE 

ATMOSPHERE, &c., ON WHICH HORTICULTURE IS 

FOUNDED. 



CHAPTER I. 

PLANTS CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR CULTURE IN GARDENS. 

IT is not our intention to enter into any scientific discussion on the 
nature of plants ; but it is necessary that we should strongly impress on the 
mind of the reader who has little idea of their culture, that they are 
living beings, and quite as sensible of good and bad treatment as animals. 
Because a part of the leaves and branches of a plant may be cut off, and the 
remainder which is attached to the root will continue to live and grow, it 
seems to be inferred that a plant will bear any kind of treatment with 
impunity. Many persons purchase a plant and plant it in their garden, as 
they would purchase a piece of furniture and place it in a room, thinking 
that the one act requires no more care than the other. Many labourers, 
and even not a few gardeners, when planting a plant, insert it in the 
soil with little more care than they would a stick or a post, crowding all 
the roots into a small hole and then pressing the earth on them with their 
feet, with apparently no other end than placing the plant upright and keeping 
it firm. A person that knows anything of the nature of a plant, and of the 
manner in which it draws its nourishment, by the means of the points of 
fibrils so tender as to be rendered useless by the slightest bruise, and fur- 
nished with mouths or pores so small as only to be seen by means of a 
powerful magnifier, will feel this treatment to be barbarous and injurious. 
Another person, on the contrary, who knows the grateful return that every 
plant makes to him who bestows on it the operations of culture properly 
performed, will take a degree of interest in the operation of planting, and 
derive a degree of enjoyment from the future growth and development of 
the plant, of which a person ignorant of the subject can form no idea. As all 
men may be presumed to know something of the nature of animals, per- 
haps the easiest way of giving some knowledge of plants to those who have 
hitherto paid little attention to the vegetable kingdom, will be by first 
exhibiting the principal points of analogy between plants and animals, and 
next noticing the classification, nomenclature, structure, functions, geo- 
graphy, and habitations of plants. 

SECT. I. The Analogy between Plants and Animals, considered with 
reference to Horticulture. 

1. Plants are organised beings, that, like animals, depend for their exist- 
ence on nourishment, warmth, air, and light. Their nourishment they 
derive from the soil, their warmth and air jointly from the soil and the 
atmosphere, and their light from the sun. 

2. Plants resemble animals in having an organic structure endowed with 
life, and in requiring nourishment to enable them to continue to exist. They 
absorb this nourishment through the small tubular fibres of their roots, in the 



ANALOGY BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 3 

same way as animals do theirs through the small tubes called laeteals, which 
convey it from their stomachs to their lungs. Plants differ from animals in 
being fixed to one spot, in having the principles of vitality and reproduc- 
tion diffused over every part of their structure, and in thus being propagated 
by division, as well as by ova or seeds ; in being without a brain or nervous 
system, and, consequently, incapable of feeling ; and in light being as neces- 
sary to their existence as air is to that of animals. 

3. The soil in which a plant grows is, in general, as essential to it as the 
stomach is to an animal. Food, before it can be absorbed into the system, 
must be reduced into a pulpy mass, consisting partly of nutritious matter 
soluble in water, and partly of refuse. This process, in regard to animals, is 
performed in the stomach, and is called digestion; and when it is finished, the 
lacteals suck the chyle from the mass, and convey it to the lungs, where it is 
assimilated to the blood, and thence is distributed through the frame, while 
the refuse is passed off in the form of excrement. 

4. The food of plants is rotted, or undergoes the putrescent fermentation 
or some other species of decomposition, (a process similar to digestion.) in 
the soil ; and is there brought, by the addition of water and gases, to a 
sufficient state of fluidity to enable the spongioles of the roots to absorb 
from it the part necessary for the nourishment of the plant. The matter 
absorbed is then carried up to the leaves, where it undergoes a process 
similar to that to which the chyle is subjected in the lungs of animals, and 
becomes the true sap of the plant, which contributes to its growth as blood 
does to the growth of animals. 

5. When a plant or an animal is in a state of disease, no application to 
the leaves and branches of the one, or to the external members of the other, 
will be of much use, if the soil or the stomach be neglected. The stem 
and branches of a plant, and the external members of an animal, may be 
injured, mutilated, and even diseased ; but if the soil of the plant and the 
sto'mach of the animal be invigorated, and placed in a healthy state, the 
whole plant or animal will soon recover from the injuries it had received, 
so as to perform all the functions necessary to its existence. The first step, 
therefore, in cultivating or in improving plants, is to improve the soil in 
which they grow ; and in like manner the first step in improving animals is 
to improve the quality and increase the quantity of their food. 

G. In all vertebrate animals there is a part at the back of the neck, 
between the spinal marrow and the brain, where a serious injury will occasion 
immediate death. There is a corresponding point in plants, between the 
root and the stem, which is called the neck, or collar ; and at this point 
plants may be more readily injured than any where else. Most plants, also, 
may be killed by covering this point too deeply with soil. In all seedling 
plants, this neck or vital part is immediately beneath the point where the 
seed-leaves originate ; and if the plant be cut over there when in a young 
state, the part which is left in the ground will infallibly die. In old plants, 
however, and particularly in herbaceous plants which have creeping stems, 
and also in various kinds of trees and shrubs, the roots, after the plant has 
attained a certain age, become furnished with adventitious buds ; and, when 
the plant or tree is cut over by the collar, these dormant buds are called 
into action, and throw up shoots, which are called suckers. No suckers, 
however, are ever thrown up by the roots of a plant cut through at the 
collar while in its seed-leaves. The branches of a tree may be all cut off 

B2 



4 ANALOGY BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 

close to the trunk, and the roots also partially removed ; but, if the collar 
remain uninjured, the plant, in suitable soil, and under favourable circum- 
stances, will throw out new roots and shoots, and in time will completely 
recover itself. On the other hand, if the collar is cut off, the stem or trunk 
is left without roots, and the roots without a stem, or the power (hi general) 
to throw up one. 

7. There are some plants of the herbaceous kind (such as the horse-radish, 
for example) that do not suffer, even if their collar should be buried two 
feet, or even three feet ; but by far the greater number of plants (such as 
the hepatica, the common daisy, the common grasses, &c.) are killed by 
having the collar covered two or three inches ; and no thing is more injurious 
to woody plants, whether large or small. It is easy to destroy a large tree 
by heaping up earth round the base of its trunk ; and easy to prevent a small 
one from growing, by lifting it and planting it six inches or a foot deeper than 
it was before. Hence the great importance of not planting any plant deeper 
in the soil than it was before taking it up ; and hence also the reason why 
trees planted in deeply trenched ground, and especially fruit trees, often 
disappoint the planter. In planting these trees the soil immediately under 
and about them is more consolidated by treading arid watering than the soil 
in the other parts of the plantation ; and hence it soon sinks below the general 
level, to maintain which level the gardener fills up the depression every year, 
till the collar of the tree becomes buried several inches beneath the surface. It 
is said that all the peach plantations throughout the United States have been 
for some years in a diseased state, without any person being able to account 
for the circumstance, or point out a remedy, till one man discovered it to be 
too deep planting. He proposed to divulge the secret to Congress for a million 
of dollars; but while Congress were deliberating on the subject, the secret 
was made public by Mr. Bridgeman, in a pamphlet published in 1838. The 
soil in America, Mr. Bridgeman observes, is light ; and the trees, when 
planted in it, if not staked, are apt to be blown aside, or even blown out of 
the soil, by high winds. Hence, to avoid the trouble and expense of staking, 
they are planted deeper in the soil, by which they are held firm, without the 
aid of stakes, and this is the grand cause of unfruitfulness and disease in all 
trees, more especially in the peach. This deep planting, Mr. Bridgeman 
continues, is practised not only with fruit trees in America, but with all other 
trees and plants whatever; and they are all injured more or less by it, ac- 
cording as the soil is more or less compact. 

8. The cause why plants are so much injured by burying the collar has 
not, as far as we know, been physiologically and satisfactorily explained. 

9. The next point of analogy between plants and animals which it may be 
useful to notice is that between the lungs and the leaves. An animal can no 
more live without its lungs than without its stomach. The stomach, as we 
have seen, is necessary for turning the food into chyle, and the lungs for 
turning that chyle into blood. Now, a plant can no more live and grow 
without leaves than an animal can without lungs. The use of the lungs is 
to expose the chyle to the action of the air, which they decompose, so that 
its oxygen may unite with the chyle, and thus change it into blood. The 
leaves of plants, which act to them as lungs, not only decompose air, but 
light, in the process of elaborating the sap ; and hence plants can no more 
live without light than without air or food, as light is necessary to turn 
their food into sap, or, in other words, to bring it into the proper state for 



ANALOGY BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 5 

affording them nourishment. Hence, in the culture of plants, the great im- 
portance of solar light. An important difference, however, between the cir- 
culation of the sap in vegetables and that of the blood in animals is, that the 
former have no heart. 

10. Plants and animals agree in requiring a certain degree of temperature 
to keep them alive ; and the warmth of this temperature differs greatly in 
the different kinds both of plants and animals. Hence, the constitutional 
temperature of any plant to be cultivated being known, that temperature 
must be maintained by art ; either by a suitable situation in the open air, 
or by its culture within a structure which admits the light, and is capable 
of having its atmosphere heated to any required degree. The temperature 
which any plant requires is ascertained by its geographical position in a wild 
state, making allowance for the difference produced in the habits of the plant 
by cultivation. 

11. Plants agree with animals in requiring periodical times of rest. In 
animals, these periods are, for the most part, of short intervals of not more 
than a day ; but, in plants they are commonly at long intervals, mostly of 
several months. In warm climates, the dormant period of plants commences 
with the dry season, and continues till the recurrence of the periodical rains, 
which are peculiar to the tropical regions. In temperate countries, the dor- 
mant season in plants commences with the cold of winter, and continues till 
the recurrence of spring. When plants are in a dormant state, they com- 
monly lose their leaves, and, consequently, at that season, they are unable to 
make use of the nourishment applied to their roots ; and hence the injury 
done to them when they arc stimulated with nourishment and warmth, so 
as to occasion their growth during the period at which they ought to be at 
rest. Hence, also, arises the injury which plants receive, and especially 
bulbs, if the soil about them be kept moist by water when they are in a 
dormant state. Plants having no feeling, in the common sense in which the 
word is used, can neither experience pleasure nor pain ; but they resent 
injuries, either negative or positive, by slow growth, or by becoming diseased. 
By their being fixed to the spot where they grow, they necessarily depend for 
their food, heat, air, and light, on the circumstances peculiar to that spot ; 
and, hence, to increase their growth beyond what it would be if left to 
nature, additional food must be brought to them, and the warmth, airiness, 
and lightness of the situation increased. Hence, what is called vegetable 
culture, which, with plants in general, consists in stirring the soil, adding 
manure to it, regulating the supply of water by draining or irrigation, shel- 
tering from the colder winds, and exposing to the direct influence of the sun's 
rays. If we imagine any one of these points attended to, and not the others, 
the plant will not thrive. Stirring the soil, and mixing it w r ith manure, will 
be of little use, if that soil be liable to be continually saturated with mois- 
ture, either from its retentive nature, from springs from below, or from 
continued rains from above ; or if it be continually without, or with very 
little, moisture, from its porous nature, the want of moisture in the subsoil, 
and the want of rain and dews from the atmosphere. Improving the soil 
without improving the climate (that is, without communicating a propor- 
tionate degree of warmth and light), will increase the bulk of the plant, but 
without proportionately bringing its different parts to maturity. For ex- 
ample, we will suppose two plantations of trees planted at the same time, 
on similar soil, and in the same climate ; that in the case of the one plantation 



6 ANALOGY BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 

the soil was trenched and manured, and in the other not ; and that the trees 
were planted in equal numbers in both plantations, and at the same dis- 
tances. The trees in the prepared soil would grow rapidly ; and in the un- 
prepared soil, slowly. After a certain number of years (say twenty), we 
shall suppose .both plantations cut down when the timber produced by 
that which had grown slowly, would be found hard, and of good quality ; 
while that produced by the plantation which had grown rapidly, would be 
found soft, spongy, and when employed in construction, comparatively of 
short duration. The reason is, that in this last case the rate of nourishment 
to the roots exceeded the natural proportion which nature requires in plants, 
between the supply of food to the roots, and of light and air to the leaves. 
Had the trees in the prepared soil been thinned out, as they advanced, so 
as never to allow their branches to do more than barely touch each other, 
they would have produced more timber than the trees in the unprepared 
soil, and that timber would have been of equal firmness and duration with 
timber of slower growth. It ought, therefore, to be strongly impressed on 
the minds of amateur cultivators, that though nourishment of the root will 
produce bulk of the top, or at least length of top, yet that it is only by 
abundance of light and air, that quality can be secured at the same time. 

12. One very remarkable point of difference between animals and plants, 
is, that which has been before alluded to, viz., the much greater provision 
which nature has made for the propagation of the latter than of the former. 
Plants not only produce immense quantities of seeds, which are distributed 
by the winds and waters, by animals, and by various causes ; but they ex- 
tend themselves by shoots, which run on or under the surface of the ground, 
as in the case of the strawberry, the raspberry, &c. ; and they produce buds, 
each of which, by human art, can be rendered equivalent to a seed, either 
by planting it (with a small portion of the plant from which it is taken) at 
once in the ground, or by inserting it in another plant of the same family. 
Hence, the great facility with which plants are multiplied both by nature 
and art ; with the exception of a few, in which the process of propagation by 
artificial means is comparatively difficult. 

13. Another remarkable difference, also before alluded to, between plants 
and animals, is, the absolute necessity of light to plants during the whole 
period of their existence. There are many animals of the lower description, 
such as worms, to which light, so far from being necessary, is injurious; and 
there are instances of even the more perfect animals having lived for several 
years without the presence of light, either natural or artificial. Light is not 
necessary for either the functions of the stomach, brain, or lungs, in animals ; 
but in plants, though it is equally unnecessary for the functions of the ger- 
minating seed, the root, and the collar, it is essentially so for those of the leaves ; 
and the leaves are necessary to the elaboration of the sap, and, consequently to 
the nourishment of the plant. A plant, therefore, from which the leaves are con- 
tinually stripped as soon as they are produced, soon ceases to live. Small and 
weak plants, from which the leaves are taken off as they are produced, will die 
in a single season ; and this practice, continued for two seasons, will kill, or 
nearly so, the largest tree. If, instead of stripping a plant of its leaves, the 
leaves are produced in the absence of light, and light never admitted to them, 
the effect will be precisely the same. Seeds germinated, or plants struck from 
cuttings, in the dark, will not exist a single season ; nor will trees, or tubers, 
such as potatoes, placed in an apartment from which all light is excluded. 



ANALOGY BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 7 

live more than two seasons. Hence, the importance of light to plants can 
scarcely be overrated ; for, while it has been proved that plants, even of the 
most perfect kind, will live for many months, or even years, in glass cases 
in which very little change of air has taken place, there is no instance of 
plants, even of the lowest kind, such as ferns and mosses, living for any 
length of time without light. Without light there can be no green in leaves, 
no colour in flowers, and neither colour nor flavour in fruits. 

14. Plants agree with animals in having a sexual system ; but they differ 
from animals in having for the most part both sexes in the same individual. 
In the improvement of plants, as in the improvement of animals, the sexual 
system is a powerful agent ; and what is called cross-breeding is employed 
with as great advantage in the vegetable as in the animal kingdom. It is 
remarkable, that the general laws and results by which the process of cross- 
breeding in both kingdoms is regulated, are the same ; the two parents must 
be two varieties of the same or nearly allied species,, and their qualities may be 
different, but must not be opposite ; the preponderating influence, in point of 
character, is also with the male, and in point of bulk and hardiness with the 
female, as it is in animals. Many of the finest varieties of fruits, culinary 
vegetables, cereal grains, and grasses, have been produced by cross -breeding. 
When cross-breeding is effected between what are considered different 
species, the offspring is a mule, or hybrid, which, in most cases, is incapable 
of maturing seeds, and generally, in the course of a few years, degenerates, 
or reverts to its original parentage. The purple laburnum, which was 
raised from a seed of the common laburnum, fertilised by Cytisus purpureus, 
is an example of a true hybrid. The flowers partake of the colour of that 
of both parents ; and the plant, for two or three years, produced only flowers 
of this kind, which were never succeeded by seeds ; but in the sixth year, 
in some plants, and seventh and eighth in others, branches of Cytisus pur- 
pureus were produced on some parts of the tree, and branches of the com- 
mon yellow r laburnum on others, the latter bearing seed. (See Gard. Mag., 
vol. xii. p. 225; and Arb. Brit., vol i. p. 590.) There are, however, instances 
of mules or true hybrids producing fertile seeds ; for example, Epiphyllum 
Mastersise, raised between Epiphyllum speciosum and Cereus speciosissi- 
mum, frequently produces perfect seeds, from which plants have been raised 
partaking of all the characters of the parent hybrid plant. 

15. It would appear, from the case of the purple Laburnum, that a true 
mule or hybrid cannot always be propagated with certainty, even by por- 
tions of the plant, or by what is called extension ; since it never can be 
certain whether the portion taken off for propagation will produce the mule 
or one of the parents. As it is uncertain what are, and what are not, very 
distinct species, many of the plants originated by cross-breeding, and con- 
sidered mules, may in reality not be so ; and may, consequently, prove per- 
manent and improved varieties. Some mules, also, such as that between 
the sweetwilliam and the common pink, are much less liable to degenerate 
than others. As some of the most beautiful and useful plants in cultivation 
are cross-bred varieties or mules, particularly among Geraniums, Heaths, 
Roses, Gloxinise, &c., the subject well deserves the attention of the amateur, 
who will find it a source of useful amusement and recreation. 

16. Plants agree with animals in the offspring, when it is raised from seed, 
bearing a general resemblance to the parent ; but as, in every family, the 
children of the same parent differ individually in features, temper, disposition, 



8 CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 

&c., so, among seedling plants, from the same seed-pod, no two plants will 
be found exactly alike ; and some will occasionally differ considerably from 
all the rest. Nevertheless, it is an undoubted fact, that all seedling plants 
not only possess the character of the species from which they have sprung, 
but even, in by far the greater number of cases, some of the peculiarities of 
the individual. The seeds of any kind of cultivated apple, for example, 
will produce plants, the fruit of all of which will more or less resemble that 
of the parent ; though perhaps some one or two among a hundred may be 
considerably different. Hence, by selecting from beds of seedling plants those 
which are in any way remarkably differert from the rest, new varieties are 
procured ; and, till within the last half century, (when artificial cross- 
breeding began to be practised by gardeners,) this was the only way in which 
an improved variety of any species of plant was procured. If the seeds of 
varieties did not produce plants closely resembling their parents, how could 
all the improved varieties of culinary, agricultural, and floricultural plants, 
be perpetuated ? That the same law which governs herbaceous plants holds 
good in trees and shrubs cannot be doubted ; and if the seeds of a variegated 
tulip are more likely to produce plants which shall have variegated flowers 
than those of a tulip of only one colour, so we should say the berries of a 
variegated holly are more likely to produce plants with variegated leaves 
than those of a green-leaved holly. If this law did not hold good in ligneous 
as well as in herbaceous plants, how are we to account for the different 
varieties of Hibiscus syriacus coming true from seed ? 

17. Plants, like animals, are subject to various diseases, as well as to be 
preyed on by insects, most of which live on plants till they have completed 
their larva state. Plants are also injured by being crowded by other plants, 
either of the same or of different species. When these spring up naturally 
around the cultivated plants, they are called weeds, and the cultivated 
plant is cleared from them by weeding ; as it is in the case of being crowded 
by its own species, or by other cultivated plants, by thinning. Plants are 
also injured by epiphytes, which grow on the outer bark, such as mosses and 
lichens ; and by parasites, which root into their living stems and branches, 
such as the mistletoe, &c. 

18. The life of plants, like that of animals, is limited, but varies in regard 
to duration. Some plants vegetate, flower, ripen seed, and die, in the course 
of a few months, and these are called annuals ; while others, such as the oak 
and some other trees, are known to live upwards of a thousand years. 
In both plants and animals decay commences the moment life is extinct ; 
and in both they are ultimately resolved, first, into a pulpy or other homo- 
geneous mass, fit for manures, and ultimately into certain gases, salts, and 
earths. After death, the decay both of animals and plants may be retarded 
by the same means; viz., drying, exclusion from the air, or saturating with 
saline or antiseptic substances. 

SECT. II. Classification of Plants ', with a View to Horticulture. 

19. The number of plants is so immense, and the diversity of their ap- 
pearance so great, that without some kind of classification or arrangement 
it would scarcely be possible either to receive or retain any distinct notions 
respecting them. In communicating some positive knowledge of plants, 
therefore, the first step is to show the mode of simplifying this knowledge 
by throwing plants into classes, and other divisions or groups. 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 9 

20. Plants have been classed according to the Linnean or Artificial System, 
and according to the Jussieuan or Natural System ; but the latter alone is 
of any use in a work like the present. By the Natural System plants are 
thrown into easily recognised groups, bearing a general resemblance, both in 
exterior appearance and in internal properties, and for the most part also 
requiring the same kind of culture. Hence we are enabled to speak of 
plants in masses, which greatly facilitates the discovery and recollection of 
their names, the acquiring of knowledge respecting them, and the communi- 
cation of what we know of them to others. 

21. All plants may be divided into three grand classes, founded on their 
structure. The first class is called Dicotyledoneae, from the seedlings having 
two or more seed-leaves, and also Exogenae, from the growth being produced 
from the outside of the stem. The second class is called Monocotyledonae, 
from the seeds producing only one seed-leaf, and also Endogenae, from the 
growth being added from the inside of the stems. The third class is called 
Acotyledoneae, from the seedling plants being without proper seed-leaves; Cel- 
lulares, from their structure consisting entirely of cellular tissue ; and Aero- 
gens, signifying increasing by additions to the extremity merely, and not by 
the formation of new matter internally or externally, throughout their whole 
length, as in endogens and exogens. We shall use only the terms Exogens, 
Endogens, and Acrogens. 

22. Exogens are flowering plants, vascular in their structure, furnished 
with woody fibre and spiral vessels ; with stems mostly having distinct layers 
of wood and bark, and having pith ; the leaves being with branching lateral 
veins, and the seeds with two or more cotyledons. By far the greater num- 
ber of European plants belong to this class, which is readily known, even 
when a fragment of a leaf or a stem is obtained, by the reticulated venation 
of the former, and the concentric circles of the latter. 

23. Endogens are flowering plants with a vascular structure, furnished 
with spiral vessels, and imperfectly formed woody fibre j they have leaves 
with longitudinal or parallel veins, but never reticulated ; and seeds with 
one cotyledon only, or if two, they are not placed opposite and even with 
each other, as in exogens, but one of them is placed at the side of the other 
in the disposition which botanists call alternate. This class includes all the 
immense order of grasses, and also hyacinths, tulips, narcissi, crocuses, irises, 
and most bulbs ; the well-known yucca or Adam's needle, and all palms. 
From a single fragment of the stem or leaf of an endogen, the class to which 
it belongs can be recognised with as great ease as in the case of exogens. 

24. Acrogens are flowerless plants with a cellular structure, consisting 
either of cellular tissue alone, as in lichens and mosses, or with tissue and 
some few imperfect vessels, as in ferns. They grow by additions to the 
upper extremity only, as the name implies. Their seed is produced without 
apparent flowers ; it is not furnished with cotyledons, and it grows from any 
part of the surface of the plant ; on the under side of the leaf, as in most 
ferns, on the edges of the foliaceous thallus of lichens, and from the extre- 
mities on the sides of mosses. This class of plants is easily recognised by 
the general observer ; lichens, mosses, and fungi, being universal, and ferns 
frequent and readily recognised by the markings on the backs of their leaves. 

25. Of these three classes of plants, the exogens are unquestionably the 
highest in the scale of organisation even to the general observer. The leaves 
of the endogens, at least of temperate climates, are almost all simple, and 
have little or no variety in their venation or margins. Those of the mime- 



10 CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 

rous species which constitute our bulbous flowers have all ribbon-like leaves, 
differing in little except hi length and breadth ; and their floral envelopes, 
though splendid in point of colour, are generally more simple than those of 
exogens, being often of one piece or of one series of pieces ; and there is also 
very little variety in their fruit. Compared with acrogens, however, 
endogens are still high in the scale. 

26. To be able to refer any plant that may be met with to the class to 
which it belongs, is already a grand and useful step in the progress of bota- 
nical knowledge ; and in the practice both of botanising and of vegetable 
culture, it is of more real use than a knowledge of the whole system of 
Linnaeus. The moment one botanist or gardener tells another that a plant 
is an exogen, he forms a perfect idea of its structure, and even some 
idea of its culture; because the leaves of exogens are more numerous 
than those of endogens, and hence, with the exception of the grasses, 
they suffer less from transplanting and mutilation. The leaves of 
endogens, on the other hand, as of all the bulbous plants, are compara- 
tively few, and therefore all of them require to be preserved unin- 
jured. If they are cut off, either in their growing state or when fully 
formed, they are not renewed the same season ; and the bulb not being 
nourished by them, will not flower the following year. Exogens, on the 
other hand, may have their leaves cut off without much injury, especially 
in the early part of the season, as they have an indefinite power of renewing 
them, and consequently, what would render an endogen floweiiess the fol- 
lowing year, would have little or no effect on an exogen. Grasses, however, 
are an order of endogens which possess the same properties of renewing their 
foliage as exogens, and hence a grassy surface may be cropped by cattle, or 
mown with the scythe all the summer, and yet live and thrive. But sup- 
pose a lawn composed of plants of hyacinth, tulip, narcissus, or crocus, the 
leaves of which are not unlike those of the grasses, to be mown when the 
leaves were fully grown, in that case the plants would not produce another 
leaf that season, and instead of a green lawn we should have the naked earth 
till the following spring. 

27. These three grand classes of plants are divided into orders and tribes, 
genera, species, and varieties. The orders of plants indigenous or cultivated, 
in Britain, amount to upwards of 200, and the tribes to perhaps a third of 
that amount. The genera amount to upwards of 3,700, and the species to 
up wards of 30,700. (Loud. Hort. Brit.) The varieties of botanists are perhaps 
1,000 ; and those of culinary vegetables, fruits, roses, and florists' flowers, may 
amountt o perhaps 10,000. Now, though it is not to be expected that any 
individual can know, and bear in his mind the names of one-tenth of 
these plants, yet it is extremely desirable that he should be able to speak of 
any one of them, when he meets with it, whether it has been previously 
seen by him or not. For example, a very slight degree of attention to a 
plant seen for the first time, will enable any one to determine to which of 
the three grand divisions it belongs. Next, in each grand division there are 
two or three of what may be called popular orders, which orders any person 
may recognise almost at sight ; and to these orders belong fully half the 
plants which are commonly met with in Britain, either in a cultivated or a 
wild state. A knowledge of the grand divisions of these popular orders, 
therefore, will be a grand step gained, and give the gardener or amateur a 
notion of a great number of plants. The grand divisions of Exogens are 
Thalamifloree, Calyciflorse, Corollaeflorae, and Monochlamydeae. 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 11 

THALAMIFLOR^E. 

28. This is one of the subdivisions of Exogens, which is characterised by 
the petals of the flowers being distinct, and by the stamens being fixed to 
the receptacle. There are fifty-eight orders described under this subclass, 
in our Hortus Britannicus, of which those which will be most readily 
recognised by a general observer, or a beginner, are, Ranunculacese, Cru- 
ciferae, Malvaceae, and Geraniaceae. 

29. Ranunculacece. Calyx with deciduous sepals; petals, 3-15; stamens 
numerous ; carpels numerous and generally distinct ; herbaceous plants, and 
a few of them suffruticose shrubs, natives of the temperate regions of both 
hemispheres ; leaves alternate or opposite, generally lobed or much divided ; 
flowers often large and showy ; properties, acridity and causticity. Familiar 
examples of this order are, the Clematis, Anemone, Hepatica, Ranunculus, 
Hellebore, Columbine, Larkspur, Monkshood, and Peony. 

30. Cruciferce. Sepals and petals 4 each ; the sepals deciduous, and the 
petals always arranged in the form of a cross. Stamens 4 long and 2 short ; 
stigmas 2 ; fruit, a pod with seeds in a double line. Herbaceous plants, 
mostly annuals and biennials, natives of most parts of the world. Leaves 
alternate, all simple, and not much cut. Flowers yellow or white, rarely 
purple. Properties, antiscorbutic and stimulant, combined with acridity. 
Familiar examples are the Common Stock, the Wallflower, Honesty, Shep- 
herd's Purse, Rocket, Cress, Cabbage, Mustard, Sea Kale, and Radish. 

31. Malvaceae. Sepals and petals five each; the sepals generally with 
bracts upon them ; the petals twisted before expansion, and unfolding 
spirally ; the stamens numerous and united together, forming a cylinder 
round the pistillum ; the fruit a ring of carpels, each single-seeded. Herba- 
ceous plants, trees, or shrubs, natives of every part of the world. Leaves 
alternate, stipulate, more or less divided. Flowers for the most part showy. 
Properties, mucilaginous and wholesome. Familiar examples are, the Mallow, 
the Hollyhock, the Lavatera, the Althaea frutex, and the Cotton plant. 

32. GeraniacecB. Sepals 5; petals 5; stamens 5-10, united together ; car- 
pels 5, united to a long elastic style attached at the top to the beak of the 
receptacle. Herbaceous plants or shrubs with stems tumid and separable at 
the joints ; natives of various parts of the world ; and the more showy species 
almost everywhere cultivated. Leaves simple, either opposite or alternate, 
often lobed and divided ; frequently stipulate. Flowers showy and bright- 
coloured. Properties, astringent and aromatic or resinous. Familiar ex- 
amples are, Geranium, Erodium, and Pelargonium. 

33. Other orders belonging to this division, are, 

Magnoliacece^ containing the Magnolia and other trees and shrubs, (of 
which, however, there are very few,) bearing a close resemblance to this 
well-known ornamental tree. JBerberidaceee The Barberry, and similar 
shrubs. Nymphceacece The Water-lily, and similar plants. Papaveracece 
Plants with their flowers and fruits of the general structure of the poppy. 
Fwnariacece Plants resembling the common Fumitory. Resedacece Mig- 
nonette, and similar plants. Cistacece Cistus-like plants ; easily recognised 
by their flowers, and for the most part by their rough leaves. Violariacece 
Violet-like plants. Caryophyttacece. Plants bearing a general resem- 
blance to the pink. Alsinacece Chickweed-looking plants. Linacece 
Plants resembling the common Flax. Tiliacea The Lime trees. Camel- 



12 CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 

liacece The Camellias, including the Tea plant. Aurantiacea The Orange 
trees. Hypericacece Plants resembling and agreeing in characters with 
the St. John's Wort. Aceracece Trees and shrubs resembling the Maple 
and Sycamore. Hippocastanacece The Horse-chesnuts. Tropeolacece 
The Indian Cress species. Balsamacece. The Balsams. 

There are a number of these orders such Tiliaceae, Camelliaceae, Acer- 
aceas, Hippocastanacese, &c., which include only one or two genera; and 
hence, while acquiring a knowledge of the order, a knowledge of the genera 
is obtained at the same time. To recognise these orders, it is necessary for 
a beginner to see the flowers ; but after a little experience, most of them 
may be discovered by the leaves. 

CALYCIFLOR^. 

34. This second subdivision of exogens consists of plants having several 
petals with stamens attached to the calyx. It includes about sixty orders, of 
which the more remarkable are, Leguminosse, Rosacese, Cactacese, Umbel- 
lacese, Compositae, and Ericaceae. 

35. Leguminosce. Sepals and petals five each; the petals papilionaceous, 
or arranged somewhat like the wings of a butterfly ; stamens ten, mostly 
diadelphous, that is, in two bundles ; fruit superior, that is, formed above 
the calyx, and generally becoming a pod. This is one of the most ex- 
tensive orders of plants, consisting of herbs, shrubs, or trees ; natives of 
most parts of the world. Leaves generally compound, alternate, stipulate, 
with the petiole tumid at the base. Flowers in most species yellow, showy. 
Properties farinaceous, resinous, and furnishing various dyes. Almost all the 
trees are either useful or ornamental, and many of the herbs are valuable 
agricultural and garden plants. Familiar examples, are the common Furze, 
Broom, Genista, Cytisus, Clover, Lucerne, Melilot, Indigo, Liquorice, 
Locust Tree of America, Acacia, Mimosa, Bladder- Senna, Astragalus, Saint- 
foin, the Tare, Bean, Vetch, Pea, Kidney-bean, Lupine, and Judas Tree. 
There is scarcely any person who does not know one or other of these 
plants. 

36. Rosacece. Sepals and petals four to five each ; stamens numerous ; 
carpels numerous; distinct, as in the bramble, or enclosed in a fleshy calyx, 
as in the rose. Trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, natives of every part 
of the world ; many of them producing valuable fruits, and most of them 
having showy, and in many cases fragrant flowers. Leaves alternate, stipu- 
late, simple, or compound. Flowers large, showy, often of bright colours. 
Properties, astringency, gum, and hydrocyanic acid. Familiar examples are, 
the Almond, Peach, Apricot, Plum, and Cherry, which form a sub -order 
called Amygdaleae, the fruit and leaves of all the species of which contain Hy- 
drocyanic or Prussic Acid. The common Spiraea frutex and the yellow-flowered 
Corchorus are examples of another tribe ; and the Raspberry, the Strawberry, 
the Potentilla, and the herb Agrimony, exemplify a third tribe. The Ladies' 
Mantle and the Burnet also represent a tribe ; the Rose forms a tribe by 
itself ; and the Hawthorn, Quince, Medlar, Apple, and Pear, represent the 
tribe Pomacese. 

37. Umbelldcece. Sepals, petals, and stamens, five each ; styles, two ; 
fruit achenia or pendent seeds; flowers in umbels. Herbaceous plants, 
with fistular furrowed stems, natives chiefly of the northern parts of the 
northern hemisphere, Leaves alternate or opposite, usually divided or com- 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 13 

pound ; rarely simple, sheathing at the base. Flowers in umbels, white, 
pink, blue, or yellow, not in general very showy ; the umbel surrounded by 
an involucre. Properties of the leaves, stems, and roots, frequently poisonous, 
as in the Hemlock, water Parsnep, &c. ; but sometimes wholesome, as in the 
Parsley, Carrot, Parsnep, &c. ; the properties of the fruit are usually warm, 
aromatic, and wholesome; gum is produced by some species. Familiar 
examples are, the Hemlock, Parsley, Caraway, Celery (the leaves of which 
are rendered wholesome by blanching), Angelica, Asafoetida, Fennel, ParsrL 
nep, Cow Parsnep, Carrot, Chervil, and Coriander. Every one is familiar 
with some plant or other of this order, which may be known from all 
others by the Umbels alone. 

38. Composites. Flowers compound, that is, numbers set closely together 
on a plate or disk ; anthers united ; seeds solitary, inferior, and mostly 
crowned with a pappus or plume. Herbaceous plants, rarely shrubs; natives 
of most parts of the world. Leaves usually simple, though often much 
divided, alternate, or opposite, without stipules. Stamens frequently showy, 
for the most part yellow. Properties various ; in some astringent, in others 
resinous, mucilaginous, bitter, diuretic, emetic, &c. Familiar examples are, 
the Dandelion, the Lettuce, the Sow Thistle, the Endive, the Artichoke, 
the Burdock, the Thistle, the Everlasting, the Aster, the Golden Rod, the 
Daisy, the Groundsel, the Ragwort, the Marigold, the Chrysanthemum, 
the Chamomile, Tansy, Southernwood, Milfoil, and the Dahlia. All who 
have seen the latter flower and the common Daisy, may distinguish the plants 
of this order at a glance as readily as in the case of Legumin6sae or Umbel- 
laceae. 

39. Ericaceae. Calyx and corolla four to five cleft ; stamens eight to ten ; 
the latter inserted under the ovary ; anthers opening by pores ; fruit four or 
five celled, a many-seeded capsule, or a berry. Shrubs or under shrubs, 
natives of Europe, North and South America, Asia, and very abundant in 
Africa, more especially in the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Leaves simple, mostly evergreen, without stipules, riged, entire, whorled or 
opposite, frequently small and linear. Flowers usually bright coloured and 
very showy. Properties astringent and diuretic, and in some poisonous. 
Familiar examples are, the Arbutus, Andromeda, Heath, Kalmia, Rhodo- 
dendron, and Azalea. A beginner will more readily recognise this order 
by examining the flowers and fruit, than by the general aspect and habit of 
the plant. 

40. Other orders belonging to this division, which are easily recognised by 
those who know the plant after which the order takes its name, are the fol- 
lowing : Rhamn^ceae, Calycanthaceae, Granat^ceae, Onagraceae (including 
the CEnotheraand Fuchsias), Philadelphacese, Myrtaceae, Cucurbitaceas, Pas- 
sifloraceae, Turneriaceae, Cactaceae, Crassulaceae, Grossulaceae, Saxifragaceae, 
Araliaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Lobeliaceae, Campanulaceae, Gesneriacew, and 
various others. To recognise these orders it is necessary, in most cases, to 
see the flowers ; but in the case of the Umbellaceae, as already observed, the 
order may be recognised by the appearance of the flower-stems ; and in Cac- 
taceae by the stems, and the entire plant. A number of the orders contain 
only one or two genera ; and though the list has a formidable appearance 
on paper, yet in the garden the plants of several of the orders occupy but 
comparatively a small space. 



14 CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 

CoROLL.EFLOR-Si. 

40. The characteristic of this division is petals united ; stamens fixed to 
the corolla. The most important orders are Scrophulariaceae and Labiaceae : 
both very readily distinguished. 

41. Scrophulariacece. Calyx and corolla irregularly four to five cleft; 
stamens two to four ; fruit, a two-celled, many-seeded capsule. Herbs, 
undershrubs, and occasionally shrubs ; natives of, and found in abundance 
in, all parts of the world. Leaves simple, opposite, whorled or alternate, 
with or without stipules. Flowers axillary or racemose, often showy. Pro- 
perties, acridity and bitterness ; sometimes purgative or emetic. Familiar 
examples are, Buddlea, Snapdragon, Scrophularia, Foxglove, Eyebright, 
Calceolaria, Schizanthus, and Veronica. 

42. LabiacecB. Calyx tubular, five to ten parted; corolla lipped; sta- 
mens two to four ; seeds four together, enclosed in a general seed-vessel, 
superior ; flowers whorled. Herbaceous plants or undershrubs with four- 
cornered stems and opposite ramifications ; natives principally of the tempe- 
rate regions of both hemispheres. Leaves simple or compound, opposite 
without stipules; abounding in pores filled with aromatic oil. Flowers 
sessile, in axillary cymes. Properties tonic, cordial, and stomachic. Familiar 
examples are, Mint, Savory, Thyme, Pennyroyal, Hyssop, Germander, 
Rosemary, Day-nettle, Betony, Ground Ivy, Horehound, Lavender, Balm of 
Gilead, Balin, and Sage. 

43. Other orders in this subdivision are : Epacridaceae, Cape and Aus- 
tralian shrubs resembling Epacris, and frequent in greenhouses, flowering in 
the winter. Myrsinacae, Jasminacse, Asclepiadaceae, Gentianacese, Bigno- 
niceae, Cobaeaceae, Polemoniaceae, Convolvulaceae, Boraginaceae, Hydrophyl- 
laceae, Solanaceae,VerbenaceaB, Acanthaceae, Primulaceae, and various others. 

MONOCHLAMYDE^I. 

44. Calyx and corolla not distinct ; that is, the flowers have only a single 
envelope. The principal orders are Amentaceae and Coniferae. 

45. Amentacece. Flowers monoecious ; that is, the male and female in 
separate catkins, but borne on the same plant; or dioecious, that is, the male 
and female on different plants. The stameniferous flowers in drooping catkins ; 
fruitsolitary, or aggregate ; in some one-celled, enclosed in a sheathed capsule, 
as in the Oak, Chestnut, Beech, Hazel, and Hornbeam ; in others with the 
fruit small and tufted with fine hairs, as in the Willow and Poplar ; and in 
others two-celled, with small seeds not enclosed in the receptacle, and not 
clothed with hairs, as in the Birch and Alder. Trees, and some shrubs ; 
natives chiefly of the temperate regions of both hemispheres. Leaves 
simple ; flowers not showy. 

46. Conifera. Flowers in catkins generally erect ; fruit a cone, as in 
Pines and Firs ; sometimes with scales compressed so as to resemble a berry, 
as in the Juniper and Yew. Seeds naked. Trees, and some shrubs, natives of 
every part of the world ; often called resiniferous trees. Every one has seen 
a Pine, a Fir, or a Cedar, and their cones ; and the fruit of the Juniper and 
the Yew are not uncommon. The Coniferae are frequently spoken of as in 
two divisions ; the one the Abietinae, or Pine and Fir tribe ; and the other 
the Cupressinae, or the Cypress and Juniper tribe. 

47. Other orders belonging to this division are Plantaginese, plants more 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 15 

or less resembling the Plantago, or common Plantain. Amaranthaceae, 
Chenopodiaceae, Begoniaceae, Polygonaceae, Lamaceae, Proteaceae, Thyme- 
leaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Urticaceae, Ulmaceae, Juglandaceae, Empetraceae. Of 
these the Coniferae may generally be known by their foliage ; but the others, 
for the most part, require to be seen in flower, at least by the beginner. 

ENDOGENS. 

48. Endogens have no general subdivisions like the exogens ; but their 
principal orders, with a view to the general observer, are Orchidaceae, Scita- 
minacese, IridaceaB, Amaryllidaceae, Asphodelaceae, Tulipaceae, Palmaceae, 
and Graminaceae. 

49. Orchidacece. Flowers of six sepals, irregular ; stamen and style 
united. Herbaceous plants, often with the stems and leaves perennial ; 
many of them epiphytes, that is, growing on the trunks and branches of 
trees. Leaves simple, quite entire, often articulated with the stem. The 
flowers of this order are so remarkable in their external appearance, that 
when once seen they are easily repognised, either hi the indigenous Orchises 
of British marshes and chalky downs which grow in the soil ; or in the 
tropical species kept in stoves, which for the most part grow on the bark of 
the trunk and branches of trees. 

50. Scitaminacece. Stem formed of the cohering bases of the leaves ; never 
branching. Leaves simple, sheathing one another on the stem. Flowers in 
spikes, racemes, or panicles, with numerous bracts. Tropical herbaceous 
plants, of which the following are examples : the Ginger, the Indian Shot, 
Alpinia, Hedychium, Plantains, and Bananas. 

51. IridacecB. Flowers superior ; stamens, three distinct, their anthers 
turned outwards. Herbaceous plants, chiefly bulbs, natives of the Cape of 
Good Hope, but many of them also of Europe. Leaves ensiform, equitant, 
or alike on both sides. Flowers terminal, hi spikes, corymbs, or panicles ; 
bright-coloured, large, and showy. Familiar examples are : Iris, Ixia, the 
Tiger Flower, Gladiolus, and Crocus. The latter flower is familiar to 
every one. 

62. Amaryllidacece. Flowers superior; stamens six, distinct ; their 
anthers turned inwards. Bulbous-rooted herbaceous plants, natives of most 
parts of the world, with uniform leaves having parallel veins. Flowers with 
sheath-like bracts, large, bright-coloured, and showy. Familiar examples 
are : the Amaryllis, Crinum, Bloodflower, Hypoxis, Narcissus, Snowdrop, 
Summer Snowflake, and Alstro3meria. 

53. Llliacece. Flowers inferior, of six divisions ; stamens, six. Her- 
baceous plants with bulbous roots, natives of the temperate parts of the 
northern hemisphere. Familiar examples are : the Lily, the Scilla, the 
Hyacinth, Fritillary, Dog's-tooth Violet, Tulip, Star of Bethlehem, As- 
phodel, Butcher's Broom, Solomon's Seal, and Lily of the Valley. The 
Tulip and the Lily are familiar to every one. 

54. Palmacece. Flowers enclosed by a sheath, six- parted ; stamens, six ; 
fruit fleshy or baccate. Trees, sometimes low plants ; always with simple 
stems, seldom if ever branched, and having the leaves in clusters at the top 
of the stem. Leaves large, pinnated or fan-shaped, folded before expansion ; 
natives of tropical climates, and in Britain only to be seen in hothouses. 
Familiar examples are, the Fan Palm, the Date, the Sago Palm, and the 
Zamia. 



16 CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 

55. Graminacea. Plants with hollow, round stems, and mostly ever- 
green leaves. Sheaths of the leaves split on one side. Herbaceous plants, 
and sometimes trees and shrubs, natives of every part of the world, and 
familiar to all. 

56. Other orders belonging to Endogens are : Alisimacese or Water Plan- 
tain-looking plants, natives of marshes or standing water. Butomaceae, the 
flowering Rush, the most ornamental of British water plants; Pistiaceae, the 
Duckweed ; Dioscoraceae, the Yam; Tamaceae, the black Bryony, a twining 
plant occasionally found in hedges ; Smilaceae, the Smilaxes ; Bromeliaceae, 
the Pine Apple ; Commelinacese, Spider Wort ; Typhinaceae, Cat's Tail ; 
Aroidaceae, the Arums ; Juncaceae, the Rushes ; and Cyperaceae, the Sedges, 
which are distinguished from the proper grasses by having solid stems. 

ACROGENS. 

57. Acrogens, or vegetables which grow from their upper extremities, 
contain the following principal Orders : Filices, Musci, Lichenes, Algae, and 
Fungi. 

58. Filices. Plants often consisting of a single leaf called a frond, mostly 
without steins ; the leaves are rolled up before expansion, and with equal- 
sized veins. Herbs, and sometimes trees, natives of every part of the world 
in moist shady situations. Familiar examples are : the common Polypody 
of the hedges, which is found also on pollards and large trees in moist situ- 
ations, Maidenhair, the Brake, the Hart's Tongue, the Osmunda, the Ad- 
der's Tongue, and the Moonwort. 

59. Musci. Leafy cellular plants, with fruit in covered capsules. 

60. Lichenes Frondose plants with seeds in receptacles of various kinds, 
of the same substance as the frond. 

61. Algae. Cellular water plants, chiefly found in the sea ; bearing fruit 
in bladders either attached to, or imbedded in, the surface of the frond or 
leaf-like plate. A common example of this order is the green hair-like 
Conferva, found in ditches and stagnant waters. 

62. Fungi. Succulent masses without leaves, veins, or fronds, and 
bearing their sporules, or substitutes for seed, in tubular cells. Familiar 
examples are the common Mushroom and Toadstool. 

63. Other orders of Acrogens are Equisetacese, or plants resembling the 
common Equisetum or Horsetail, which to general observers is distinguished 
by its terminal catkin from the Mare's- tail, in which the flowers are axillary. 
Characeae or floating water plants, consisting of a leaf and root ; and Lyco- 
podiaceae, which are moss-looking plants, bearing a general resemblance to 
the common club moss. All these orders may be recognised without refer- 
ence to flowers or fruit, and they are chiefly of botanical interest. 

64. If the reader has profited from the preceding part of this section in 
the manner which we have wished him to do, he will have learnt, when 
endeavouring to describe a plant which he has seen, to another person who 
has not seen it ; not to begin with the leaves and flowers and similar details, 
bnt with the general appearance of the plants, and the resemblance which it 
has to known plants, either single species or orders, tribes, or genera. It is 
in general of far more importance to be able to determine the order to which 
a plant belongs than its mere generic and specific name ; unless, indeed, the 
knowledge of this serves as a key to books from which the natural order 
may be learned, and consequently something of the properties of the plant 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 17 

ascertained. We therefore repeat our recommendation to grown-up pupils 
to begin their study of plants by looking at them in masses or groups ; after 
which they may correct and render more definite the knowledge thus 
acquired, by a study of all the separate parts of plants. In like manner, if 
we were to recommend what we consider the best mode of getting a know- 
ledge of grammar, we should begin with sentences ; or of the exterior effect 
of buildings, we should recommend, first, attention to the outline and the 
general masses ; and next, an examination of the doors, windows, cornices, 
and other details ; and finally of the bricks or stones of the walls, and 
the slates or tiles of the roof. To a young person, on the other hand, 
we should recommend the contrary mode, in botany, in grammar, and in 
architecture. 

65. Besides characterising plants according to the natural orders to which 
they belong ; when cultivators are speaking of plants with a view to their 
art, they employ a number of terms which, though not rigidly scientific, 
are all more or less useful, as enabling us to speak of plants in groups or 
masses. The principal of these are as follow : 

66. Evergreens. Plants which retain their leaves green throughout the 
winter. The principal British evergreen trees, are the Coniferse, the Ever- 
green Oak, and the Holly ; but there are many evergreen shrubs. Evergreen 
herbaceous plants are not very numerous ; but we have the Pink, Carnation, 
Sweetwilliam, many of the Saxifrages. Silenes, the perennial flax, some 
Campanulas, and all the perennial grasses. 

67. Subevergreens. Plants which retain their leaves green through the 
winter, and drop them in spring, so that they are for two or three weeks 
without leaves. The principal trees are the varieties of the Lucombe and 
Fulham Oak, Turner's Oak, Quercus pseudo-suber, and one or two others. 
Of shrubs there are a number ; such as Buddlea globosa, Aristotelia Macqui, 
Photinia serrulata, Cotoneaster frigida, some kinds of Genista, Piptanthus 
nepalensis, Ribes glu tine-sum, &c. Subevergreen herbaceous plants are : (Eno- 
thera biennis and several other species, Pentstemon, Chelone, Asters, &c. 

68. Persistent-leaved plants are such as retain their leaves after they have 
withered and become brown, till the spring. Examples of trees are, the 
Beech, Hornbeam, and Turkey Oak when young, Quercus Tauzin, and some- 
times the common Oak ; and there are one or two shrubs, such as Rhus 
Cotinus, and some herbaceous plants, such as Pulsatilla. 

69. Deciduous-leaved plants are those that drop their leaves in the autumn, 
which is the case with the great majority of plants, whether trees, shrubs, 
or herbs, in all extra tropical countries. 

70. Ligneous plants are such as have woody stems and branches. 

71. Suffruticose plants are such as have stems intermediate between woody 
and herbaceous ; as, for example, the tree Peony, the Sage, the Carnation, 
the tree Lavatera, &c. 

72. Trees, when young, are scarcely to be distinguished from shrubs, both 
coming up with a single stem ; but a tree, if left to itself, ultimately becomes 
a plant with a single erect stem, and a branchy head. Thus the common 
mountain Ash, though it seldom grows above thirty feet high, is a perfect 
tree ; while the common Laurel, which will attain the height of forty or 
fifty feet much sooner than the mountain Ash will thirty feet, never has an 
erect stem, and has generally several stems rising together. It is therefore 
considered a shrub. Trees are commonly divided into large, small, and 

c 



18 STRUCTURE OF PLANTS. 

middle-sized. Most fruit trees are considered low trees; trees between 
thirty and fifty feet are middle-sized; and those of greater height large. 

73. Shrubs are either large, as when they exceed twenty feet; small, 
if under four feet ; or undershrubs if under two feet, such as the Thyme 
and Rosemary, and many Heaths. Shrubs climb by twining, as exemplified 
in the Honeysuckle ; by clasping with tendrils or leaves, as in the vine, the 
five-leaved ivy, and the Clematis ; or by elongation, as in the Lycium and 
Solanum dulcamara ; or by attachment of the rootlets, as in the common Ivy. 
Shrubs are also distinguished as trailers when the shoots lie along the ground 
without rooting into it ; as stoloniferous, when the shoots ramble along the 
ground, and root into it at certain distances, as in the Bramble ; or creeping, 
when they root at every joint, as in some species of Rhus ; and as recum- 
bent, when the shoots recline without spreading or rooting, as in many 
species of Cytisus. 

Herbaceous plants may also be similarly divided. 

With reference to their habits, plants are called Alpines, or hill plants, or 
mountain, marsh, aquatic, bog, heath, wood, copse, hedge, meadow, or 
pasture plants. With respect to soil, a very common division is into peat- 
earth plants or American border plants (from the soil for American plants 
being generally peat), and common garden soil plants. 

Herbaceous plants are also distinguished as florists' flowers, such as the 
Auricula, Tulip, Hyacinth, &c., which have been long cultivated by florists, 
who have laid down canons or rules, by which the merits of flowers are to be 
tested ; border flowers, or such as are adapted for growing in a miscellaneous 
ornamental border ; botanic plants, or such as are chiefly interesting to 
botanists ; shrubbery flowers, or such large coarse-growing species as are 
adapted for growing among shrubs ; rockwork plants, or such as from their 
native habitation, and low compact habit of growth, are considered as adapted 
for rockwork ; and pot plants, or such as for the same qualities are adapted 
for growing in pots. There are also lawn plants, or such as are adapted for 
growing singly on a lawn, as the Peony ; and covering plants, such as the 
Verbena Melindres, which are adapted for covering beds and parterres with 
masses of flowers of the same colour. The common divisions of herbaceous 
plants into annual, biennial, perennial, bulbous, tuberous, ramose-rooted, 
and fibrous-rooted, it is unnecessary here to describe. 

74. The uses of plants have given rise to several divisions ; such as horti- 
cultural plants, agricultural, culinary, medicinal, tinctorial, pomological, and 
other edible fruit-bearing plants ; graniverous, pasturage, and herbage 
plants ; hedge plants, or such ligneous species as are adapted for growing as 
hedges ; copsewood plants, or such as shoot up freely from the stool or collar 
when cut down, and are consequently adapted for copsewoods ; seaside plants, 
or such as are adapted for standing the sea-breeze, &c. 

75. Plants are also distinguished as having variegated foliage; anomalous 
foliage, in which plants having naturally simple or entire leaves, exhibit 
them occasionally much divided, as in the Fern-leaved Beech, Cut-leaved 
Lime, &c. ; as having double flowers, which, in the earlier ages of gardening, 
was considered the greatest beauty which a plant could have; as being 
dwarfs, or lower than the normal size ; or tall, as being higher than the 
normal size. Considered with reference to climate, plants are described as 
hardy, growing hi the open air without protection ; half-hardy, requiring 
some kind of protection ; frame, requiring the protection of glass without 



STRUCTURE OF PLANTS. 19 

heat ; greenhouse plants, requiring glass with heat ; and hothouse plants, 
which may be either dry stove plants, such as Cacti, Aloes, Crassulas, &c., 
which require a high degree of heat with a dry atmosphere, or damp stove 
plants, such as the Orchidacese, which require a high degree of moist heat. 

SECT. III. Nomenclature of Plants with a view to Horticulture. 

76. The principles on which plants are named ought to be known to the 
young gardener and the amateur ; partly because they ought not to be 
entirely ignorant of anything closely connected with their pursuit, and 
partly because the names of plants sometimes indicate ideas respecting 
their nature and culture. The names of the grand divisions, as we have 
already seen, are compounded of Greek words, expressive of the structure 
or character of the division or subdivision. The names of the orders are, for 
the most part, without meaning in themselves, further than as being the 
names of certain genera which are considered as the types of the orders, all 
the plants of which have a close general resemblance to that genus in struc- 
ture and properties. The same may be said of the names of tribes. 

77. The names of the genera of plants, are chiefly compounded of Greek 
words signifying something respecting the plant, as Chionanthus, snow- flower, 
from the snowy whiteness of the blossoms, or Gypsophila, because the plant 
loves chalky soil ; or they are commemorative of individuals, as Smithta, after 
Sir James Smith. Occasionally, but rarely, they are named after countries 
or a people, as in Armeniaca from Armenia, and Araucaria from the Arauca- 
rians, a people of Chili. By far the greater number of generic names are after 
persons, and those in this volume, and in all our other works, are distinguished 
by having the letters additional to the name in italics, as explained with 
other matters at the end of the Preface. Specific names are generally Latin 
adjectives, expressing some obvious quality of the plant ; or proper names 
used adjectively, to signify the change that has taken place in removing the 
species from the genus, of which the adjective was the name ; as for example, 
Veronica Chamsedrys, indicates that Chamaedrys was formerly the generic 
name of that species of Veronica. Commemorative names are also used as 
specific names, sometimes in the genitive case, as Verbena Drummondi, in- 
dicating that the plant was discovered or originated by Mr. Drummond ; or 
with the addition of ana as Verbena Tweedicma, indicating that the plant 
was named in honour of Mr. Tweedie. Specific names also often indicate 
the situation or the county where the plant is found naturally, as palustris 
growing in marshes, or Edinburgeiisis growing about Edinburgh. 

78. The names of varieties of plants given by Botanists follow the same 
laws as those of species ; but the names given by horticulturists and florists 
are sometimes indicative of properties, as large, small, &c. ; but for the most 
part fanciful, and sometimes whimsical. In general, the names of culinary 
vegetables and fruits bear the name of the person who raised them, with the 
place where they were raised, with or without the addition of some adjective 
expressing their properties, as Forest's Large Upsal Cabbage, Reid's New 
Golden Pippin, &c. The names applied to varieties of gooseberries, florists' 
flowers, and roses, are for the most part given in honour of individuals ; some- 
times they indicate a quality, as Brown's Scarlet Verbena, and sometimes 
they imply a superiority, or a challenge, as the Top-Sawyer gooseberry, or 
Cox's Defiance Dahlia. The Dutch give their florists' flowers many high- 
sounding titles, which appear at first sight ridiculous ; but in giving them 

c2 



20 STRUCTURE OF PLANTS. 

they intend at once to compliment their patrons, and to describe something 
of the nature of the flower, thus : the letters W.,Y.,O.,R.,C.,P.,V.,B.,&c., 
when capitals, are understood to mean white, yellow, orange, red, crimson, 
purple, violet, blue ; and hence, when a flower is named William the Con- 
querer, or Wonder of Constantinople, its colours are understood to be white 
and crimson ; Charming Phillis, crimson and purple ; British Rover, blue 
and red, &c. It is always desirable to know the meaning of a name, or 
even to know that it has no meaning ; in the former case some positive ideas 
are obtained, and in both the memory is assisted. 

SECT. IV. Structure of Plants ', with a view to Horticulture. 

79. The anatomy of a plant furnishes us with numerous component 
parts, of which we can do little more than enumerate those more imme- 
diately connected with the practice of horticulture. 

80. Elementary Organs consist of cellular tissue, or transparent vesicles, 
which adhere together so as to form a substance more or less compact, 
and which, in the leaves, fills up the interstices between the veins, and 
forms the parenchyma. Woody fibre is an elementary organ consisting of 
elongated tubes, which are found more or less in most plants, and especially 
in the wood and inner bark, among parenxjhymous matter. Spiral vessels 
consisting of elastic tissue, twisted spirally within & membrane are found 
in the medullary sheath, but rarely in the wood, hark, and root, and they 
scarcely exist in acrogens. Plants furnished with them are called vascu- 
lares ; a term which includes both exogens and endogens : and plants without 
them are called cellulares, in which the acrogens are included. Other forms 
of elementary tissue are the ducts, which are transparent tubes, marked 
with lines or dots ; the cuticle, which is a thin skin, covering the leaf ; and 
the stomata, which are pores scattered over the cuticle, or epidermis of the 
leaves. Grafting and budding are founded on the affinity of the elementary 
organs in different species. 

81. Compound organs are combinations of the elementary organs, and 
consist of the axis and its appendages ; two words which comprise the whole 
vegetable structure. The axis may be compared to the vertebral column of 
animals, and is formed by the development of a seed, a bulb, or other germ, 
or of a leaf-bud. An embryo is the origin of a plant contained within a 
seed, and it differs from a bulb or bud in being produced by the agency of 
sexes. When a seed or a bud is excited by its inherent vital action, the 
tissue of which it is composed, and which has the power of generating new 
tissue Oy the growth of one elementary vesicle out of another, developes 
itself in three directions, upwards, downwards, and horizontally. The part 
which descends is called the descending axis or root ; the opposite part the 
ascending axis or stem ; and the horizontal elongations, which are chiefly 
leaves and buds, are called the appendages of the stem. 

82. The root begins to be formed before the stem ; from which it differs 
anatomically, in the absence of spiral vessels, of pith, of buds, with certain 
exceptions, and of stomata. The uses of roots are to fix plants in the soil, 
and to absorb nutriment from it by their spongioles. 

83. The stem is generated by the development of the plumule of the seed, 
and increased by the development of leaf-buds. If a ring of bark be cut off 
from the stem of an exogenous plant, below a branch or even at the base of 
a growing shoot of the current year covered with leaves, or if a ligature be 



STRUCTURE OF PLANTS. 



21 



made round the stem in a similar situation, the part of the stem above the 
wound, or ligature, swells and increases in thickness, while that below it does 
not ; a proof that in exogenous plants, the matter by which stems are thick- 
ened, descends. Hence, when a shoot is cut through immediately below a 
leaf-bud, the portion of the shoot left, dies back to the next bud. Hence, 
also, has arisen the technical expression of " cut to the bud ;" which means, 
that in pruning or cutting off a shoot, the section should be made so close 
to a bud as that the wound may soon be healed over, and no stump left, 
as is the case in gardens where trees have been carelessly pruned. The 
greater the number of leaves on a shoot, or of leaf-buds on a stem or branch, 
the greater will be the diameter of the parts below the leaves, buds, or 
branches, and the contrary. 

84. Stems are either exogenous, growing from the outside ; endogenous, 
growing from the interior ; or acrogenous, growing by elongation or dila- 
tion, and mostly without buds. Exogenous stems consist of the pith, a 
fungus-like matter, occupying the small cylindric space in the centre of the 
stem, and never increasing in diameter ; of the medullary sheath, consisting 
of a thin cylinder of spiral vessels and ducts, immediately surrounding the 
pith j and of the wood, which surrounds the medullary sheath, in the form 
of concentric layers, which layers are penetrated by projections from the 
pith called medullary rays. In general every concentric layer requires a 
year for its production ; and hence the age of a tree may be known by the 
number of rings shown in the section of the main stem. In woody stems of 
several years' growth, the interior of the wood is rendered hard by the 
deposition of secreted matter, and is called heartwood ; while the more 
recent exterior layers are known as soft wood or alburnum. 

85. The bark surrounds the young wood, and like it consists of concentric 
layers, one being added yearly on the inside, between the previously ex- 
isting bark and the alburnum. Every layer of bark consists of woody fibre, 
and ducts covered with parenchymous matter, the two former constituting 
the liber, or inner bark, and the latter the cellular integument, epidermis, 
or outer bark. The uses of the bark are to protect the alburnum, to serve 
as a channel for the descending sap, and sometimes as a medium for the 
deposition of the peculiar properties of plants. 

86. The medullary rays or plates consist of compressed vertical parallelo- 
grams of cellular tissue, which connect together the different layers of wood, 
and serve, at least in trees that are without dead wood in the centre of their 
stems, as a communication between the pith and the bark. Between the 
liber and the alburnum, a viscid secretion is found in spring, which renders 
trees easily disbarked at that season, and this secretion is called cambium. 
It has been supposed to nourish the descending fibres of the buds, and to 
originate medullary rays. 

87. Endogenous plants have stems, which offer no distinction of pith, 
medullary rays, wood, and bark ; the whole structure being composed of 
bundles of vascular tissue among a mass of cellular tissue, surrounded by a 
zone of cellular tissue and woody fibre : but as this exterior zone is not sepa- 
rable from what it encloses by any natural division, it is consequently not bark. 
Endogenous stems increase by the successive descent of new bundles of 
vascular tissue into the cellular tissue towards the centre of the stem, and 
these bundles of tissue gradually distend those previously formed, by 
which means the diameter of the stem is slowly increased in thickness, and 
its circumference in hardness. After this hardness has reached a certain 



22 STRUCTURE OF PLANTS. 

point, it can no longer be distended, and the diameter ceases to increase. 
Hence, generally, the life of an endogenous tree seems more limited than that 
of an exogen ; because it is well known that trees of the latter kind will 
live for an indefinite period, and even for centuries, after the interior of the 
trunks have become entirely rotten, and their circumference separated so as 
to form vertical sections, or fragments of trunks, with rotten wood on one 
side, and living bark and growing shoots on the other ; the increase both of 
bark and wood still going on. Endogens differ from exogens in commonly 
developing only a terminal bud, as in Palms, in which case the stem is of 
the same thickness throughout, and cylindrical ; but when several buds deve- 
lope themselves, as in the stem of the Asparagus, and in that of the Bamboo, 
the stem becomes conical like the stems of exogens. 

88. Though the normal direction of stems and branches is upwards, or 
at all events, above the surface of the ground, yet there are exceptions in the 
case of creeping roots, as in the Everlasting Pea ; in rhizomas, which are un- 
derground stems, as in the water-lily, and the common reed ; in tubers 
which are stems under the surface, as in the potato ; and in corms, as in the 
crocus, the root of which, though commonly called a bulb, is, botanically, a 
dilated stem. 

89. JVodiy or knots, are the places where buds are formed, and internodi 
the spaces between them. Whatever is produced by a leaf bud is a branch, 
which, when in a growing state, is called a shoot. Leaf-buds sometimes are 
imperfectly developed so as to form a spine, with or without leaves, as in the 
common hawthorn; and such spines are therefore imperfectly developed 
branches. All growths from the stems which are not the evolutions of leaf 
buds, as for example the prickles, are modifications of the cellular matter, 
and of the epidermis of the bark. The uses of prickles to the plant appear 
imperfectly understood. 

90. Buds are either leaf-buds or flower-buds, and the former are either 
regular or adventitious. Regular leaf-buds are only found in the axils of 
the leaves, or in the axils of their modifications. Hence as scales, stipules, 
bracts, sepals, petals, stamens, and carpellas, are considered as metamor- 
phosed leaves, adventitious buds are believed to exist on their axils ; though 
they are rarely developed in a state of nature and only sometimes by artifi- 
cial processes. Regular buds alone develope themselves untouched by art 
or accident ; and hence, whatever may be the arrangement of the buds, 
the same will be that of the branches. Adventitious leaf-buds are found 
surrounding the bases of regular leaf-buds, and in general where there is 
an anastomosis of woody fibre. They are found in the roots of a number 
of plants, and sometimes on the margin of leaves, or at the base of their 
petioles ; they are never visible either on the root or stem till they begin to 
develope themselves and burst through the bark. 

91. Leaves are expansions of the bark, and only found at the nodi of the 
stem. They are developed as the stem advances in growth, one above and 
after another, opposite, alternate, or verticillate, and in each of these modes 
with greater or less regularity. A complete leaf consists of a petiole or foot- 
stalk, a lamina or disk, and a pair of stipula or small side leaves at the base 
of the petiole. The lamina is sometimes wanting or changed in shape, and 
sometimes the petiole is extended, and instead of terminating in a lamina, it 
assumes a cylindrical wirelike figure, and becomes a tendril. The veins of 
leaves branch in all exogenous plants, with the exception of the Coniferae and 
Cycadeae orders, the stems of which have an exogenous structure, while the 



STRUCTURE OF PLANTS. 23 

veins are parallel, like those of endogens. The veins of a leaf are in two 
strata, the one forming the upper, and the other the under surface ; the 
former conveying the juices from the stem for elaboration, and the latter 
returning them when elaborated. Simple leaves have undivided laminae, or 
laminae divided, but not articulated ; in the latter case it is a compound leaf, 
as in the Mimosa, and in what would, at first appearance, seem a simple leaf, 
the Orange. Some leaves have a power of producing leaf-buds, but com- 
monly not till they have dropped off and lain some time on moist ground, as 
in Bryophyllum, Malaxis, and some tropical ferns. 

92. Hairs are minute expansions of tissue, found occasionally in all parts 
of the plant above ground, but chiefly on the under surface, and they are in- 
tended for the purposes of secretion, for the control of evaporation, and for 
the protection of the surface on which they are placed. 

93. flower-buds consist of floral envelopes and sexes, and they either pro- 
ceed from the axilla of common leaves, or from those of bracts or floral 
leaves. The floral envelopes are connected with the stem by a peduncle. 
The modes in which flower-buds are arranged on a stem, which are various, 
are called the forms of inflorescence ; and the order in which they expand is 
called the order of expansion. 

94. Inflorescence is the ramification of that part of the plant bearing the 
flowers, and it is in general either terminal, that is, at the end of the branch ; 
or axillary, proceeding from the axils of the leaves. Both these kinds of inflo- 
rescence assume a great many different forms which cannot be here detailed. 

95. The floral envelopes consist of the calyx and corolla, both of which are 
generally present, but sometimes only one, which in that case is considered 
the calyx ; and sometimes both are wanting, as in apetalous flowers. The 
divisions of the calyx are called sepals, and those of the corolla petals. 

96. The sexes of plants consist of the male organs, or stamens, and the 
female organs, or pistillum, with a process, usually an annular elevation, 
which occurs between them, referred by former botanists to the nectary, but 
now called the disk. The pistillum occupies the centre of the flower within 
the stamens, and it consists of three parts, the ovarium, the style, and 
the stigma. The ovarium is the lowest part, and encloses the ovula or 
young seeds, in one or more vacuities called cells ; the stigma is the summit 
of the pistillum, which is connected with the ovarium by the style. This 
last part is sometimes wanting, but the ovarium and stigma are always 
present. Those parts of the pistillum which remain, and continue growing 
after the floral envelopes and the stamens have decayed, are called carpels, 
which are sometimes united, as in the Poppy, and sometimes separated, as in 
the Ranunculus. 

97. The ovulum is the infant seed united to the interior of the carpella, by 
the placenta, to which it is attached by the funiculus, podosperm, or 
umbilical cord. 

98. The fruit, in a strict botanical sense, is the mature pistillum, but in 
a less strict sense, it is applied to the pistillum and floral envelopes, taken 
together and united in one general mass. All fruit, excepting those of the 
Conifers and Cycadeae, which have no ovarium, indicate upon their surface 
some traces of a style, and wherever this is the case, what are apparently 
and commonly called seeds, as the grains of corn and other grasses, are pro- 
perly fruits. When the pistillum has become mature fruit, what was the 
ovarium takes the name of pericarpium. 



24 FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 

99. Fruits are either simple, proceeding from a single flower, as in the 
poppy, rose, strawberry, apple, &e., or compound, formed out of several 
flowers, as in the mulberry, the fig, and all the Coniferse. When simple 
fruits are formed of a single carpellum, they are called follicles, as in the 
peony ; legumes, as in the pea ; drupes, as in the peach ; akenia, as in the 
strawberry; cariopsis, as in corn ; or utricles, as in the chenopodium. The 
capsule is a many-celled dry pericarpium, as in the poppy ; the silique is a 
pod, consisting of two or four carpella, as in the cabbage tribe, and all the 
Cruciferaa. The nut or gland is a dry, bony, one-celled fruit, enclosed in an 
involucrum, cupula, or cup, as in the oak ; the berry is a succulent fruit, 
the seeds of which lose their adhesion when ripe, and lie loose in the pulp, 
as in the grape and the gooseberry ; the orange is also a berry separable into 
an epicarp, or outer skin, and endocarp or central part in which the seeds 
are fixed, and a sarcocarp or fleshy substance between the epicarp and the 
endocarp ; the pome consisting of two or more inferior carpella united, as in 
the apple ; and the pepo is a pulpy fruit in which the seeds are embedded, 
but their point of attachment never lost, as in the cucumber. Of all these 
fruits, the most remarkable are the pine-apple, which is a spike of inferior 
flowers grown together into a fleshy mass; the fig, which is the fleshy hollow 
dilated apex of a peduncle, in the interior of which the flowers are arranged, 
each flower containing a one- seeded pericarpium; the cone of the Abietinae 
is an indurated amentum ; and when reduced in size, and its scales so firmly 
adhering as almost to resemble a berry, it is called a galbulus, as in Thuja 
and Juniperus. 

100. The seed is a mature ovulum, and consists of the integument or testa, 
the albumen or perisperm, and the embryo, which consists of the cotyle- 
dons, the radicle, the plumula, and the collar or neck. As all ovula are 
enclosed within an ovarium, and all seeds are matured ovula ; hence there 
can be no such thing as naked seed, excepting in Coniferae and Cycadese, in 
which the ovula are destitute of every covering, and exposed naked to the 
influence of the pollen. In consequence of some ovula rupturing the ovarium 
in the course of their growth, the seeds become naked, as in Leontice thalic- 
troides ; while in some, as in Reseda, the ovula are imperfectly protected by 
the ovarium, and in that case also the seeds are naked. When a seed 
is separated from the placenta, and the umbilical cord is removed, a scar 
appears on the point where it was attached, which is called the hilum 
or umbilicus. It is very distinct in the common bean, and in all the Legu- 
minosse. The hilum always represents the base of the seed, or that part 
whence the roots proceed ; and hence it ought to be placed undermost when 
the seed is committed to the soil. In curved seeds, however, as in the 
Mignonette, the apex and base are brought together ; and in sowing such 
seeds they should be laid on their side. There is much to study on the 
subject of seeds, both with a view to a scientific knowledge of plants and to 
their culture, and we must therefore recommend the reader to study either 
Lindley's Outlines of the First Principles of Botany, or his Introduction to 
Botany, 3rd edit., 1839; the last being by far the most complete work of 
the kind extant. 

SECT. V. Functions of Plants with reference to Horticulture. 

101. The development of a plant takes place in consequence of the elas- 
ticity, excitability, and hygroscopicity of its tissue ; and it requires the, 



FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 25 

presence : 1. of "substances containing carbon and nitrogen, and capable of 
yielding these elements to the growing plant ; 2. of water and its elements ; 
and 3, of a soil to furnish the inorganic matters, which are likewise essential 
to vegetable life." (Liebig, p. 4.) A summary view of the whole process 
of vegetable development is thus given by Professor Henslow : " Plants 
absorb their nutriment by their roots; this nutriment is then conveyed 
through the stem into the leaves ; there it is subjected to a process by which~ 
a large proportion of water is discharged ; the rest is submitted to the action 
of the atmosphere, and carbonic acid is first generated and then decomposed 
by the action of light. Carbon is now fixed under the form of a nutri- 
tive material, which is conveyed back into the system ; and this material 
is farther elaborated for the development of all parts of the structure, and 
for the preparation of certain secreted matters which are either retained 
within or ejected from the plant." (Descriptive and Physiological Botany, 
p. 176.) This short passage comprehends the essence of all that can be said 
on the subject of vegetable development ; but for the purposes of horticul- 
ture it will be useful to go more into detail and to consider vegetable de- 
velopment under the form of germination, growth, function of the leaves, 
action of the flowers, and maturation of the fruit and seed. 

102. Germination. The seed containing an embryo plant, its develop- 
ment is effected by its being placed in suitable circumstances for that purpose. 
These are moisture, warmth, the absence of light, and contact with air ; to 
which may be added, with a view to cultivation, the presence of soil. The 
undeveloped seed is principally composed of concentrated carbon, and in the 
act of germination, this carbon, by the absorption of water, is converted into 
mucilaginous matter, which is decomposed and rendered soluble by the 
oxygen of the atmosphere. Thus it appears that the first act of germination 
is to reverse the process of maturation ; and hence, the reason why all seeds, 
if sown fresh, when they are nearly ripe, will germinate more speedily than 
when fully ripe ; and when fully ripe, sooner if sown immediately than if 
kept for months -or years. The soluble mucilage of the cotyledons supplies 
the embryo plant with nourishment till it is able to extract food from the 
soil, after which it absorbs this food from the soil, by the points of its 
radicles./ Seeds will not germinate without the presence of oxygen. In 
nitrogen, or in carbonic acid gas, if moistened with water, they will 
swell, but not vegetate. Hence seeds excluded from the atmosphere and 
from water, may be preserved from decay for an indefinite period ; but it 
does e not follow that during the whole of this period they will retain 
their vital principle. The presence of light is not only unnecessary to the 
germination of seeds, but injurious, and hence in horticulture they are 
always more or less buried in the soil, generally to a depth equivalent to 
the diameter of the seed. The temperature required to germinate seeds, 
varies from 32 to 80 or 90 ; and some seeds, such as those of the Robima 
Pseud-acacia, and of some species of Australian Acacias, may be immersed in 
water at the boiling point, and kept for some minutes in it without destroy- 
ing vitality. The seeds of no plant will vegetate under 32, because below 
that degree water freezes, and consequently could not be absorbed by the 
tissue of the seed. The common annual grass (Poa annua) will vegetate at, 
or very slightly above, that temperature, as will the Chickweed, (Alsine 
media,) the common Day Nettle, (Lamium rubrum,) and various others. The 
process of malting barley is exactly the same as that of germinating a seed. 
By moistening the barley, it swells, the starch of the cotyledon is changed 



26 FUNCTIONS OP PLANTS. 

into sugar, and being absorbed by the embryo, the radicle is protruded at 
one end of the grain or seed, and the plumule or commencement of the stem 
is elongated at the other. 

103. Growth in plants is effected, not as in animals by the expansion of 
all the parts of the embryo, but by additions to it. Thus roots and stems 
lengthen by matter added to their extremities, and are thickened by layers 
of matter deposited on their surface, in the case of exogenous plants ; and in 
the interior of their stems and roots in the case of endogens. In the embryo, 
the root first begins to move by the extension of all its parts, but imme- 
diately after it is protruded into the soil, and the young stem is elevated 
into the air, the root ceases to increase by the general distension of its tissue, 
and grows by the addition of new matter to its point. Hence the extreme 
delicacy of the points of young roots, which, like all the newly formed parts 
of vegetable matter, are extremely hygrometrical, absorbing water like a 
sponge, and hence are called spongelets or spongioles. Roots, from their 
organic structure, are not permeable by water throughout their whole 
length, and it is only by means of the spongioles at the extremities of the 
small fibres that they absorb nourishment. In general, the buds of plants 
have a power of producing roots from their base, in a manner analogous to 
seeds ; but much greater care is required on the part of the cultivator to 
bring about this process, and with many plants it will not succeed. In 
some, it may be effected by taking off a mature bud, and placing it in the 
soil, like a seed; but in most plants, it is requisite to preserve a portion of 
the stem along with the bud, as in striking vines by buds ; in others it is re- 
quisite to have a plate of the bark, with or without a portion of the soft 
wood, as in propagating by budding on the living plant ; and in some a leaf 
or leaves are requisite. Roots are also protruded from all parts of the stems 
of some plants, as of most kinds of Willow ; and from the joints immedi- 
ately under the buds of most plants. On this last property depends the art 
of propagating plants by cuttings, inserted in the soil. In some plants cuttings 
of the matured wood without leaves will emit roots ; but in many others, and 
indeed in most plants, roots are most freely produced from cuttings of unripe 
or partially ripened wood, with the leaves on, and in a growing state. And 
even hi those cases in which roots are produced from cuttings having no 
leaves, if leaves are not speedily produced, the roots will decay, and the 
cuttings will die. In short, the connexion between leaves and roots is as 
intimate in cuttings, whether of stems, branches, or tubers, as it is between 
the radicle and the plumule of the seed. A portion of the tuber of a Dahlia, 
which has no bud, will produce roots, and we have known those to live and the 
tuber to remain fresh for upwards of a year without leaves having been pro- 
truded ; ultimately, however, the roots decayed, and the tubers soon after- 
wards rotted. Though roots are most active, and most essential to the 
progress of the plant hi the growing season, yet they continue to perform 
their office even in the winter season, unless the soil which contains them 
should be frozen. In this case they are much injured, and the spongioles are 
ruptured and destroyed ; but when the growing season returns, new spongioles 
are formed, commonly branching out from the fibres in a greater number 
than before. This result is sometimes produced by overpowerful liquid 
manures poured on the roots of plants, which destroy the spongioles, and 
cause the fibres to throw out a greater number. As plants absorb their food 
chiefly, and almost entirely, by their roots, and as it has been proved that in 
general the spongioles have no power of selection, it follows that plants may 



FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 27 

he poisoned in the same manner as they are nourished ; and hence it has 
been found that solutions of opium, mercury, arsenic, and even common 
salt, presented to the roots of plants, will destroy their vital powers. In 
general the roots of plants are not furnished with buds, and hence roots 
cannot be used in propagation in the same manner as branches ; nevertheless, 
there are numerous exceptions, and some extensive orders of plants, such 
as the Rosaceae, Campanulaceae, Cruciferse, and some of the AmentacecR, 
have roots abounding in adventitious buds, and if these roots are cut into por- 
tions, and planted in the soil with the part of the root which was next the 
stem uppermost, and their points exposed to the air, or very slightly covered, 
they will produce plants. This, however, is never the case with the roots of 
annuals or biennials; and hence, in Cruciferae, while the common Sea-kale 
produces buds in abundance from the cuttings of the roots, the same thing 
never takes place in the common Cabbage. The nature of plants in this 
respect is very different ; for while the fasciculated tubercles of the Dah- 
lia, if deprived of the plate which produces the buds, have no power of 
originating fresh buds, yet the tubers of the common Paeony so treated, 
produce them freely. 

104. Every plant contains nitrogen in its albumen and gluten, and it has 
been found that this elementary principle abounds in a particular manner in 
the spongioles of the roots, and in all the newly-formed parts of plants, and 
that those seeds germinate the earliest which contain the largest quantity of 
nitrogen. Hence the great value of animal manures to plants, all of which 
contain nitrogen ; but especially those of carnivorous animals. (Lieb. p. 190.) 

105. The stem of plants is not protruded so early as the root ; but as soon 
as the latter is in a state of action, and has penetrated a few inches into the 
soil, the seed-leaves appear above the surface, and from the centre of these 
is originated the stem. Both the roots and stems of plants, when first 
originated from seed, are perpendicular to the earth's surface, or in other 
words, they extend in the direction of radii from the earth's centre. The 
root, which penetrates downwards, always avoids light, and the stem, which 
rises upwards, as constantly seeks the light, and avoids darkness. There 
are some apparent exceptions to this law ; as, for example, in the Mistletoe, 
the seeds of which, when deposited on the underside of a branch, send their 
radicles upwards, and their stem downwards ; and this may perhaps also be 
said of some orchideous epiphytes ; but in general, few laws are so universal 
as that of the ascending and descending axis of a plant being always in the 
direction of a radiating line from the centre of the earth. 

106. The stem at first is a mere point, scarcely so large as to be recognised 
as a bud ; but as soon as it feels the effect of the nutriment impelled into 
it by the growing root, it becomes developed, enlarged, furnished with leaves, 
and solidified. From being a small portion of cellular tissue, possessing 
neither strength nor tenacity, it becomes by the formation of woody matter, 
a slender rod or shoot, sufficiently firm and tough to require an effort to sepa- 
rate it from the root ; and, in a short time, it adheres to the latter so firmly 
as when drawn up forcibly to pull the entire plant out of the soil. 

107. Before the formation of leaves on the stem, it is quite succulent, and 
without woody fibre; but as soon as the leaves appear, woody matter is de- 
posited in the form of tubes of extreme fineness, which originating in the 
leaves, pass downwards through the cellular tissue, and are incorporated with 
it, so as to add to its bulk, strength, and flexibility. The first woody matter 



28 FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 

arises from the base of the seed-leaves, and is in general in very small 
quantity ; but as soon as the proper leaves appear, the quantity of woody 
matter formed is considerable, even during the first growing season. 

When this woody matter first penetrates the cellular tissue of the infant 
stem, it forms a little circle within its circumference, and thus separates the 
interior of the stem into two parts. These parts are the bark or exterior 
portion, and the pith or central part ; and between these, at least in all 
exogens, there is a third portion which constitutes the wood. 

108. Organically, the stem may be said to consist of two parts the 
cellular tissue, which is not, from its nature, capable of increasing by growth 
more in one direction than in another, and the woody fibres which are trans- 
mitted from the leaves through the stem, and down into the roots. In 
speaking of the construction of stems, the cellular tissue, in them, is called 
the horizontal system ; and the woody fibres, as they increase longitudinally 
by the addition of new fibres or tubes having the same lengthened direction 
as themselves, are called the perpendicular system. 

109. Wood, in exogenous plants, consists chiefly of the perpendicular sys- 
tem, while the pith hi the centre of the stem, and the bark on its circum- 
ference, are chiefly formed of the horizontal system. The bark communi- 
cates with the pith by the continuation of the cellular tissue through the 
woody fibres ; and the cellular tissue seen among these woody fibres in the 
section of a tree made smooth by the plane, is called the medullary rays, 
from the pith in plants being supposed analogous to the medulla of animals. 
Hence the section of the trunk of a tree has been compared to a piece of 
cloth ; the horizontal system, or medullary rays, representing the woof, 
and the woody system the warp. 

' 110. When a stem is injured by the removal of a portion of the bark of 
such a depth as to reach the wood, the wound is healed over ; first, by the 
cellular matter oozing out of the last formed wood, and granulating on the 
surface ; and secondly, by this cellular matter being penetrated by the fibres 
of the perpendicular system. Rings of bark are frequently cut from the 
stems of trees for the purpose of checking the returning sap, either to cause 
the tree to produce blossoms, or for the purpose of inducing the stem or 
branch to throw out roots along the upper edge of the part from which the 
bark has been taken. The immediate effect of the process is the protrusion 
of granulated matter, or cellular tissue, along both sides of the wound, but 
especially on the upper side. Now, if the wound be surrounded with a 
quantity of moss, tied firmly on, and kept moist, the perpendicular system, 
or ligneous fibre, will penetrate through the granulated matter, and become 
roots ; while no roots whatever will be protruded from the granulated matter 
on the under side of the wound ; thus proving, firstly, the truth of the 
.theory of the perpendicular system ; and secondly, that roots, in growing 
plants, are formed by the protrusion of woody fibre through cellular matter. 
The first process of nature, when a cutting is formed and planted in the soil, 
is to protrude cellular matter round the edges of the section of its lower 
extremity ; this protruded matter, or callosity, as it is termed by cultivators, 
sometimes remains for several months before it undergoes any change ; but 
ultimately, if the cutting succeeds, the perpendicular system passes through 
it and appears in the form of roots, and the cutting is established as a plant. 
If a cutting be planted in the soil in an inverted position, though the 
portion in the soil be cut and prepared as in cuttings treated in the usual 



FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 29 

manner, yet in general it will neither produce a callosity nor roots ; though 
there are some exceptions, as in the willow tribe, and of these if the cutting is 
prepared at both ends, and laid horizontally in the soil, then at both ends 
callosities, and ultimately roots, will be formed. Hence a shoot of a willow 
inserted in the ground at both ends, being bent for that purpose, so as to 
form an arch, will root at both ends ; but this is a result that will happen in 
the case of very few plants. 

111. The bark consists of two parts; the outer bark, formed entirely of 
cellular matter, and resting on the liber or inner bark ; and the inner bark, 
which consists partly of woody, and partly of cellular matter. The latter 
ultimately becomes wood, and the former ultimately hardens, cracks, and 
sometimes falls off. No wound in the outer bark can be healed or filled up, 
but the reverse is the case with wounds in the alburnum. The wood in all 
exogenous plants of the tree kind is distinguishable into the heart wood, or 
that which is mature, and the soft wood or alburnum, which is wood in a 
young and growing state. The heart wood is for the most part of a darker 
colour than the soft or young wood, which is generally white, till by age its 
tubes and vessels become thickened with matter deposited by the sap in its 
ascent to the leaves, when it darkens in colour, at least in most trees. When 
the sap absorbed by the spongioles enters the solid matter of the plant, it 
passes upwards through the alburnum to the leaves, and being elaborated 
there, it descends through the liber, communicating horizontally by means 
of the medullary rays, with both the old and the young wood. Wherever 
it penetrates, it deposits cellular matter, till at last in the old wood the pores 
become completely filled up and hardened. 

112. The stems of all plants, and especially of exogenous trees, have, 
beginning at the centre, pith, old wood, medullary rays, alburnum, liber or 
inner bark, and outer bark. The medullary rays connect all the parts of 
the section of a stem, or branches, horizontally ; and the ligneous fibres, 
which penetrate all the parts excepting the pith, connect them longitudi- 
nally, and complete the vegetable structure. In all plants whatever these 
parts exist ; but in many herbaceous plants, especially annuals, and others of 
short duration, they are not easily defined ; the wood, alburnum, and liber, 
often appearing in one homogeneous body ; and the bark and the pith 
only being quite distinct. The root stem differs from the stem above 
ground in being without pith, without visible buds, and without an outer 
bark : or at all events without a bark which cracks and decays, like that of 
the stems and branches. There are exceptions in the case of some root 
stocks of herbaceous plants, such as those of the Colchicum and the 
Crocus ; but nevertheless this holds true in the underground stems or tubers 
of the Potato, in the fasciculated tubercles of the Dahlia, and in most other 
tuberous-rooted plants. 

113. Leaves are formed on the surface of stems at certain distances, and 
in a certain order in each species of plant ; and at the base of the petiole of 
each leaf, there is a bud either visible or latent ; in either case ready to be 
called into action and produce a new stem, shoot, or branch, when the neces- 
sary excitement is given. If the leaves are removed from a growing stem as 
soon as they appear, no buds are formed in their axils ; or if the germs of 
them have existed there, they die for want of the nourishment of the leaf. 
Hence, by taking off every leaf as soon as it is protruded from an over 
vigorous-growing shoot of the current year, that shoot may be prevented 



30 FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 

from maturing its buds and wood, and consequently deprived of the power of 
growing vigorously the following season ; and this is found a better mode 
of treating excessively luxuriant trees than cutting off such over- vigorous 
shoots, which would only throw more vigour into the heart of the tree. 
By taking off the incipient leaves the tree is allowed to exhaust itself of all 
its superfluous force. See Beaton in Gard. Mag. 1837, p. 203. 

114. In general, buds are rarely found except in the axils of the leaves; but 
occasionally they are formed in the spaces of the stem between the leaves, more 
or less distant from the base of the leaf, or from the joints whence leaves are pro- 
duced. They are also, as we have before observed, sometimes found in roots, 
though never visible in them to the naked eye ; and they are also produced 
in some cases on leaves, as in Kalanchbe (Bryophyllum) crenata, and in Car- 
damine hirsuta. Buds of this kind are said to be dormant or adventitious. 
When the bud of any stem has been once matured, if rubbed off, one or 
more other buds will arise from its base ; and this will take place though 
the operation be repeated an indefinite number of times, provided the plant 
be furnished with leaves in some other part of its stem above the point 
whence the buds were rubbed off, so that the shoot or stem may be continued 
in a growing state. Thus the regular visible buds of vines are frequently 
cut entirely out, but still the adventitious buds throw out shoots with such 
vigour, other circumstances being favourable, as to produce abundance of 
fruit the same season. 

115. Buds are of two kinds, leaf-buds and blossom-buds. It is only the 
former that can produce shoots, or by which, under ordinary circumstances, 
a plant can be propagated directly. But if a blossom-bud be taken off and 
inserted in a living plant by the usual operation of budding, though only 
blossoms will be produced the first year, yet the dormant leaf-buds will the 
second year produce shoots. In practice this does not hold good alike in all 
plants, but it is the case with many of the Rosaceae, for example in the 
Peach. The nodule is a concretion of embryo buds found in the bark .of 
various trees, and especially of the common Elm, the Birch, some of the 
Poplars, and the Olive; and by fragments of which these trees may be 
propagated. 

110. All bulbs are buds, and the scales of which they are composed are 
abortive or imperfectly developed leaves ; consequently, as at the base of 
every leaf there is a bud, so must there be, at the base of every scale of 
a bulb, a bud either regular or adventitious. Hence, by cutting over the 
bulb of a common Hyacinth about the eighth of an inch above the plate to 
which the scales are attached, a number of buds and young leaves will be 
produced from between the bases of the scales, and by these buds the plant 
may be increased. 

117. The stem of a plant may be considered as the base, receptacle, or 
habitation of the leaves and buds ; by means of which they are exposed to the 
air and light, without being too much crowded, and are thus enabled to elabo- 
rate the sap sent to them by the roots, and to form buds and seeds for the 
continuation of their species. The watery matter absorbed by the spongioles 
ascends the stem by the soft wood, dissolving in its ascent a part of the starch 
or sugar which it finds there, and hence becoming denser as it ascends ; its 
specific gravity increasing till it reaches the summit of the stem and branches. 
As it ascends it enters the leaves, where it is elaborated in consequence of the 
action of light on their upper surface, and it is then returned to the stem by 



FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 31 

the vessels in the under surface of the leaves, whence it descends to the roots, 
not however by way of the alburnum, where it would meet with and inter- 
rupt the ascending sap ; but by way of the inner bark, communicating hori- 
zontally, as we have before observed, with the interior of the stem by means 
of the medullary rays. Hence, the great importance of the alburnum and 
the inner bark to plants ; the former in conveying sap from the root to the 
leaves, and the latter in returning it from the leaves to the stem, branches, 
and roots. Hence also we find that trees will live, and even thrive, with the 
interior of their trunk entirely rotten, provided the alburnum, the inner 
bark, and the leaves, are in a healthy state. The alburnum is constantly 
changing into hard wood, and the inner bark as constantly into hard bark or 
outer bark. As the heart wood when thoroughly hardened may be removed 
without injury to the growth of the tree, so also may the thoroughly hard- 
ened outer bark. The hard wood is to the tree what the bones are to an 
animal, the chief source of mechanical support ; and the outer bark being a 
non-conductor of heat, protects the inner bark and the alburnum from too 
great cold, and in hot climates from too much heat, in the same manner as 
the outer coverings of animals. 

118. Though the sap of plants circulates in general by rising through the 
alburnum, and descending through the inner bark, yet such is the effect of 
vitality, and the simplicity of their structure, that the sap can be made both 
to rise and fall by the alburnum, and to rise and fall also by the inner bark. 
Instead of ascending from the roots to the branches, it can be made to enter 
by the branches and descend to the roots. To prove the truth of the first of 
these assertions, the trunk of a tree has been sawn through in opposite direc- 
tions in such a manner that there could not, by any possibility, be direct 
linear communication between the portions below and above the wound, and 
yet the tree has lived. The wood of the shoot of a willow has been extracted 
at the peeling season, and the shoot being supported by a stake, has grown, 
and in the course of the first summer filled up the cavity left by the removal 
of the wood. That the sap will both ascend and return, not merely by the 
alburnum, but by wood of a considerable degree of age and hardness, is 
proved, among other instances, by a Lime-tree in the royal gardens at Fon- 

tainebleau, which continues to live and produce leaves every 
year, though a large portion of the stem has been without 
bark for thirty years. Fig. 1 is from a sketch made by 
M. Poitcau, a scientific cultivator and physiologist, in 
whose company we examined this tree in July, 1840. To 
prove that the sap will enter by the branches and descend 
to the leaves, take a ligneous plant growing in a pot, and 
elevating it on a post between two trees of the same or 
of allied kinds, inarch the extremity of a branch of each 
tree into the plant in the pot, and in two years cease to 

, supply water to the earth in the pot, and at last shake this 
Part of the trunk of *A J c , , * , 

a Lime Tree grow- eartn awa ^ from the 1>oots > mid leave tne P lant S us P e nded 

ing at Fontaine- between the two trees. We have not seen this done, but 

blcau in 1840. we have seen branches which had inosculated with other 

branches cut through, and being left attached by the inosculation, live for 

several years. Some curious experiments bearing on this subject, by Mr. 

Niven of Dublin, will be found in the Gardeners Magazine, 1838, p. 161. 

119. The cause of the motion of the sap is a subject which has occasioned 
much discussion. The general opinion is, that it is in motion, to a certain 




32 FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 

extent, in winter as well as in summer ; but that an extraordinary absorp- 
tion by the roots, and consequent ascent through the alburnum, takes place 
with the development of the buds, in consequence of the stimulus of heat in 
spring. The swelling of the buds, and the expansion of the leaves, decom- 
pose a quantity of sap in the same manner as the swelling of the embryo of 
the seed (102); a portion is fixed in the plant, and a portion given off into the 
atmosphere ; and to supply the consumption thus occasioned, the office of the 
spongioles of the roots is called into extraordinary action, and nature, always 
stronger than strong enough, produces a superabundant supply. 

120. The leaf of the plant is an organ of so much importance, that there 
can be no growth beyond the first development of the seed without it. No 
mode of treatment will compensate to a plant for the want of leaves, and the 
most vigorous plant that exists may be destroyed in a short time by the 
removal of all the leaves as soon as they appear. The important consequences 
that result from this fact, are not sufficiently known to many gardeners, and 
they require particularly to be impressed on the minds of amateurs. We 
have seen in a preceding paragraph how trees may be weakened, and parti- 
cular shoots killed, by the removal of leaves. The most powerful weeds, for 
example, Perennial Thistles, Docks, Ferns, Rushes, and all similar plants, 
may be killed in grass lands on the same principle ; that is, by the removal 
of the leaves as soon as they appear, and before they are developed. 

121. The normal form of a leaf consists of an expanded part called the 
disk, and a narrow prolongation called the petiole (91); but some 
leaves are solid and cylindrical, and others are so modified as to appear like 
scales ; for example, in bulbs, the bracts in the fruit of the pine-apple, 
spines in the common thorn, tendrils hi the vine ; and, consequently, all these 
organs or appendages ought to have buds, either visible or adventitious, in 
their axils. This is accordingly found to be the case. Shoots have been 
produced where the tendrils of a vine have been cut off; and in the fruit of 
the pine-apple, every bracteal leaf having a " pip" or flower in its axil, has 
produced a sucker. (Cowel.) The disk of the leaf is considered as an ex- 
pansion of the inner bark (91) ; its veins are the continuation of the ligneous 
fibres of the bark, and its cellular substance of the horizontal system or 
cellular tissue of the trunk. The woody tissue which forms the veins of 
leaves, as already observed, is arranged in two layers ; one forming the 
upper surface of the leaf, by which the sap is elaborated ; and the other, the 
under surface, by which the elaborated sap is returned to the inner bark. 
The two plates of layers may be readily seen in a leaf which has been ma- 
tured, and afterwards anatomised, by the alternate action of water and the 
atmosphere. The upper layer has its vessels in communication with the 
interior of the stem, while the under layer communicates only with the 
inner bark ; the upper one maintains a connexion with the soft wood, in 
order to receive the sap from it, while the under one is connected with the 
inner bark, in order to return the sap through it to the stem and roots. 

122. The two plates of vessels and cellular matter which form the disk of 
the leaf, are covered with a thin skin or epidermis. This epidermis, when 
the leaf is beginning to expand, abounds with innumerable minute cavities 
filled in that early stage with fluid ; but ultimately, when the leaf is fully 
grown, these cavities become dry. In plants indigenous to moist and shady 
places, the epidermis is thin; but in those growing naturally in hot, dry, ex- 
posed situations, it is very hard and thick. It varies, indeed, not only with 



FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 33 

the natural habitations of plants, but with their natures. In all, whether 
thick or thin, it is pierced with numerous pores, called stomata, which can- 
not be seen with the naked eye, but through which the leaf inhales and 
exhales gases, and perhaps watery matters. The stomata are generally 
largest and most abundant in aquatic or marsh plants, or plants adapted by 
nature for shady places, and which can procure at all times an ample supply 
of liquid food ; and they are, on the contrary, fewest and least active, in 
warm, open, airy situations, where liquid food is less abundant. Thus it 
appears that the structure of a leaf being adapted to the particular situation 
in which the plant naturally grows, it may serve to indicate what sort of 
culture may be most suitable for plants of which we have previously known 
but little. It is evident, however, that this criterion must be of rather 
difficult application in practice, excepting by gardeners who are scientific 
botanists, and have been in the habit of using powerful microscopes. 

123. There are some plants which produce no leaves, or in which the 
leaves are so small, and drop off so soon after they are formed as to leave 
no traces of them on the bark. Instances of this kind are found in the 
genera Cactus, Epiphyllum, Opuntia, Stapelia, and even, but in a much 
less degree, in some species of Asparagus, Spartium, and Ge'nista. In 
all such cases, the functions that are in other plants, performed by the 
leaves, are performed in these plants by the bark. The functions of the 
leaves, and of the green parts of the bark, and of the plant in general, 
are to absorb carbonic acid, and with the aid of light and moisture, to appro- 
priate its carbon. Carbonic acid may enter the plant by the roots, by the 
leaf^ and by the green parts of its bark. When either of these parts is 
exposed to the action of the sun, the carbonic acid is decomposed, oxygen is 
given off, and the carbon is fixed in the leaf or bark. The escape of the 
oxygen may be proved by immersing a leaf in water, and exposing it to the 
sun. If a leaf be immersed in water in the shade, little or no air will be 
given off, and that little will be found to be carbonic acid gas. Plants, it has 
been found, decompose carbonic acid during the action of solar light on the 
leaves during the day, and form it again in the shade and during night ; 
and hence, in a healthy plant, the decomposition of carbonic acid and the 
liberation of oxygen during the da}', and the absorption of oxygen and the 
liberation of carbonic acid gas during the night, are perpetually going on 
while the plant has leaves, or is in a growing state. The healthiness of a plant, 
other circumstances being alike, is in proportion to the quantity of carbonic 
acid decomposed during the day, and this will depend on the quantity of 
light it receives during the same period. Plants which naturally grow in 
shady situations form exceptions to this general principle ; probably, because 
the powerful action of the sun on their leaves would cause them to perspire 
water in too great abundance. 

124. In conclusion, it may be observed, that all the matters assimilated 
by plants, whether of a general kind, such as carbon, or of a specific nature, 
such as acids and alkalies, resins, oils, &c., are effected by the action of 
light on the leaves ; and hence, as we have said before (9), the treatment 
of the leaves of plants is of far greater importance than the treatment of any 
other part whatever. 

125. The action of the leaf generally ceases when the part of the stem to 
which it is attached is matured, or when the fruit which is nearest to it is 
ripened. At that period the leaf commonly changes colour, ceases to decom- 



34 FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 

pose carbonic acid, and yielding to the chemical influence of the oxygen of 
the atmosphere, it dies and drops off. Those leaves are called deciduous 
(09), which fall off in the autumn after the maturation of the shoots of the 
current year ; those are called persistent (68), which remain on in a withered 
state till the following spring; and those evergreen (66), which remain 
attached and green till the following summer, or later. Some of these 
evergreen leaves, as for example in certain species of Coniferse, remain on 
for several years. 

126. The flowers of plants generally consist of the following parts : 
1st, The floral envelopes consisting of the calyx or exterior covering, which 
is generally green ; and the corolla or interior covering, which is commonly 
of some other colour than green ; 2d, The organs of reproduction, comprising 
the stamens and pistil ; and 3d, The germen or rudiment of the fruit and 
seed. In general, the calyx and the corolla are present in every flower, and 
also both sexes are contained in the same flower. But there are numerous 
exceptions ; some flowers having a calyx without a corolla, as in Atragene ; 
others having the calyx coloured, so as to resemble a corolla, as in Fuchsia 
and many bulbs; many being without any floral envelopes, as hi the Wil- 
low ; and the sexes being, in many cases, on different plants, as in Maclura 
and Salisburm, Populus and alix. No flower in a natural state, how- 
ever, is to be found in which there is not present one or other of the sexes, 
excepting double flowers, which are monstrosities, and those of some hybrids, 
which are anomalies. 

127. The floral envelopes may be considered as making the nearest ap- 
proach to common leaves ; and in many plants, particularly such as are in 
a high state of cultivation, they assume the appearance of leaves ; as, for 
example, in some varieties of Rose. In many plants the sexes are also 
changed into leaves, and this is the mode in which most double flowers are 
produced. Occasionally both the floral envelopes and the sexes are turned 
into leaves, as is found occasionally in wet seasons in the flowers of the 
common Parsley. In the earlier stages of the progress of gardening in 
Britain, when few plants were introduced from foreign countries, the great 
object of the curious cultivator was to produce double flowers, and other 
monstrosities ; and hence we have double-flowered varieties of most of the 
ornamental herbaceous plants that have been long in cultivation, and even of 
some trees and shrubs, such as the double-blossomed cherry, double- blos- 
somed hawthorn, double-blossomed peach, &c. 

128. The art of causing plants to produce flowers sooner than they would 
do naturally, is one of great importance to the cultivator. The principle on 
which it is founded seems to be that of causing a greater accumulation of 
nutritive matter in the particular part of the plant intended to produce 
flowers than is natural to that part ; or in the case of annual plants, to con- 
centrate the nutritive matter of the entire plant, by growing it in a dryer 
soil than that which is natural to it. Hence by ringing any particular branch 
of a tree, blossom-buds will be formed on the part of the branch above the 
ring, while shoots more watery than usual will be formed below it. Hence, 
also, by grafting a shoot from a seedling tree on the extremities of the 
branches of a full-grown tree of the same species, blossoms will be produced 
some years sooner than would have been the case had the branch remained 
on its parent plant. In this way new kinds of fruit, raised from seed, may 
be proved much sooner than if the seedling plants were left a sufficient 



FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 35 

number of years to produce blossoms. Sometimes blossoms are produced, 
which from defect, or want of vigour, prove abortive ; and when this is the 
case, by removing from the plant all the blossom-buds before they expand, 
for one or more years in succession, more vigorous blossoms will be pro- 
duced, and the production of fruit ensured. This is the reason why on fruit 
trees, a defective crop is generally succeeded by an abundant one, and the 
contrary ; and why double-blossomed trees or herbs, which yield no fruit, 
produce abundance of blossoms every year. 

129. The sexes consist of the stamens and pistils, of each of which there 
are one or several, and often a great many in every flower. The use of the 
stamens is to fertilise the rudimentary seeds which are contained in the 
germen, or lower part of the pistillum. Fertilisation is effected by the pollen 
of the anther applied to the stigma on the summit of the pistillum, hi conse- 
quence of which an embryo plant, or ovulum (100), is generated in the 
ovarium. In general the pistil of every flower is fertilised by pollen from the 
stamens of the same flower ; but it occasionally happens in nature by the 
action of bees or other insects, and in gardens by the instrumentality of man, 
that the stigma of the flower of one species is fertilised by the pollen of the 
flower of another species. The conditions of success are, for the most part, 
that the two species should, at least, belong to the same genus, and in this 
case the produce is said to be a hybrid. When it is effected by two varieties 
of the same species, the plants produced are said to be crossbreds. The 
latter generally produce fertile seed, but the former only sometimes. 

130. The fruit succeeds to the flower, the germen or base of the pistillum 
growing and increasing in size, after the floral envelopes and the stamens 
have decayed and dropped off. In some cases, the calyx is retained till the 
fruit is ripe, (but without increasing hi size,) when the fruit is said to be 
inferior ; as in the Apple, where the remains of the calyx form what is called 
the eye, in the upper part of the fruit : whereas in the Peach, and all supe- 
rior fruits, only the upper part of the pistillum is seen in that position. The 
superior fruit adheres to the shoot on which it grows by the base of the 
pistillum alone, while the inferior fruit adheres to it by the base of the entire 
flower. For this reason inferior fruits are supposed to be less likely to drop 
off in consequence of frost during the blossoming season, or other adverse 
causes, than superior fruits ; and hence, other circumstances being the same, 
a crop of Apples, of Pears, Quinces, Haws, Hips, Medlars, Currants, Goose- 
berries, Melons, and Cucumbers, ought to be more certain than a crop of 
Strawberries, Raspberries, Peaches, Plums, Apricots, Cherries, Grapes, or 
Figs. 

131. So long as the fruit is green, it possesses to a certain extent the phy- 
siological action of a leaf, and decomposes carbonic acid under the influence of 
light ; but as soon as it begins to ripen, this action ceases, and the fruit is 
wholly nourished by the sap elaborated by the leaves. Thus the fruit has, 
in common vrith the leaves, the power of elaborating sap, and also the power 
of attracting sap from the surrounding parts. Hence we see that where a 
number of fruits are growing together, one or more of them attract the sap 
or nutriment from all the rest, which in consequence drop off. As the food 
of the fruit is prepared by the leaves under the influence of solar light, it 
follows that the excellence of the fruit will depend chiefly on the excellence 
of the leaves ; and that if the latter are not sufficiently developed, or not duly 
exposed to the action of the sun's rays, or placed at too great a distance from 

D2 



36 FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS. 

the fruit, the latter will be diminutive iu size, and imperfectly ripened, or may 
drop off before attaining maturity. Hence the inferiority of fruits which 
grow on naked branches, or even on branches where there is not a leaf close 
to the fruit ; as in the case of a bunch of grapes, where the leaf immediately 
above it has been cut off, or in that of a gooseberry, where the leaf imme- 
diately above it has been eaten by a caterpillar. Hence it is evident that 
the secretions formed by the fruit are principally derived from the matter 
elaborated in the leaf or leaves next to it, and as the sap of all the leaves is 
more or less abundant, according to the supply received from the roots, the 
excellence of fruits depends ultimately on the condition of the roots, and the 
condition, position, and exposition of the leaves. As a proof that the fruit 
has a specific influence on the matter it contains, independently of the influ- 
ence of the leaves, we have only to taste the leaf of an apple or a peach, 
and compare it with the taste of the fruit. The sweetness of fruits under 
ordinary circumstances is increased by warmth and light, and acidity is 
increased by the opposite qualities. An abundant supply of water to plants 
ripening their fruits, diminishes the intensity both of sweetness and acidity, 
as well as of all other secretions ; and hence the advantage of withdrawing 
water from plants in forcing -houses, or from fruit-bearing plants generally, 
at the ripening season. 

132. The grand object of nature in producing fruit is to nourish the seed, 
and there appears to be no other intention with most fruits in a wild state ; 
but the art of man has, by enlarging and improving fruits by culture, ren- 
dered them in a superior degree suitable for his nourishment, without in 
general rendering them less fit for the nourishment of the seed. As, how- 
ever, in a wild state, the seeds of pulpy fruits must necessarily germinate in 
the decayed mass of pulp after the fruit is dropped and rotted on the surface 
of the ground, so in a state of high culture it has been recommended to 
bury the whole of the fruit, as of a peach for example, with the seed, when 
a young plant is intended to be produced. (Beaton.) As the fruit attracts 
its food from the stem through the fruit-stalk, so the seed attracts its nourish- 
ment from the interior part of the fruit ; and hence in all covered seeds, or 
what are commonly called fruits, the seed never can be separated from its 
envelope, without being destroyed, till it is perfectly ripe. Seeds in a 
young state are found to be of a mucilaginous consistency, like gum ; but 
as they ripen, more carbon is deposited, and the gummy mucilaginous sub- 
stance assumes the condition of flour or starch, which ultimately becomes 
nearly as hard as wood. This is a wise provision of nature for the preser- 
vation of the seed. In the immature or mucilaginous state of the seed, heat 
and moisture easily decompose it, and consequently unripe seeds do not keep 
well ; though when seeds are sown, it is necessary, before they germinate, 
that their solid part should be again decomposed and made soluble. Hence 
well -ripened seeds are so much more easily preserved than those which are 
imperfectly ripened ; and hence also the reason why unripe seeds, provided 
only their embryo be perfected, will germinate more quickly than ripe seeds; 
the starch of the ripe seed having to be again reduced to mucilage, before it 
can become soluble food. (Lymburn.} All seeds, when ripe, are dry and firm, 
and they retain their vitality a greater or lesser length of time according to 
their natures. In general oily seeds are the most perishable, and starchy seeds 
the most tenacious of life. There are, however, exceptions in the case of 
oily seeds, as in the common Cabbage, the seeds of which will retain their 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OP PLANTS. 37 

vitality for ten or twelve years. Melon and Cucumber seeds, which are 
mucilaginous, may be kept for thirty or forty years; Kidney Beans for nearly 
a century ; but not Scarlet Runners, which will not keep above two years ; 
a remarkable circumstance, since the two species are so nearly allied as to 
be considered by some to be only varieties. The seeds of many Leguminosse, 
and particularly those of warm climates, where their carbon is concentrated 
to the hardness even of wood, as in the Australian Acacias, w r ill keep an 
unknown period ; as a proof of which, all France continues to be supplied 
with seeds of the common Sensitive Plant from a bag which was sent to 
Paris, we believe, above sixty years ago. In general the younger and 
more vigorous the seed, the stronger will be the plant produced, and 
the contrary. Hence when it is wished to have plants of a vigorous- 
growing species, of more concentrated growth than usual, seeds weaker 
from being smaller and less abundantly nourished, or from being dried 
by long keeping, are . chosen ; and when very vigorous plants are desired, 
the largest and freshest seeds are selected. Thus in the case of plants pro- 
ducing their flowers in corymbs, the seed is chosen from the summit of the 
corymb, as the first flowers open there, which, as well as the seeds which 
follow them, are always the largest. In general the first-formed flowers of 
all plants are the strongest, and the seeds produced by them the largest and 
most vigorous of growth. 

133. In this section there is necessarily some repetitions of facts stated in 
preceding parts of this chapter ; but it became necessary to do so in order to 
connect the process of development with structure. The reader who is de- 
sirous of studying the subject more in detail is recommended to consult 
Lindley's Principles of Horticulture, and Lymburn, Beaton, and Niven, in 
the Gardener s Magazine ; from which source, and our own observation and 
experience, this section has been chiefly compiled. 

SECT. VI. The Geographical Distribution of Plants^ and their stations and 
habitations., with reference to their Culture in Gardens. 

134. By the geography of a plant is to be understood the latitude and 
longitude in which it abounds in a wild state ; by its station or " habitat," 
the particular soil or situation in which it is found ; and by its habitation, 
the particular range of country to which it is limited. In a general view, 
the vegetation of the globe is distributed over its surface, varied according 
to its latitude, its inequalities of elevation, and its differences in regard to 
soils and moisture. The subject is of great importance to gardeners, because 
the culture of all plants must necessarily be more or less founded on a know- 
ledge of the climate and station in which they are found wild. In the 
natural distribution of plants on the earth's surface, the different species 
are found only in particular situations, which they prefer to others. Some 
prefer exposure to the full influence of the light and air ; others the shade 
of rocks or of trees ; some grow on mountains, some in plains, some in bogs 
or marshes, some on the banks of rivers ; some in the running water of 
rivers, others in the still water of lakes ; some in salt marshes, and others 
in the sea. Each of these different localities, in any one country, is charac- 
terised by a difference in physical circumstances ; such as more or less 
elevation above the level of the sea ; a greater or less exposure to light ; a 
soil more or less compact in texture ; abounding more or less in water ; or 
composed of particular earths. All this is independent of temperature, 



38 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. 

which varies with the latitude and the elevation in which plants grow, and 
considerably also with the nature of the soil, its condition with respect to 
water, and its exposure and shelter. The degree of temperature required by 
different plants varies exceedingly from that of the cold regions of the 
frigid zone, through the temperate regions of both hemispheres, to the torrid 
zone. For the culture of the first description of plants, a shady situation, 
and a soil kept constantly moist, in order that it may be kept continually 
cool by evaporation, constitutes the artificial or garden station ; while to pro- 
duce a garden station for plants of the warmer regions the various kinds of 
artificial climates produced in plant houses are necessary. Hence the great 
importance to cultivators of a knowledge of the natural stations of the plants 
they cultivate, as well as of the structure and functions of plants generally. 
It will, therefore, be useful to notice briefly the external circumstances 
which influence the natural distribution of plants ; and these may be reduced 
to temperature, light, water, soil, and the atmosphere. 

135. Temperature has by far the most important influence on the distri- 
bution of plants ; because it would appear, that each species is so constituted 
as to thrive only within certain limits of heat and cold, and that any excess 
beyond these limits is injurious to it. Hence the geographical boundary of 
any species is restricted by the extremes of temperature which the plant 
will bear, and yet bring its seeds to maturity. 

136. The temperature of any place depends principally upon its latitude, 
and its elevation above the sea. From the poles to the equator, the temper- 
ature gradually increases ; and measuring from the level of the sea into the air, 
the heat gradually decreases, till we arrive at a point, which is to be found 
on the mountains of all countries, where water exists only in a state of ice 
or snow. Hence, in forming an estimate of the temperature of any place, 
the latitude of that place, and its elevation above the sea, are to be jointly 
considered. From actual experiment, in the neighbourhood of London, by 
Green the aeronaut, it has been found that when the air was 74 at the 
surface of the earth, at an elevation of about 3000 feet, it was 70 ; at 
10,000 feet, 69; and at 11,293 feet, 38. The difference in time between 
making the first observation and the last was about 27'. According to De 
Candolle, heat decreases in France at the rate of one degree of latitude for 
every 540 feet of altitude ; so that the temperature of a place 3240 feet 
above the level of the sea in 45 N. lat. equals that of a place in about 51 ft 
N. lat. on a level with the sea. In the middle of the temperate zone, 
Humboldt found that the mean heat of the year diminished at the rate of 
2 N. lat. for every 600 feet of altitude. From the powerful influence on 
temperature produced by elevation, arises the great variety of plants which 
are found between the base of a mountain and its summit ; though there are 
a vast number of plants in all countries that will grow indifferently on 
plains and on mountains as high up as plants will vegetate. There are 
a few plants, however, that have their range of elevation and of latitude 
comparatively limited ; as, for example, the Sweet Chestnut, the Olive, the 
Mulberry, and the Fig. 

137. According to Humboldt, the geographical parallels of latitude do not 
indicate corresponding degrees of heat either in the old and new world, or in 
the northern and southern hemispheres. In the former, heat diminishes 
more rapidly as we recede from the equator ; and in the latter beyond the 
parallel of 34, corresponding latitudes indicate a greater degree of cold in 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. 



39 



summer, but of warmth in winter. Hence, Humboldt arrives at this con- 
clusion : " That the lines of equal mean heat, which may be called isothermal, 
are not parallel with the equator, but intersect the geographical parallels at 
a variable angle." The mean annual heat of the same latitudes, in the new 
and old worlds, are shown in the following table : 



Latitude. 


Mean heat of the Year in the 
Old World. New World. 


Difference. 





80 


80o 


GO 


20 


77 


77 





30 


70 


67 


3 


40 


63 


54 


9 


50 


50 


38 


12 


60 


40 


24 


16 



Thus it is found that the old world is warmer than the new, and that the 
heat of America does not decrease from Florida to the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
iu the same ratio that it does in Europe from Egypt to Scandinavia. In 
general, the summer temperature of North America, as far as 40 N. lat., 
is about 4 higher than in Europe, under the same isothermal parallel ; 
which accounts for Magnolias, Rhododendrons, Anonas, and other trees 
extending so far to the north as latitude 36, where the summer heat scarcely 
differs from the mean annual heat of the equator. 

138. A certain degree of difference is sometimes found in the vegetation 
of a country according to its longitude ; but as this is occasioned almost 
entirely by the nature of the face of the country, or its situation relatively 
to the ocean, longitude by itself cannot be considered as having any influence 
whatever either upon temperature or vegetation. 

139. The mean heat of any situation does not enable us to judge of what 
particular species of plants will live there ; for the mean temperature found 
may be deduced from such extremes of heat and cold as would suit but few 
plants, as in the case of certain northern regions ; or it may be made up 
from moderate limits in which many plants will live ; as, for example, from 
the summers and winters of Ireland, or of the sea-coast of the middle of 
Europe. Thus the constitution of a plant which may be very well suited 
to the mean temperature of a place, may not be adapted to its extreme dif- 
ferences. Hence many plants which will live in the open air at Belfast, 
would perish in the winters of Edinburgh ; and many which would live there, 
owing to the dryness of the air, and the moderate degree of cold from the prox- 
imity of the sea, would perish in Yorkshire, where the air is not only more 
highly charged with moisture, but much colder. Hence the mean annual 
temperature of any place is of much less consequence with respect to the 
stations of plants, than the mean monthly temperature, and the extremes of 
each month. In general, " the western parts of continents are more nearly 
equable in their temperature throughout the year than the eastern, and the 
southern hemisphere than the northern ; and evergreens are found to affect 
the former, and deciduous trees the latter description of climate." (Henslow.) 
In all those parts of the world where the sea never freezes, the temperature 
is higher, and much more equable than the temperature of inland situations 
in the same degree of latitude ; and hence plants which mature their fruit 
or ripen their wood at Edinburgh in the open air, require protection at 



40 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OP PLANTS. 

Warsaw and Moscow, though these cities are nearly in the same parallel 
of latitude as Edinburgh. 

140. Among the physical circumstances which affect the distribution of 
plants, the temperature of water merits notice. In many parts of the northern 
regions, water exists during great part of the year in the form of ice ; and 
hence, as it cannot be imbibed in that state by the roots, no plants can live 
in such regions, excepting those lowest in the scale, such as lichens, &c. ; or 
such annuals as flower and ripen their seeds during the summer of those 
regions, though it does not extend longer than two or three months. Hence 
barley and other corns can be ripened in the north of Sweden and Russia, 
where no perennial or ligneous plants, equally tender, could live throughout 
the year. In countries which are early in autumn covered with snow, many 
herbaceous plants will live through the winter that could not exist without 
this covering, which serves as an excellent non-conductor of heat. The 
bark of trees is also a bad conductor ; and as the roots of trees penetrate 
much deeper into the soil than frost, and as a slow circulation is carried on 
in their trunks and branches throughout the whole winter, the sap they 
contain is prevented from being frozen by the heat they obtain from the 
subsoil. " The internal parts of large trees retain a temperature which is 
about equal to that of the subsoil at one-half the depth of their roots." 
(Henslow.) Whenever the sap in the vessels of a plant freezes, they become 
ruptured and the plant dies ; and were it not for the supply of heat obtained 
from the subsoil by the trees, and the protection of herbaceous plants by the 
covering of snow, there could be neither trees nor perennial herbs in the 
more northern regions of our hemisphere. 

141. Supposing the temperature of the subsoil and of the trees growing 
on the surface to be the same, then in high latitudes that temperature will be 
higher than the atmosphere during winter ; and in low latitudes where the 
atmosphere is of a high temperature, that of the trees will be lower during 
summer ; for the bark, which by its non-conducting properties retains heat in 
high latitudes, excludes it in low latitudes from penetrating into the wood of 
the tree. Von Buch found that the temperature of the subsoil is principally 
affected by the infiltration into it of the surface waters ; and hence, in the 
frigid zones where the surface is in a state of ice or snow during winter, no 
infiltration can take place ; and thus the mean heat of the subsoil in high 
latitudes will be higher than the mean heat of the atmosphere. In those 
latitudes, however, where the surface water seldom freezes, the infiltration 
will continue during great part of the winter, and will reduce the mean 
temperature of the subsoil below the mean temperature of the atmosphere. 
In those countries in low latitudes where rain falls during the coolest 
season of the year, the subsoil will be more cooled than in those places where 
it falls both in hot and cold weather. " Hence the mean temperature of 
springs throughout the central and northern parts of Europe, as far as Edin- 
burgh, are much the same as the mean temperature of the air ; whilst from 
the south of Europe to the tropic of Cancer, the difference is gradually in- 
creasing in favour of the atmosphere ; but from the latitude of Edinburgh 
northwards, the difference increases in favour of the subsoil. The conse- 
quence is, that certain plants which naturally belong to the more temperate 
parts of our zone, are enabled to extend themselves further north and south 
than they could do if the mean temperature of the soil and air were every- 
where the same." (Henslow.) 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. 41 

142. The temperature of the natural stations of plants is always such as 
to enable the species to continue itself by seeds ; but as, in a state of culture, 
plants can be propagated by various modes which do not require the pro- 
duction of either flowers or fruits, it follows that in any given natural 
station a great many plants may be cultivated by art, which could not 
exist there in a state of nature ; and which, if introduced by art, and not 
continued by the same power, would perish with the life of the individual. 
Hence the immense number of species, from all parts of the globe, which 
will grow in the open air in Great Britain, and which, if the island were to 
relapse into a state of barbarism, would for the most part disappear. Hence, 
also, by the artificial climates of our plant structures, we can grow and 
propagate all the plants of the world, though there are many that for want 
of space cannot attain their natural magnitude in such structures. The 
mere fact, however, of our being able to grow tropical plants in air arti- 
ficially heated, shows that temperature has a greater influence on vegetation 
than any other element of growth. 

143. The influence of light on the distribution of plants is very consider- 
able. As heat and moisture are the chief agents in calling the vegetable 
germ into existence, so, the plant once developed, light is the grand sti- 
mulator of vitality ; causing, by its influence on buds and leaves, the ab- 
sorption of the sap by the roots, and the exhalation of water and decompo- 
sition of carbonic acid by the leaves. It is probable, as Professor Henslow 
conjectures, that each species requires a different degree of light as well as 
of heat ; and though no general laws have yet been discovered on this sub- 
ject, we find that succulent, resinous, or oily plants, and all plants with 
needle leaves, prefer situations where they can obtain much light ; while 
almost all evergreens, except such as are needle-leaved, prefer situations 
somewhat shaded. As the density of air is diminished as we ascend in 
the atmosphere, so the intensity of light is increased ; and it has been sup- 
posed that as high elevations correspond with high latitudes in regard to 
heat, they ought to correspond also in regard to light ; though this has not, 
as far as we know, been determined by facts. But it is clear, from what 
has been stated, that in any given latitude the plants which grow on plains 
receive less light than those on mountains ; and that the two extremes, in 
any country, are the sea- shore and the line of perpetual snow. The mean 
distribution of light is unquestionably much more equable in all latitudes 
than the mean distribution of temperature ; but the extremes, in its mode 
of distribution, are remarkably different. Plants in the northern regions 
generally are covered with snow more than half the year ; and those which 
reach above the snow, such as the trees, have perpetual sunshine for 
several weeks together during summer, and the absence of the sun for a 
similar period during winter. In all countries where snow falls, and rests 
on the country for some weeks or months, the mean degree of light received 
by herbaceous plants, such as the pasture grasses, must be considerably dif- 
ferent from the mean light received by the same species hi climates where 
snow is unknown ; but as in all cases in which light is so entirely excluded 
from plants in a natural state, vegetation is dormant, or nearly so, plants 
escape uninjured. From these facts, some valuable deductions may be 
drawn as to the light which plants require, or may dispense with, in a state 
of culture. 

144. The influence of water, whether in the soil or in the atmosphere, on 



42 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. 

the distribution of plants, if not so great as that of temperature, is in some 
cases more striking. In general, plants are as differently constituted in re- 
spect to water as they are in regard to temperature. The quantity of water 
absolutely necessary for the nourishment of a plant varies according to its 
tissue. Plants with large and soft leaves, with little or no pubescence, with 
many pores or stomata, and with the texture of the entire plant loose and 
spongy, require most water ; and accordingly this is the description of plants 
which is found hi marshes, and in lakes or rivers. Plants having their 
general texture firm and succulent, clothed with pubescence, and having few 
stomata, grow in dry warm stations. Trees and herbaceous plants, with 
roots which penetrate into the soil, require least water on the surface, and 
best resist extreme drought ; and next to these, those that have succulent 
leaves and few stomata, because they evaporate but little moisture from 
their surface. Some plants live entirely on water, floating on its surface ; 
and others immersed in it, and attached to the soil at the bottom of the lake 
or river : in some, as in river -plants, the water is constantly in a state of 
motion ; while in lake-plants it is always at rest, except on the surface. In 
general, all aquatic and marsh plants require the water to be pure ; but in 
salt marshes, salt steppes, and on the sea-shore, it is strongly impregnated 
with sea-salt or soda, in which only a small number of vegetables will live. 

145. The influence of soil on the distribution of plants is universally ac- 
knowledged ; though the difference in the selection of soils by plants depends 
much more on the condition of that soil with respect to water, than on its 
chemical properties. By soil, is to be understood that upper coating of the 
earth's surface, composed of earths or the rust of rocks, and organic matters; 
and the capacity of this coating for water will depend on the elevation or de- 
pression of its surface, on its texture, and on the nature and texture of the sub- 
soil. The relative proportions of the primitive earths do not appear to have 
much influence on the (distribution of plants; but when a soil has any decided 
character, such as when it consists almost wholly of sand, of chalk, or of 
clay, the influence is considerable. In general, the greatest number of species 
are commonly found on soils having a loose sandy surface ; because their 
seeds being blown there, or otherwise conveyed, from the plants on ad- 
joining soils, readily take root ; whereas on chalky and clayey soils, from 
their greater hardness, and also from their surface being generally more 
clothed, the seeds which fall on them do not so readily vegetate. Many of 
the plants which spring up in sandy districts perish for want of moisture, 
or are blown out by the winds ; but they are nevertheless continually re- 
newed by the seeds furnished from adjoining surfaces. Those which are 
indigenous to gravelly soils, much exposed, are chiefly low, compact, or trail- 
ing plants, which offer but a small surface for the wind to act on, or such 
as have deeply-penetrating roots. Chalky and clayey soils, on the other hand, 
from their firm, compact texture, are adapted only to such species as have 
small fibrous roots, and which do not require any great depth of soil. 

146. A few plants appear to prefer the soils formed by particular rocks, 
such as limestone, chalk, granite, and slate; yet the same plants which 
prevail on these rocks are frequently found abounding in districts of a 
totally different geological character. Thus according to De Candolle, 
although the box in France is very common on calcareous surfaces, it is 
found in equal abundance on such as are schistous or granitic. The sweet 
chestnut grows equally well in limestone soils and clays, in the volcanic 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. 43 

ashes of Mtna,, and in the sand of Calabria. The plants of Aira, a calca- 
reous mountain, grow equally well on the argillaceous rocks of the Vosges, 
or the granitic Alps. But though the kinds of earths in which plants 
grow naturally, seem of no great importance, yet the presence of metallic 
oxides and salts, such as sulphate of iron or copper, or sulphur alone, or 
alum, or other similar substances hi a state to be soluble hi water, are found 
to be injurious to all plants, of which the maremmes of Tuscany, and some 
parts of Derbyshire, are examples. As a general result of the facts which 
have been collected relative to the influence of soil on the distribution of 
plants, it may be stated that the chemistry and the geology of soils have 
much less influence on plants than their temperature, moisture, and texture; 
and that it is often a very bad method of culture to imitate exactly the soil 
in which a plant is found growing. 

147. The influence of the atmosphere, considered with reference to its 
chemical composition, and the gaseous matters which may be suspended hi 
it, or its motion as wind on the distribution of plants, is not supposed to be 
great ; or at all events, that influence is not yet so far understood as to be 
reduced to any general law. Its difference of density at different elevations, 
produces, as we have seen, a corresponding increase in the intensity of light, 
and it is also found that humidity decreases as we ascend. This last result 
must be attended with some effects on plants ; but as the ratio of the de- 
crease of humidity has not been determined, its effects, separated from those 
of temperature and light, are not sufficiently understood. De Candolle 
remarks, that the rarification of the atmosphere by elevation may diminish 
the quantity of oxygen for absorption by the leaves, and may at the same 
time facilitate evaporation; but the precise result of these conditions is 
unknown. 

148. The following are the principal stations of plants which require to 
be known by the cultivator, and all of which he can imitate by art. 

1. Marine plants, which grow in or on the surface of the sea, and which, 
though practicable, it has rarely been attempted to cultivate by art. 

2. Maritime districts, as the sea-shore, where the soil is more or less 
impregnated with salt, which must be absorbed by the roots of plants, while 
those parts which are above gronnd must be affected by the spray and sea- 
breezes. Some are absolute sea-shore plants, such as salicornia, but others 
grow equally well on the sea-shore and in inland situations, as the Eryngium 
campestre and the common Thrift. 

3. Saline steppes, where the soil is impregnated with salt, but where the 
foliage is not influenced by a saline atmosphere. 

4. Aquatic plants, or such as grow in fresh-water rivers and lakes, either 
immersed and rooted in the soil forming the bottom on which the water 
rests, or floating on the surface and sending down roots so as to touch the 
soil ; in some eases scarcely doing so, as in Lemna. This kind of habitation 
is imitated by artificial ponds or currents, or by basins in which the surface 
of the water is kept in motion by jets or fountains. 

5. Marshes, bogs, and fens, easily imitated by suitable soil kept constantly 
saturated with water. 

6. Meadows and pastures, the plants inhabiting which may generally be 
cultivated in common soils and situations. 

7. Cultivated lands, of which the same may be said. 

8. Rocks, which are chiefly the habitations of cryptogamic plants, and 



44 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. 

which, in artificial culture, require the rock or stones for some species to be 
kept dry, and in others to be kept moist by artificial springs of water. 

9. Sandy soils, in inland situations, dry or moist, which are easily imitated, 
and in which a greater or less number of plants will grow according to the 
supply of water. Bulbous plants are particularly adapted for such soils, 
because they are driest in summer when the bulb is at rest. When dry, 
sandy soils are warmer than any others. 

10. Forests, copses, and hedges, the plants of which include trees and 
shrubs, deciduous or evergreen, and the plants which grow in their shade. 
Among these are some few which grow under the constant shade of ever- 
green trees, as the Pyrola in Pine-groves, and others which require light in 
winter and spring, and are found growing only under deciduous trees, as the 
common Scilla nutans and many bulbs, the Cowslip, and various other 
plants found under the shelter of hedges. Climbing and twining plants 
are commonly found in stations of this description. 

11. Mountainous or Alpine regions, the plants of which include such as 
grow on mountains of moderate height, which are clothed with vegetation to 
their summits, and are consequently subject to greater drought in summer 
than in winter ; and those which grow on mountains, the summits of which 
are covered with perpetual snow, which, from its melting partially in summer, 
keeps the surface -soil of the mountain moister at that season than during 
winter. It is evident, however, that much must depend on the soil of the 
mountain ; for a peaty or clayey soil will be kept in a state of greater mois- 
ture than one which is composed chiefly of sand, and a deep soil will 
retain more moisture than a thin stratum on rock. In the culture of moun- 
tain plants, therefore, the particular kind of soil in which they are found 
naturally, and its condition with regard to moisture, are of much greater 
importance than its elevation. In short, it is found that the mountain 
plants of the Highlands of Scotland may, with scarcely any exceptions, be 
cultivated with success in the botanic gardens of Edinburgh arid Glasgow, 
which are on a level with the sea. 

12. Subterranean stations are either dark caverns where some species of 
acrogens are found, or, as in the case of the truffle, the interior of the soil 
itself. The culture of the truffle is still a desideratum in horticulture. 

] 3. Living or dead trees or other plants constitute a station. Parasitic 
plants, such as the Mistletoe and the Dodder, root into the stems of living 
trees, and their dissemination can be effected by art as well as by nature. 
Epiphytes or pseudo-parasites grow either upon dead or living vegetables, 
but without deriving any nourishment from their vital parts. Of these, 
we have in Britain the common Polypody, a fern found on the rough bark 
of old trees, especially Oaks in moist climates, as about the lakes of Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland ; and on old Pollards in many situations. There 
are also numerous mosses, lichens, and fungi, which live on the outer bark of 
old trees in temperate regions, and an immense number of Orchidaceae 
which have their stations on trees in tropical climates ; and the culture of 
which in British stoves has recently called forth an extraordinary degree of 
ingenuity among gardeners. 

149. To these stations botanists have added some others ; such as the rub- 
bish near human dwellings, which is supposed to have an attraction for certain 
plants from containing nitrogen ; roadsides, &c. : but with a view to culture, 
these and several which have been mentioned, are of no great importance. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OP PLANTS. 45 

Some stations, on the other hand, are absolute ; such as maritime, marine, 
aquatic, marsh, subterranean, and parasitic, and cannot be dispensed with in 
our attempts at cultivation. 

150. " The habitations of plants" is an expression used to denote the 
range of country throughout which any particular species is found distri- 
buted ; the stations being those soils or situations in that country in which 
alone, or chiefly, the plant is found. (134). For example, a plant may 
be an inhabitant of mountains, and its station on these mountains may be 
a peat -bog. The habitations of plants are much less certain than their 
stations ; for the limits in latitude and longitude within which plants occur, 
have little relation to those in which, judging from the stations and climate 
in which they are found, they might extend themselves. Thus we have 
certain species growing in a particular station and temperature in the 
northern hemisphere, which are not to be found in stations and temperatures 
of exactly the same kind in the southern hemispheres. On the other hand, 
there are some species, such as certain grasses, which are found extensively 
distributed on both hemispheres ; while some few plants, such as the Stre- 
litzia, have their habitations so limited as to be found only in one or two 
stations of very confined extent. Plants of this kind are called solitary, while 
those which grow in immense masses are said to be social. Those which 
have been long in cultivation are said to be domesticated ; but this term is 
not applied to such plants as have been introduced into gardens without 
undergoing any change in their habits there. 



CHAPTER II. 

SOILS CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 

151. IN the last section of the preceding chapter we have seen, that 
though plants are less absolute in the choice of soils than of climates, yet 
that in the cultivation of plants, soils are much more under our influence 
than any other element of culture. The term soil is applied to that thin 
stratum on the surface of the ground which is occupied by the roots of the 
smaller herbaceous vegetables ; on uncultivated surfaces it varies in depth 
with the nature of the soil and the plants growing on it ; but on lands in 
cultivation, the soil extends to the depth usually penetrated by the imple- 
ments of culture. The principal materials of which soils are composed, are 
earths formed of the debris of different kinds of rocks, combined with organic 
matter derived from decomposed vegetables or animals. Earths without 
organic matter will only support plants of the lowest grade, such as lichens 
and mosses; and where soils are found supporting the higher classes of 
plants, endogens and exogens, their vigour will generally be found to be 
greater or less according to the proportion of organic matter which the soil 
contains. This organic matter, when supplied by art, is called manure, and 
constitutes the food of plants ; while the soil may be compared to a stomach, 
in which that food is digested. The subject of manures will be most conve- 
niently treated in our next chapter. Here we shall confine ourselves to the 
consideration of soils, and treat, first, of their origin and kinds, and secondly, 
of their improvement. 



46 ORIGIN AND KINDS OP SOILS. 

SECT. I. Origin and Kinds of Soils. 

152. The earthy part of all soils must necessarily have been derived from 
the debris of rocks, and the organic part from the intermixture of decayed 
vegetable or animal matter. The earthy mass so produced varies in colour, 
but, from containing humus and mould, (161) it is always darker in a greater 
or less degree than subsoils, which hi general are without organic matter. 
Soils also contain mineral salts and metallic oxides, some of which are bene- 
ficial, others harmless, and some few injurious, to plants. The chemical 
constitution of a soil can only be known by analysis, which cannot, in gene- 
ral, be depended on, unless performed by professional or experienced che- 
mists * ; the mechanical state or texture of a soil is ascertained by digging 
up a portion of it ; and its actual fitness for plants, by examining the species 
growing on its surface. The rock or geological formation, the earth of which 
forms the basis of any soil, will frequently be found to constitute the substra- 
tum on which that soil rests ; but this is frequently not the case, because the 
earths of many soils have been held in suspension by water in a state of motion, 
and by that means have been transported to a great distance from the rocks of 
which they are the debris. From this suspension of the earths of soils in 
water, and their transportation to a distance, we are able to account for the 
circumstance of several different kinds of earths being almost always found 
in the same soil. Thus in alluvial deposits, on the banks of rivers, we find 
the earth of various rocks of the country through which the river has taken 
its course ; and as such soils are always the most fertile, we may conclude 
that a mixture of various earths in a soil is to be preferred to any one kind 
of earth alone. From the earth of the alluvial deposits of every country 
being formed of the debris of the various rocks of that country, and from 
every country containing nearly the same kinds of rocks, hence the alluvial 
deposits on the banks of all the larger rivers of the world consist nearly of 
the same earths. But as the rocks or geological formations from which 
the earths of soils are washed away still remain in their places, and are of 
many different kinds, it follows that there must be as great a variety in the 
upland soils of a country as there is uniformity in those of the lowlands, 
and of the banks of rivers. Thus there are between twenty and thirty 
geological formations in England, which form the substratum or bases of 
soils, and each of which must consequently be more or less different in its 
composition. t For all practical purposes, however, soils may be charac- 
terised by their prevailing primitive earths; and hence, they are reduced 
to sands and gravels, clays, chalky and limestone soils, alluvial soils, and 
peat-bogs. 

153. Sandy Soil. Silica, which is the basis of sandy soils, is, perhaps, the 
most universal of all earths ; and there is scarcely a species or variety of 
rock in which it does not abound more or less. Silica is found perfectly 
pure in rock crystal, and tolerably so in what is called silver sand, and 
also in the sand of some rivers and of the sea. The practical test of the 
earth, when tolerably pure, is, that when moistened it cannot be formed into 

* At the Museum of Economic Geology, attached to the board of Woods and Forests, 
Craig's-court, Charing Cross, London, an analysis of a pound of soil, sent from any part of 
the country, -will he made by Mr. Richard Phillips, one of the best analytical chemists in 
Europe, for a fee of about 20s. 

t See Morton on Soils. 2d edit. 12mo. 1840. 



ORIGIN AND KINDS OP SOILS. 47 

a plastic mass, or consolidated by pressure, whether in a moist or dry state, 
so as to form a compact solid body. Hence all sandy soils are loose, never 
present a firm surface, and are never covered with a compact clothing of 
grass or other herbaceous plants. Such soils, from being without cohesion, 
are incapable of retaining moisture ; and as they are readily permeable by 
both moisture and air, they powerfully promote the putrefaction of organic 
matter, whilst they as readily permit it to be washed away from them by 
rains, or to escape in the form of gas. Hence, in manuring sandy soils no 
more should be applied at once than what can be consumed by the crop of 
the current year ; and hence, also, they should be cultivated to a greater 
depth than other soils, in order that there may be a greater mass of material 
for retaining moisture. One great advantage of a sandy soil over all others 
is its natural warmth. This arises from its greater looseness and porosity, 
in consequence of which the atmosphere penetrates into it more rapidly, and 
to a greater depth, than in the case of any other soil. Hence, in the absence 
of sunshine, a sandy soil will be raised to the temperature of the atmosphere, 
to the depth of several inches, by the mere penetration of the air among its 
particles ; while a firm compact soil, the earthy basis of which is clay or 
chalk, could not be heated to the same depth without the direct influence of 
the sun's rays. Sandy soils are also more easily penetrated by water than 
any others, and hence they are sooner raised or lowered to the temperature 
of the rains which fall on them than a clayey or calcareous soil. As the 
water never rests on sandy soils, they are never cooled down by evaporation ; 
the reverse of which is the case with clayey and calcareous surfaces. Sandy 
soils being much less cohesive than soils in which clay or lime prevails, they 
are much more easily laboured ; and being always loose and friable on the 
surface, they are better adapted for the germination of seeds. Sandy soils 
may be made to approach alluvial soils by the addition of clay and calcareous 
earth, either taken from clayey or calcareous surfaces, or from subsoils in 
which these earths abound ; but the former source is greatly preferable, from 
the earths being already in combination with organic matter. * 

154. Whatever has been said of sandy soils is applicable to gravelly soils ; 
in some particulars in a greater, and in some in a lesser degree. The small 
stones of which the greater part of gravel consists, being better conductors of 
heat than the particles of sand, it follows that gravels are both easier heated 
and easier cooled than sands ; they are also more readily penetrated by rain, 
and more readily dried by filtration and evaporation. Like sands, they are 
improved by the addition of clay and chalk, or by alluvial soil ; and they 
require also to be cultivated to a greater depth than clays or chalks. A gra- 
velly soil isolated so as not to be supplied with water from higher grounds, is 
of all others the most suitable for a suburban villa (Sub. Arch, and Land- 
scape Gard. p. 16) ; and therefore, though not so suitable for a kitchen-garden 
as a sandy or loamy soil, yet as a sufficient portion of soil, whatever may be 
its earths, may always be improved so as to render it fit for the cultivation 
of vegetables, a gravelly or sandy soil for building on should never be rejected. 

155. Clayey Soil. Alumina, which is the basis of clayey soil, is the most 
frequent of earths next to sand. It is found nearly pure in the ruby and 
sapphire ; tolerably so in the blue or London clay, but more so in the white 
plastic clay, which is found between the London clay and the upper chalk, 
and which is used for making tobacco-pipes. This soil relatively to water is 
the very reverse of sand ; for while in nature, sand and water are never found 



48 ORIGIN AND KINDS OF SOILS. 

chemically combined, in clay they are never found chemically separate. 
Hence, though clay when prepared by the chemist, and kept apart from 
water, appears as a light dry powder, scarcely different to the eye from pure 
sand or pure lime, yet in soils it forma an adhesive mass, the particles of 
which cannot be permanently separated excepting by burning to expel the 
water held in fixation. When clay is burnt and reduced to powder, it be- 
comes for all practical purposes sand, and in that state it may be employed 
to great advantage for reducing the cohesive properties of stiff clay. Rela- 
tively to heat, clays do not admit the atmosphere between their particles, 
and an unimproved clayey soil is generally a cold one partly because the 
heat penetrates with difficulty into it, and partly from the evaporation which 
during great part of the year is going on from its moist surface. The obvious 
improvement of clays is by the addition of sand or gravel ; and when the 
clay does not contain lime, by the addition of that material, either in a caustic 
or mild state, or as chalk. 

156. Lime, or the basis of chalk and limestone rock, is much less common 
as a soil than either clay or sand ; though there are scarcely any soils which 
are naturally fertile that are absolutely without it. Lime is found in a state 
of carbonate in white or statuary marble, and more or less so in chalk-rock ; 
and in some limestone-roclis. Lime is never found pure in a state of nature, 
but always combined with carbonic acid and water, which are driven off from 
it by burning, leaving the earth in the caustic state called quicklime. In this 
state lime rapidly reabsorbs water and carbonic acid from the atmosphere, 
or from any other material which comes in contact with it containing these 
elements. Hence its use in a caustic state in promoting the putrefaction of 
imperfectly decomposed organic matter in soils, and in attracting carbonic 
acid and moisture from the atmosphere. Relatively to the retention of water, 
a limey or chalky soil may be considered as intermediate between a sandy 
and a clayey soil, without becoming so tenacious as clay on the one hand, or 
parting with water so readily as sand on the other. Hence the use of lime 
or chalk in reducing the tenacity of stiff clays, and increasing the absorbent 
powers of sandy soils, and improving their texture. A calcareous soil is im- 
proved by sand and clay, especially if laid on in sufficient quantity to destroy 
the tenacity and compactness of its texture. 

157. Magnesia, for all practical purposes, may be considered as lime ; 
it is not very common in soils, and though it is said to be inimical to vege- 
tation under some circumstances, yet this appears very doubtful. 

158. The iron of soils is mostly found in a state of rust, or oxide. There 
is scarcely any soil without it ; but it is never very abundant in soils naturally 
fertile. In a dry state the oxide of iron is insoluble in water, and not inju- 
rious to vegetation ; but when in consequence of saline substances in the soil, 
or applied to it, a salt of iron is produced, the iron becomes soluble in water, 
is taken up by the roots of plants, and is very injurious to them. Iron in this 
state is termed hydrate, and its evil effects are to be counteracted by caustic 
lime, with W 7 hich it forms an insoluble compound. 

159. Alluvial soils have been already described as composed of very fine 
particles of the debris of several kinds of rocks, which have been held in sus- 
pension by water, and deposited in plains, or along the banks of rivers, along 
with organic matter also held in suspension. The earthy character of this 
soil must necessarily always partake of the character of the rocks of the 
country in which it is found. 



WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 49 

ICO. Peat or bog is composed of partially decayed vegetable matter, soft, 
light, and spongy to the touch ; and the very reverse of sand with respect to 
water, holding that element like a sponge, so as, in its natural state, to he 
totally unfit for the growth of vegetables, except those of the lowest grade. 

161. The organic matter in soils in its solid state may be considered as 
carbon, which is found pure in the diamond, and tolerably so in the charcoal 
of wood. In soils it is found in various states of decomposition, from recent 
woody fibre to humus, which is woody fibre in a state of decay. The 
proportion of organic matter varies exceedingly in different soils. In ban-en 
sands there is scarcely a trace of it, while in fertile soils it varies from 10 to 
SO per cent. ; and peat-bogs which have been drained and cultivated contain 
often 80 or 90 per cent. Humus, according to Professor Liebig, exercises 
its influence on vegetation u by being a continued source of carbonic acid, 
which it emits slowly. An atmosphere of carbonic acid, formed at the 
expense of the oxygen of the air, surrounds every particle of decaying 
humus. The cultivation of land, by stirring and loosening the soil, causes 
a free and unobstructed access of air. An atmosphere of carbonic acid is, 
therefore, contained in every fertile soil, and is the first and most important 
food for the young plants which grow in it. The property of humus, or 
woody fibre, to convert surrounding oxygen gas into carbonic acid, diminishes 
in proportion as its decay advances ; and at last a certain quantity of a brown 
coaly-looking substance remains, in which this property is entirely wanting. 
This substance is called mould (152) ; it is the product of the complete decay 
of woody fibre, and constitutes the principal part of brown coal and peat." 
{Organic Chemistry, p. 47.) 

For practical purposes, all the soils ordinarily met with may be reduced 
to the following : 

162. Loose naked sands or gravels, without either clay or calcareous 
matter, and almost destitute of vegetation on the surface; exemplified on some 
parts of the sea- shore, and in Hounslow and other extensive heaths. 

163. Calcareous soils or gravels, containing little or no clay or organic 
matter, and almost without vegetation on the surface ; found on the sea- 
shore in some places, and on the surface of chalky districts. 

164. Loams. Rich sandy loams consist of sand, clay, and more or less of 
calcareous soil, with organic matter ; they never become hard on the surface 
after rains followed by drought, and never retain water to such an extent 
as to prove injurious to vegetation. Vegetation commences some weeks 
earlier in sandy loams than in clayey loams, in the same climate, or even in 
the same garden ; and during summer plants on such soils will be in ad- 
vance of those on clays ; so much so, as Mr. Lymburn has observed, as 
to attain maturity a month earlier. Clayey loams consist of clay with a 
proportion of sand and organic matter ; they produce large crops, but become 
hard and baked on the surface after heavy rains followed by drought. Stiff 
adhesive clays contain in their composition little or no sand or lime, and are 
almost without organic matter. All clayey loams are later than sandy 
loams. 

165. Loams are the best soils, and are characterized according to the 
earths which prevail in them, as a sandy loam, &c. ; according to their 
degree of friability, as a free loam, a stiff loam, &c. ; or according to both, as 
a free calcareous loam, &c. These soils, with reference to geology, are gene- 
rally found on the sides of valleys, along the bases of hills or mountains, or 

E 



50 ORIGIN AND KINDS OF SOILS CONSIDIiRED. 

on the banks of upland rivers. Mechanically, they are of a texture easily 
penetrated by all the implements of culture, and not liable to become hard 
on the surface, and crack after heavy rains followed by drought; chemically, 
they contain clay, sand, calcareous matter, and humus ; and with reference 
to vegetation, produce abundant crops in all ordinary seasons, with moderate 
supplies of manure. 

160. In general, much more depends on the texture of a soil and its capacity 
for retaining or parting with water and heat, than on its chemical composition. 
Soils have been found consisting chiefly of clay, others chiefly of calcareous 
earths ; some, in America, without calcareous earths ; and all producing good 
crops for a series of years. Nevertheless, it has been found that no soil will 
remain fertile for many years that does not contain lime in some form natu- 
rally, or is not liberally supplied with manure containing animal matter, 
one ingredient of which is lime in a state of phosphate or sulphate. 

167. Subsoils. Next in importance to the texture of a soil, is the nature 
of the subsoil or substratum on which it rests ; because on the texture and 
other circumstances of this subsoil depends, in a great measure, the capacity 
of the surface-soil for retaining or parting with water or heat. The worst 
subsoils are those of clay kept moist by subterraneous water ; and the best, 
those of clay resting on gravel or porous rock ; because these retain a useful 
degree of moisture, and admit of increasing the surface-soil to any depth 
which may be required for culture. Sandy and gravelly subsoils, with but 
a thin coating of surface-soil over them, are not sufficiently retentive of 
moisture ; and chalky subsoils are generally cold. 

168. The surface of soil* has, perhaps, as powerful an influence on their 
natural fertility as the subsoil ; because on the inclination of the sur- 
face depends, in a considerable degree, the moisture retained by the soil, 
and consequently its fitness for the growth of plants. Too steep a slope 
throws off the rain with too great rapidity, and thus deprives the soil of a 
sufficient supply of water during dry seasons ; while a flat surface will 
retard its drainage and occasion loss of heat by evaporation. The colour of 
the surface of a soil exercises some influence on its heat. A dark-coloured 
soil will be sooner heated by the rays of the sun than a light-coloured soil ; 
but it will also part with its heat more rapidly when the sun does not shine. 
A white soil, such as we sometimes find on chalky or marly subsoils, is the 
longest of all soils in being warmed, because by all white surfaces the rays 
of light and heat are reflected, while by all black surfaces they are absorbed. 
Hence, taking into consideration colour, texture, and aspect, a dark sandy 
soil, on a surface exposed to the south or south-east, must be the warmest of 
all soils j and a moist white clay of compact texture, similarly exposed, the 
coolest. It may be thought that such a soil would be colder on a surface 
exposed to the north than on a southern exposure ; and this will be the 
case when the soil is in a dry state, but not when it is supplied with moisture 
from the subsoil ; because, in the latter case, the cold, produced by evapo- 
ration, is great in proportion to the warmth of the atmosphere. The aspect 
is not only of importance with reference to the influence of the sun in 
warming or cooling the soil, but also as to its effects in maturing the produce 
which grows on it. 

169. The plants which grow on a soil are the surest indications, to a prac- 
tical botanist and cultivator, of the actual state of that soil with reference to 
culture ; though they do not always indicate the improvement of which the 



IMPROVEMENT OP SOILS CONSIDERED. 

soil is susceptible. Marshy soils are indicated with considerable certainty 
both by herbaceous and ligneous plants, and also very dry soils ; but the 
earths of fertile soils cannot be so readily inferred from the plants growing on 
them. Thus thorn-hedges will be found growing vigorously alike on clays, 
sands, and chalks ; though never on these soils, or on any other, when they 
are either very dry, or saturated with water. Some few plants, when found in 
their native stations in considerable quantities, may be considered absolute 
in respect to the earths of the soil in which they grow ; such as the TussilagO 
jFarfara, which always indicates clayey soil ; Clematis Vitalba, calcareous soil ; 
Arenaria rubra, sandy soil ; JRumex Acetosa, ferruginous soil ; Faccinium 
uliginosum, peaty soil ; Salicdrnia herbacea, saline soil ; Caltha palustris, 
marshy soil, &c. : but by far the greater number of plants only indicate the 
state of a soil relatively to water and organic matter. In short, nature may 
be said to have only three kinds of soil relatively to plants ; the dry, the 
moist, and the fertile. 

SECT. II. The Improvement of Soils, with a View to Horticulture. 

1 70. Having seen, in the preceding section, that the permanent fertility 
of a soil depends mainly on its condition relatively to water and heat, it 
follows that the improvement of soils must be principally directed to increase 
their capacity for absorbing and retaining these elements in the degree most 
siiit.ible for vegetation. The principal operations for this purpose are : draining, 
to withdraw superfluous water from soils ; and mixture and pulverization for 
improving their texture, in order to admit more readily the moisture and the 
heat of the atmosphere. 

171. Draining is the principal means for altering the condition of a soil 
with reference to water. Soils are affected by rains from above and springs 
from below ; and the former are carried off by open gutters, and the latter 
by covered channels. All draining is founded on the well-known hydrostatic 
law by which all fluids have a constant tendency to arrange themselves 
in a horizontal position. Hence, to carry off water, either from a surface or 
a subsoil, it is only necessary to form channels above or under ground in 
an inclined position. The kind of drains, and the number employed in any 
given case, will depend on the texture of the soil and the inclination of the 
surface. Flat surfaces and retentive clays require the greatest number of 
drains, and inclined surfaces and porous soils the smallest number. There 
are very few soils that may not be improved by draining; and it is 
almost unnecessary to observe, that, where draining is requisite and not 
performed, the application of other modes of improvement will be made in 
vain. 

172. Altering the texture and composition of soil by the addition of other 
soils is the improvement next in importance to that of draining, and requires 
only to be mentioned to be understood. Too sandy soils will be improved 
by the addition of clay, and the contrary ; and both clay and sand by the 
addition of lime ; because without alkaline matter no soil can be permanently 
fertile. Though on a large scale the expense of this kind of improvement is 
too great to be generally adopted, yet in the case of the grounds of small 
country residences it is practicable at a moderate expense. To ascertain the 
proportion of one soil that must be added to any other soil so as to perfect 
its texture, can only be determined by experiment. The first thing to fix 
on is the depth to which the soil is to be cultivated. In kitchen gardens 

E 2 



52 IMPROVEMENT OF SOILS, CONSIDERED 

this may be between two and three feet ; but in pleasure-grounds, where the 
surface is to be chiefly in grass, nine inches or one foot in depth will suffice. 
*' It is astonishing," Mr. Rham observes, "how small a portion of pure 
alumina will consolidate a loose sand, and convert it into a good loam, the 
parts of which, when moistened, will adhere and form a clod in drying/' 
(Jour. Ag. Soc. vol. ii. p. 51.) If we take an extreme case, and suppose 
that any given soil is so sandy as to require the addition of one sixth its 
bulk of clay, or so clayey as to require one sixth its bulk of sand, then, in 
the case of kitchen gardens where the soil is three feet deep, every square 
foot of the clayey surface will require the addition of half a cubic foot of 
sand ; and in the case of a lawn where the soil is a foot in depth, every 
square foot of sand will require the sixth of a cubic foot of clay. To cover 
a statute acre with soil to the depth of one inch requires 121 cubic yards. 
Hence to add two inches to the soil of a garden of one acre, exclusive of the 
space occupied by the walks, would require 242 cubic yards or cart-loads, 
which, at 2s. each, amount to 241. 4s. The cost, however, will depend 
chiefly on the distance from which the soil is to be brought. A case is 
mentioned in the Journal of the Agricultural Society of England, vol. ii. p. 67, 
in \vhich a white sand varying in depth from one to four feet, and so barren 
that it never had been cultivated to profit, had the surface improved to the 
usual depth penetrated by the plough (nine to twelve inches), by laying on 
clay at the rate of 150 cubic yards to the acre. The clay being dug from 
the subsoil, the expense was not more than 5/. 10*. per acre. It frequently 
happens that a sandy or gravelly soil is incumbent on a bed of clay, and the 
contrary ; in either of which cases the supply of the required soil may be 
obtained by digging pits, or sometimes even by deep trenching. The earth 
thus obtained will generally be without organic matter, but that can be sup- 
plied afterwards by manuring. Where the soil required for the improvement 
of another soil can be obtained in the state of surface soil, the effects produced 
will be more immediate from the organic matter which such soil contains ; but 
even when it is obtained from the subsoil, the change in the condition of the 
soil to which the new soil is applied will soon be rendered obvious ; though 
not so much the first year, as it will be in two or three years afterwards, 
when the amalgamation of the two soils is more complete. Much of the 
effect of adding one soil to another will depend on their intimate mixture; 
and this can be best effected by repeated trenchings or diggings in dry weather, 
when both soils are as nearly as possible in a state of dry powder. This point 
is of great importance, particularly when the soils mixed together contain a 
good deal of organic matter, because if a very intimate mixture of both soils 
is not effected, they will, from the difference in their specific gravities, in a few 
years separate into two different strata. There is, indeed, a constant tend- 
ency to do this in all soils under culture, and more especially in all such 
as have been improved by admixture. This takes place in consequence of 
the softening of the soil by rains, by which the particles are in a manner 
held for a time in suspension, and the heaviest gradually take a lower place 
than those which are lighter. Hence the necessity of digging or trenching 
such soils occasionally to the depth to which they have originally been im- 
proved. This is required even in artificial soils laid down in grass; for sup- 
posing a clayey soil to have received a considerable admixture of lime or 
chalk, and sand, with rotted stable dung, and the whole to have been 
incorporated hi a state of fallow, and afterwards sown with grass seeds. 



WITH A VIEW TO HORTICULTURE. 53 

then in seven years the black matter or mould remaining of the dung will he 
found among the roots of the grass at the surface, the sand in a stratum 
three or four inches below the surface, and the lime at the bottom of the 
artificial soil. By placing the same mixture in a flower -pot, and watering it 
frequently during a year, the pot being plunged in the soil, the same result 
will take place sooner, and be more conspicuous. If the pot be kept con- 
stantly immersed in water to within an inch of the brim, the result will 
take place in the course of a few days. These facts ought to be kept con- 
stantly in mind by whoever w T ould improve soils by admixture ; if they are 
not, disappointment is very likely to ensue. When soils mixed together are 
comparatively without organic matter, and when the particles of which they 
are composed are very small, the mixture becomes more intimate ; the 
particles of the one soil filling up the interstices among the particles of the 
other, and the amalgamation as it may be termed is then so complete that 
the earths will never afterwards separate. In this way pure sands may be 
improved by the admixture of pure clays, or by marls or chalks. The 
words pure and amalgamate are here used, not in a chemical, but in a 
popular sense. 

173. Changing the inclination of the surface of soils is a mode of improve- 
ment that may frequently be adopted on a small scale, by arranging a 
steep slope into narrow terraces, and a broad slope into level platforms. The 
former mode has been practised from time immemorial in the Land of 
Canaan, and in other countries of the East, and the latter is common in 
France and Italy, in order to admit of surface irrigation without waste of 
water. By this last mode, a field or garden is arranged into different plat- 
forms, which may either be on the same or on different levels. In the former 
case, the water is let into one platform after another ; or, if there is an abun- 
dant supply, into several at the same time ; in the latter case the supply of 
water is conducted to the highest platform, which is first watered, and 
the others follow in the order of their elevation. Arrangements of this kind 
are not so important in British gardens as they are in those of warmer 
climates ; but still they might in many cases be advantageously introduced 
with a view to watering summer crops. 

174. Burning of soils has been resorted to as a means of altering their 
texture, destroying injurious substances, and changing or forming others 
which may act as a manure. Burning is useless on siliceous sands contain- 
ing little or no vegetable matter ; but on all soils containing chalk, lime, or 
clay, it may be practised with advantage. By burning calcareous or chalky 
soils, the same effect is produced as if quicklime had been procured and 
added to the soil ; and by burning clayey soils the same result is obtained as 
if sand had been procured and mixed with them. The effect of burning clay 
is totally different from that of burning sand or lime. On sands and gravels 
burning can have no effect, except that in some cases it renders the particles 
smaller. Burning lime drives off the carbonic acid and the water, and renders 
the lime caustic and well adapted for decomposing organic matter ; but the 
lime has no sooner lost its water than it begins to attract it again, and after a 
certain period will be found in the same state of combination with water and 
carbonic acid as it was before. Clay, on the other hand, when once the water 
is driven off by burning, will never regain it, but remains for ever after- 
wards in a state which, with reference to its mechanical effect on a soil, is 
exactly the same as that of sand. This is a fact, the great importance of 



54 IMPROVEMENT OF SOILS, CONSIDERED 

which in the improvement of clayey soils, and indeed of all soils which are 
of too compact a texture, is not duly appreciated. It is evident that, by 
means of draining and burning, any clayey soil may have its texture as much 
improved as can be desired ; and though the expense of this may, in many 
cases, be too great for application on an extensive scale, yet it may always 
be adopted in kitchen gardens ; and often over the entire surface of the 
grounds of small villas. It is indeed only by this kind of improvement 
that the heavy clayey soils of many of the small villas in the neighbour- 
hood of London can be at all rendered comfortable to walk on after rains 
in summer, and throughout the whole of the other seasons ; or suitable and 
agreeable for the cultivation of culinary vegetables and flowers. Claye} r soils 
often contain iron, and the operation of burning them, by forming an insoluble 
compound of iron and alumina, lessens the risk of the iron ever becoming 
noxious to the plants. Burning also destroys the inert vegetable fibre ; and 
thus it at once produces ashes containing vegetable alkali, and supplies the soil 
with a portion of humus ; without both of which, according to Liebig, no 
soil can bring plants to maturity. Where a strong clayey soil is covered with a 
healthy vegetation, as of pasture or wood, it may not be desirable to burn the 
surface soil, on account of the quantity of organic matter which it contains ; 
but it may still be very desirable to burn such a portion of the clayey subsoil 
as may be sufficient, when reduced to a sandy powder, to render the surface 
soil of a proper texture. In this case the surface soil should be removed to the 
depth to which it has been cultivated, and a portion of that below taken up in 
lumps, and dried and burned. The burning is performed on the spot by the 
aid of faggot- wood, or any description of cheap fuel. The burned lumps 
being reduced to a powder, and scattered equally over the soil when also in a 
dry and powdery state, the whole should then be intimately mixed toge- 
ther by repeated diggings and trenchings. As an example of the strong 
clayey soil of a garden having been improved by burning, we may refer to 
that of Willersley Castle, near Matlock, which the gardener there, Mr. 
Stafford, has rendered equal in friability and fertility to any garden soil in 
the country. " When I first came to this place," says Mr. Stafford, " the 
garden was for the most part a strong clay, and within nine inches of the 
surface ; even the most common article would not live upon it ; no weather 
appeared to suit it at one time being covered by water, at another time 
rendered impenetrable by being too dry. Having previously witnessed the 
good effects of burning clods, I commenced the process, and produced in a 
few days a composition three feet deep, and equal, if not superior, to any 
soil in the country." (Hort. Reg. vol. i. p. 210.) The success was here 
greater than can be expected in every case, because the clay contained a 
large proportion of calcareous matter. 

175. Pulverizing soils comes next in the order of improvement, and is 
effected by trenching, digging, and other modes of reversing the surface and 
mixing and transposing all the different parts. By changing the surface, 
fresh soil is exposed to the action of the weather ; by changing the position 
of all the parts, new facilities for chemical changes are produced ; and by 
loosening the whole mass of the soil, air and rain are more readily admitted, 
and greater freedom is given to the growth of the roots. By loosening soil 
the air is admitted among its particles and confined there, and hence it 
becomes a non-conductor of heat, and is consequently warmer in winter 
and cooler in summer than if it were in one firm mass. By the con- 



WITH A VIEW TO HORTICULTURE. Oi) 

finement of air in the soil, the heat imparted to it by the sun during 
the day is retained, and accumulates in all free open soils to such a degree 
as sensibly to raise their temperature over that of the air, especially 
during night. From thermometrical observations made at different places, 
it appears that the mean temperature of the soil, at about one foot below the 
surface, is somewhat higher naturally than the mean temperature of the 
atmosphere on the same spot ; and hence we may reasonably suppose that, 
by draining and pulverization, the temperature of the soil may be perma- 
nently increased as well as that of the atmosphere. From experiments made 
by Mr. Thompson, in the garden of the Horticultural Society of London, it 
appears, that " in the valley of the Thames, the maximum mean of terres- 
trial temperature, at one foot below the surface, has been found to be 64'81 
in July, which is the hottest month in the year : but that the greatest differ- 
ence between the mean temperature of the earth and atmosphere is in the 
month of October, when it amounted, in the two years during which the 
observations were made, to between three and four degrees ; and that, in 
general, the mean temperature of the earth, a foot below the surface, is at 
least one degree, and more commonly a degree and a half, above the mean 
of tlie atmosphere. In these cases, if the terrestrial temperatures be com- 
pared with those of the atmosphere, it will be found that in the spring, when 
vegetation is first generally set in motion, the temperature of the earth not 
only rises monthly, but retains a mean temperature higher than that of the 
atmosphere by from one to two degrees ; and that in the autumn, when 
woody and perennial plants require that their tissue should be solidified and 
their secretions condensed, in order to meet the approach of inclement wea- 
ther, the terrestrial temperature remains higher in proportion than that of 
the atmosphere, the earth parting with its heat very slowly." (Lindley's 
Theory of Hort., p. 97.) In hot countries the sun often heats the soil to 
such a degree as to be injurious to the roots of cultivated plants, and pulveri- 
zation is there resorted to to diminish the force of its rays, which, as it is well 
known, are less effective on a porous and spongy than on a solid substance. 
This, as Chaptal informs us, is one of the uses of pulverization even in the 
south of France. 

176. The free admission of atmospheric air to soil is also necessary for the 
decomposition of humus, or organic matter, by which carbonic acid is formed ; 
and atmospheric air is also a great source of nitrogen, which has been lately 
found in all plants (104), and more especially in the spongioles of the roots. 
The soil also, when loosened, becomes a rapid conductor of water ; and, sup- 
posing the texture of the soil to be suitable for culture, it will retain a suffi- 
cient quantity of moisture for the purpose of vegetation, and allow the escape 
of what is superfluous by filtration into the subsoil, or into the underground 
drains which have been formed as a substitute for a porous substratum. 
The mere act of pulverising any soil has a tendency to improve its texture, 
more especially if the operation be frequently repeated. In summer, by 
exposure of a soil to the air, the particles are separated by the evaporation 
of the water in their interstices by heat ; and by exposing a soil to the frosts 
of winter, the particles are separated by the expansion of the water in the 
form of ice. Clayey soils containing iron are in an especial manner improved 
by exposure to the atmosphere ; the iron being still farther oxidised, and 
thus acting like sand in separating the particles, as well as being less likely 
to be rendered soluble by the addition of saline matters. 



t> ORGANIC MANURES, CONSIDERED 

177. Soils are improved by the modes in which they are cultivated ; as for 
example, by the order in which crops are made to succeed each other, by 
fallowing, by resting, and by the manner in which water is applied to grow- 
ing crops ; but these subjects will come under notice when we are treating 
of the practice of Horticulture. 



CHAPTER III. 
MANURES CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 

178. THE improvement of the composition and the texture of a soil, and 
of its condition with reference to water and heat, will have but little effect 
on the plants cultivated in it, without the addition of manure ; for this 
article, it must be borne in mind, is the food of plants, while the soil is only 
the stomach, or laboratory, in which that food is digested and rendered fit 
for being taken up by the spongioles of the roots. In order to determine 
what substances are suitable for becoming manures, it is useful to know what 
are the constituent elements of plants. Of these we shall find that some 
elements are common to all plants whatever, such as carbon with oxygen 
and hydrogen in the proper relative proportions for forming water, and 
nitrogen ; while some elements are only found in particular plants, such as 
certain salts, earths, and metallic oxides. Every plant, therefore, may be 
said to have its general or common food, and its specific or particular food ; 
and hence, in this point of view, manures may be classed as common and 
specific. The most perfect manure for any plant would therefore seem to 
be, that plant itself in a state of decomposition ; but as the purpose for which 
plants are cultivated is to supply food, clothing, and various constructions 
and contrivances, for animals, hence, in a state of civilisation, it is among 
these, and from animals themselves, that we must seek for the most suitable 
manure for plants. The various substances which have been used for manures 
may be classed, with reference to their effect on plants, as general and speci- 
fic ; and with reference to the soil, as improving, enriching, and stimulating. 
Improving manures are such as, while they afford positive nourishment or 
stimulus, add some permanent matter to the soil ; such as lime, chalk, marl, 
bones, &c. Enriching manures are such as supply only nourishment to 
plants ; such as stable manure, and every description of organic matter ; and 
stimulating manures are such as serve to aid in the decomposition of, or 
otherwise operate on, the organic matter. As some manures, however, par- 
take in an equal degree of more than one of these properties, such as lime, 
which is both a stimulating and improving manure, the most convenient 
arrangement of manures will be organic, inorganic, and mixed. 

SECT. I. Organic Manures. 

179. Organic manures must obviously be either of animal or vegetable 
origin. Purely vegetable manure is exemplified in leaf-mould, malt-dust, rape- 
cake, spent tanner's bark, some kinds of peat, and green vegetables when 
they are buried in the soil in a living state. 

180. Leaf-mould is perhaps the most universal manure for garden plants, 
because, when thoroughly decomposed, the most tender kinds will live in it, 



WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. .'> / 

and all the more vigorous-growing vegetables will grow in it most luxuriantly. 
Hence, mixed with fine sand, leaf-mould is used as a substitute for heath- 
soil, for growing many of the Cape and Australian shrubs; and alone, or mixed 
with common garden soil, it is used for growing melons and pine-apples. 

181. Fresh and tender vegetables dug into the soil, produce an immediate 
effect, from the facility with which they undergo fermentation, and thus 
supply soluble matter for the spongioles. Sea-weed is still more readily 
decomposed than recent land or garden plants, in consequence of the mineral 
alkali which it contains ; and hence this manure is stimulating as well as 
enriching. Malt-dust is valuable for the saccharine matter which it contains, 
and rape-cake for its albumen and oil ; but these manures are only occa- 
sionally to be met with. Straw, haulm, and in general all the stems and 
leaves of herbaceous plants, and the shoots with their leaves on of trees and 
shrubs, form valuable manure when decayed; more especially, if from the 
saccharine matter which they contain, or the addition of stable manure or 
of animal matter, they can be made to heat and promote fermentation. 
Nevertheless, without fermentation, they form useful garden manures ; or 
moulds, which, like leaf-mould, may often be substituted for heath-soil. 

182. The least valuable truly vegetable manure is spent tanners bark, 
which, consisting entirely of woody fibre impregnated with tannin, not only 
contains no soluble matter, but the tannin, in as far as it can be taken Tip by 
the spongioles, seems to prove injurious. Nevertheless, as every addition of 
organic matter to a soil must ultimately increase its fertility, spent tanner's 
bark may be used with a view to distant effects ; and in stiff soils its mecha- 
nical action will be immediate, by rendering such soils for a time more open. 
From the porosity and lightness of this material, it is an excellent non- 
conductor of heat ; and hence, when laid on the surface of the ground as a 
covering to the roots of tender plants, it protects them better from the frost 
than a more compact covering, such as coarse sand, or than coverings which 
are great absorbents of moisture, such as leaves or half-rotten litter, or any 
other covering of this kind which does not act as thatch. Rotten tan, how- 
ever, being peculiarly favourable to the growth of fungi, should be used 
with great caution when applied about young trees, and more especially 
Coniferae. 

183. Peat soil is of two kinds, that formed in peat bogs by the growth of 
mosses, and that found in valleys, or other low tracts of country, which, being 
formed of overthrown and buried forests, consists of decayed wood. The lat- 
ter being the remains of a much higher class of plants than the former, must 
contain a greater variety t>f the constituent elements of plants, and must conse- 
quently be a better manure. Peat from bogs cannot be used till it has been 
reduced, either by time or fermentation, to a fine mould or a saponaceous mass; 
the former result is obtained by exposure to the air, and repeated turnings 
during several years, and the latter by fermentation with stable dung. A load 
of this material, mixed with two loads of partially dried peat, will commence 
the putrefactive process, in the same manner as yeast commences ferment- 
ation in dough ; and, in the one case as in the other, additions may be made 
by degrees of any quantity, so that two loads of stable-dung may be made to 
produce twenty, a hundred, or in short an unlimited number of loads of fer- 
mented peat. The peat of decayed wood is commonly reduced to mould by 
exposure and turning, and then applied to the soil, with or without lime. 
Both kinds of peat are frequently burned for the sake of their ashes. 



58 ORGANIC MANURES, CONSIDERED 

The ashes of the peat of wood are always found richer in alkaline matters 
than those of the peat of moss, and on this account they form an article of 
commerce in the neighbourhood of Newbury in Berkshire, and in Holland. 
184. The principal vegetable manures which are formed in suburban 
villas are, the mould of collected leaves swept up in autumn, and in all sea- 
sons when they fall ; the mould of grass mown from lawns, and either rotted 
by itself, or on dung-casings to pits ; and the mould from the common vege- 
table rubbish heap ; that is from a heap on which all decaying or refuse 
vegetable matters are thrown as taken from the garden, and sometimes, also, 
including the leaves of trees and short grass. This heap is, or should be, 
placed in the reserve ground of all gardens. The grass mown from lawns, 
however, is most economically added to casings of dung to aid in producing 
heat by fermentation, as it is laid on dug surfaces round the roots of plants 
during summer to retain moisture. The leaves also are generally best kept 
by themselves, for the purpose of decaying into leaf- mould. In whatever 
way these vegetable materials are made use of, the gardener ought to have 
a vigilant eye to see that none of them are lost. 

185. Animal manures require much less preparation than those derived 
from plants, from their greater tendency to the putrefactive process. The 
kinds of animal manures are chiefly excrement ; urine ; coverings of animals, 
such as hair, wool, feathers ; entrails of animals, such as blubber, the con- 
tents of the abdomen of fish ; entire animals, such as fish, vermin ; parts of 
animals, such as hair, bones, &c. ; or articles manufactured from parts of 
animals, such as woollen rags, old leather ; or any article manufactured from 
skins, hair, wool, feathers, horn, bone, &c. Of all these manures by far the 
most valuable is nightsoil, next urine, and thirdly bones. The different 
excrements and urines of animals rank in value according to the kind of 
food with which the animal is nourished, and within this limit according 
to its grade ; and hence the most valuable animal manure is that of man, 
the next that of horses as abounding with ammonia and nitrogen. The ma- 
nure of the horse ranks before that of the cow or the sheep ; and the manure 
of highly-fed animals before that of those which are lean. 

186. Excrementitious manures, including urine, should never be applied 
to crops in a recent state, because from the abundance of ammoniacal salts 
which they contain, or perhaps from some other reason not understood, they 
are found in that state injurious to vegetation ; but when these manures 
are fermented they are the most powerful of all, producing an immediate 
effect on the plants. It is a remarkable fact that the recent urine of sheep 
is not injurious to grass lands, while that of horses and cows commonly 
injures the grass on the spot where it falls, which however recovers and 
becomes of a darker green than before in the year following. The loss of 
excrementitious manures in the large towns in England is immense, and 
while they are lost to the soil, they are poisonous to the fishes of our rivers, 
and injurious to those who drink their water. The great advantage of urine 
or other liquid manure is, that its manuring elements are consumed by the 
plants in a few months, and hence an immediate return is made on the capi- 
tal employed ; whereas, when solid excrementitious manures are employed, 
a period of two or three years must elapse before complete decomposition 
ensues. (See Sprengel on Animal Manures, in Jour. Eng. Ag. Soc,, vol. i. 
p. 473.) Liquid manure, also, from the ammonia which it contains, when 
poured on the soil destroys worms, snails, &c., as effectually as lime-water. 



WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 51) 

187. In every suburban villa, arrangements should be made for collecting 
all the liquid manure into two adjoining tanks, and mixing it there with 
water ; one tank to be kept filling and mixing, while the other is fermenting 
and being emptied. Where urine cannot be got, excrement and water form 
the best substitute. The fermented liquid may either be poured direct on 
the soil of the garden, among growing crops, at the roots of fruit trees, or on 
the naked soil, with or without other manure, and more especially with straw, 
or other vegetable matters, for the purpose both of enriching them and 
promoting fermentation. 

188. Hair, wool, feathers, leather, horn, rags, &c., decompose much more 
slowly than excrementitious or vegetable manures ; but they are exceedingly 
rich in gelatine and albumen, and are therefore very desirable where the 
object is duration of effect, as well as luxuriance. Dead animals of every 
kind, including fish, make excellent manure ; and when there is any danger 
anticipated from the effluvia which arises during decomposition, it is readily 
prevented by covering or mixing the putrid mass with quicklime. In this 
way nightsoil and the refuse of the slaughter-houses in Paris, Lyons, and 
other continental towns, are not only disinfected, but dried under the name 
of poudrette, and compressed in casks, so as to form an article of commerce. 
Sugar-bakers' scum, which is obtained from sugar refineries, consists of 
the blood of cattle and lime ; it can be sent in a dried and compressed state 
to any distance, and forms a manure next in richness to bones. In gardens 
it may be used as a top dressing to culinary vegetables, and as an ingredient 
in the composition of vine borders. Animalized carbon consists of nightsoil 
of great age ; it is sent to different parts of Europe from Copenhagen, where 
it has accumulated during ages in immense pits and heaps, which some years 
ago were purchased from the city by an Englishman. It is an exceedingly 
rich manure. 

189. Bones, though a manure of animal origin, depend for their effects a good 
deal on their mineral constituents. Next to nightsoil, bones are perhaps the 
most valuable of all manures. Chemically they consist of gelatine, albumen, 
animal oils, andifat, in all about 38 per cent. ; and of earthy matters, such 
as phosphate of lime, carbonate of lime, fluate of lime, sulphate of lime, 
carbonate of soda, and a small quantity of common salt. In consequence of 
the animal matters which they contain, crushed bones when laid in heaps 
very soon begin to ferment, and when buried in the soil previously to being 
fermented in heaps, the putrescent fermentation goes on with great rapidity. 
In gardens they should seldom be used without being broken small and fer- 
mented in heaps for several months. Bones are valuable as a specific 
manure, because they contain phosphate of lime, which is an ingredient 
common to a great many cultivated plants both of the field and of the gar- 
den. Bone manure, if used on the same soil for a number of years, is 
found to lose its effect ; the .reason of which is inferred from one cause of 
their excellence, viz., that the animal matter which they contain acts as a 
ferment or stimulus to the organic matter already in the soil, by which 
means this organic matter becomes sooner exhausted than otherwise would 
be the case. The remedy for this evil obviously is, to discontinue the use 
of the bones, and to supply putrescent manure, such as stable-dung. 

190. Vegeto-animal manures consist of a mixture of animal and vegetable 
substances, such as the straw used as litter in stables or farmyards, and the 
excrements and urine of the animals which are kept in them. It may be 



60 INORGANIC MANURES, CONSIDERED 

classed according to the kind of animal to which the litter is supplied; and 
hence we have horse dung, cow-dung, the dung of swine, sheep, rahbits, 
poultry, &c. All these manures require to be brought into a state of active 
fermentation, and reduced to a soft easily separated mass, before being 
applied to the soil. This is effected by throwing them into heaps, and occa- 
sionally turning these heaps till the manure becomes of a proper consistence. 

191. In horticulture, advantage is generally taken of the heat produced 
by manures of this kind, in forming hotbeds, and in supplying heat to pits by 
what are called linings, but which are properly casings, of dung placed round 
a bed of dung, tan, or soil, supported by walls of open brickwork. The dung 
so placed can be taken away at pleasure, and applied to the soil when it has 
undergone a proper degree of fermentation; whereas, the dung of which hot- 
beds is formed cannot be removed without destroying the bed and the crop 
on it ; and hence it is generally kept till the fermenting process is carried 
much farther than is necessary, and often so far as to be injurious. Hence, 
in gardens, wherever economy of manure is an object, common hotbeds ought 
never to be made use of, but recourse had to exterior casings, such as those 
already mentioned, or to other modes of heating. 

192. In many suburban villas, almost as much manure is lost as would 
suffice for enriching the kitchen-garden, and producing vegetables for the 
whole family. To save every particle of fluid or solid matter capable of 
becoming manure, the first step is to construct two or more large tanks for 
the liquid manure, and to form a system of tubes or gutters for conveying to 
these tanks all the soapsuds and other liquid refuse matters furnished by the 
mansion and offices, including the stables, unless they are at a distance. 
Similar tanks should be formed adjoining every cottage and dwelling be- 
longing to the villa ; such as the gardener's house, gatekeeper's lodge, and 
also in the back-sheds and in the frame and reserve ground of the kitchen- 
garden. In short, no water ought to be allowed to escape from the manure 
tanks but such as is perfectly pure ; for all dirty water, with or without 
excrementitious matters, will ferment in a degree of heat not much greater 
than that of the subsoil, even in winter ; and all fermented liquids contain 
one or more of the constitutent elements of plants. The second step to be 
taken with a view to saving manure is, to form a vegetable rubbish heap, on 
which all waste parts of plants and the remains of all crops, including mown 
grass when not otherwise used, clippings of hedges, summer prunings of 
trees, &c., are to be thrown as collected, left to ferment, and turned over 
occasionally. To this heap, lime, dung, or rich earth may be added, and 
the whole frequently turned over and well mixed. The third step is, to 
collect the cleanings of ponds, wells, ditches, hedge-banks, and similar earthy 
matters, and mix them with quicklime, turning the heap occasionally, as 
directed in the next section. 

SECT. II. Inorganic Manures. 

193. Inorganic or mineral manures are chiefly, lime in a state of chalk 
or carbonate, gypsum or sulphate, marl in which carbonate of lime is mixed 
with clay, saltpetre, kelp or mineral alkali, and common salt. The organic 
manures, as we have seen, act by supplying plants with the elements of which 
they are constituted, viz., carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and azote or nitrogen ; 
but the mineral manures contain none of these elements, and hence, accord- 
ing to most agricultural chemists, they must act beneficially on some other 



WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 61 

principle. This principle may be stated to be the rendering more soluble of 
the organic matters already in the soil in most instances, and in some cases 
rendering soluble matters insoluble, so as to diminish excessive fertility, and 
prepare a reserve of the fertilising principle for future use. Quicklime, for 
example, effects the first of these objects, and slaked lime the second. 
According to some writers, inorganic manures also act specifically ; alkaline 
matters being found in all, and some sorts in many plants. 

194. Lime. This is by far the most important of all the mineral manures. 
It is applied to soil in the form of quick or hot lime, mild or slaked lime, and 
chalk or carbonate. Quicklime is procured by burning chalkstone or lime 
rock till the water and the carbonic acid gas are driven off. Immediately 
after burning, it forms what is called quicklime ; and in this state, when 
laid on the soil, having a powerful attraction for water (200), it assists in 
the conversion of woody fibre and other organic matters into the substance 
called humus, forming humate of lime, which again is rendered soluble and 
fit for supplying the food of plants by the action of the carbonic acid gas 
in the soil, or supplied to it by water or the atmosphere. 

195. Mild lime. When water is thrown on quicklime, it becomes what 
is called slaked, falls down into a fine white powder, and, re-absorbing 
great part of the water which had been driven off by burning, it becomes 
what chemists call hydrate of lime ; and soon after, from the absorption of 
carbonic acid gas, it becomes what is called mild lime. The use of lime in 
this state is partly the same as that of caustic or quicklime ; and partly, 
also, when there is a superabundance of soluble manure, so as to cause crops 
to become too rank, to lessen the putrescence of organic matter by the for- 
mation with it of humate of lime. In short, quicklime may be said to 
increase the solubility of inert organic matter, and mild lime to render less 
soluble organic matter already in a state of solubility. 

196. The application of lime to soil may also be useful in cases where 
there is not already a sufficient portion of that earth ; but, to ascertain this, 
a chemical analysis of the soil should be previously made. The smallest 
quantity of quicklime added to a soil in which little or none previously existed, 
will effect a great permanent improvement ; and the same may be said of a 
small quantity of clay added to a soil in which that ingredient did not pre- 
viously exist. (172.) 

197. Carbonate of lime, or chalk, in its native state, differs from unburnt 
limestone in being of a much softer texture, and more easily acted on either 
mechanically or by the weather. When burned, it of course becomes lime, 
and may be used either in a caustic or mild state ; but in chalky countries 
it is most commonly laid on land in its natural state, and left to pulverise 
by the influence of the weather. It is supposed to have no effect upon inert 
vegetable fibre, and to be incapable of generally uniting with humic acid ; so 
that it appears to be destitute of the two properties of caustic and mild lime, 
viz., that of rendering insoluble matter soluble, and the contrary. Its bene- 
ficial effects are attributed to its altering the texture of soil, and to its pro- 
perty of retaining water without at the same time becoming adhesive. Hence 
it may be used both on sands and clays, to render the latter more friable 
without diminishing its retentive powers, and the former more absorbent 
without adding to its tenacity. Chalk, also, may be considered as a specific 
manure, since carbonate of lime is an ingredient in almost all the plants 
which have hitherto been analysed by chemists. 



62 INORGANIC MANURES, CONSIDERED 

198. Marl is carbonate of lime mixed with clay at the rate of from 
twenty to eighty per cent of carbonate, with alumina, silica, and more or 
less of the oxide of iron. Its action on the whole is similar to that of chalk, 
though it is more adapted for sandy and peaty soils than for clays. It is 
found from experience that it is injurious when spread on soil before being 
exposed for some months to the action of the atmosphere ; though the reason 
of this has not yet been explained. 

. 199. Gypsum, which is sulphate of lime, is a calcareous compound which 
occasionally produces extraordinary effects as manure, though the rationale 
of its action does not appear to be thoroughly understood. All animal ma- 
nures contain more or less of sulphate of lime as one of their constituents ; 
and this mineral compound has also been found in wheat, in clover, saintfoin, 
lucern, and many other leguminous plants, and in various pasture grasses. 
Hence it may in part be considered as a specific manure, and it has been so 
treated by Grisenthwaite in his very ingenious Essay, who contends that no 
manure that does not contain gypsum is fit for wheat. It is said to have 
little effect except upon light sandy, gravelly, or chalky soils. 

200. Sea shells are very abundant on some shores, and may be either burned 
into lime or laid on without burning. Immense quantities are collected on 
the shore at Whitstable, in Kent, and are laid on the soil without burning 
between Canterbury and Dover, where the soil is chiefly clayey. They are 
so much preferred to chalk or lime that they are fetched three times the 
distance. 

201. The rationale of the action of lime in its different states is thus given 
by Sir Humphry Davy. " When lime, whether freshly burned or slaked, is 
mixed with any moist fibrous vegetable matter, there is a strong action be- 
tween the lime and the vegetable matter, and they form a kind of compost 
together, of which a part is usually soluble in water. By this kind of ope- 
ration, lime renders matter which was before comparatively inert nutritive ; 
and as charcoal and oxygen abound in all vegetable matters, it becomes at 
the same time converted into carbonate of lime. Mild lime, powdered 
limestone, marls or chalks, have no action of this kind upon vegetable mat- 
ter ; by their action they prevent the too rapid decomposition of substances 
already dissolved ; but they have no tendency to form soluble matters. It 
is obvious from these circumstances that the operation of quicklime, and 
marl or chalk, depends upon principles altogether different. Quicklime, in 
being applied to land, tends to bring any hard vegetable matter that it con- 
tains into a state of more rapid decomposition and solution, so as to render it 
a proper food for plants. Chalk, and marl, or carbonate of lime, will only 
improve the texture of the soil, or its relation to absorption, acting merely 
as one of its earthy ingredients. Quicklime, when it becomes mild, operates 
in the same manner as chalk ; but in the act of becoming mild, it prepares 
soluble out of insoluble matter. It is upon this circumstance that the ope- 
ration of lime in the preparation for wheat crops depends ; and its efficacy in 
fertilising peats, and in bringing into a state of cultivation all soils abounding 
in hard roots, or dry fibres, or inert vegetable matter. The solution of the 
question, whether quicklime ought to be applied to a soil, depends upon the 
quantity of inert vegetable matter that it contains. The solution of the 
question, whether marl, mild lime, or powdered limestone, ought to be ap- 
plied, depends upon the quantity of calcareous matter already in the soil. 
All soils are improved by mild lime, and ultimately by quicklime, which do 



WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 63 

not effervesce with acids; and sands more than clays." (Agricultural Che- 
mistry, 6th edit., p. 304.) 

202. In the case of suburban villas, the most important uses of lime are, 
first, the formation of lime-water for the destruction of insects, snails, 
worms, &c. ; and secondly, the formation of lime composts to be used as 
manure. For both these purposes lime must be obtained in its caustic state. 
In preparing lime-water, a very small quantity of lime in powder will be 
found to saturate many gallons of water ; and, by letting this settle a few 
minutes till it becomes clear, the plants or the soil may be watered with it 
without leaving any coating of lime, which only takes place when the lime 
is applied in a state of mixture and solution. The causticity of the liquid, 
owing to the alkali which it contains, lacerates the tender skins of- cater- 
pillars, earth-worms, snails, and slugs. 

203. Lime compost is formed of caustic lime, at the rate of from sixteen 
to twenty-four bushels of lime to three times that quantity of earth taken 
from hedge-banks, cleanings of ditches or ponds, scrapings of roads, or even 
from the surface of any soil which is somewhat different in its nature or 
texture from the soil on which the compost is to be laid. Even the sub- 
stratum of any soil, where good, may be used, and afterwards laid on the 
surface soil. The compost should lie from nine to twelve months, and be 
turned over in that time twice or thrice. In every part of Britain this 
manure may be formed at a moderate expense ; and though it is better 
adapted for fields than gardens, yet in many cases, and particularly where 
manure is scarce, it will be found a valuable resource. (See Jackson's Agri- 
culture, published by Chambers, p. 47.) 

204. Saltpetre, or muriate of potash, when analysed, consists of oxygen, 
nitrogen, and potassium. Saltpetre is found in almost all plants, and espe- 
cially those which are cultivated in rich soils. As a manure it sometimes 
produces extraordinary effects on grass lands and corn crops ; but its action 
is not understood, and it has been but little used in horticulture. Nitrate 
of soda produces nearly the same results as saltpetre. From some experi- 
ments with this salt lately detailed in the Journal of the English Agricultural 
Society, vol. i. pp. 418 and 423, it appears to have increased the produce 
of corn crops, but not more so than saltpetre. 

205. Common Salt, or the chloride of sodium, consists of nearly equal parts 
of chlorine and sodium ; but when dissolved in water a portion of the water 
is decomposed, its hydrogen unites with the chlorine to form muriatic acid, 
and its oxygen with the sodium to produce soda. Hence salt in a dry state 
is chlorate of soda, and dissolved in water it becomes muriate of soda. Its 
action in the soil depends ori the effect which the muriate of soda has on the 
carbonate of lime ; the latter, as we have before observed, being found in 
almost all soils. By the contact of these two salts, their acids and bases are 
interchanged, and the compounds which are the result are carbonate of soda 
and muriate of lime. Hence, as chalky soils abound more in carbonate of 
soda than any others, salt is supposed to be most beneficial to them. Salt 
applied in large quantities, it is well known, destroys plants ; and hence 
it has been used in gardening, both in a dry and liquid state, to kill weeds 
and worms in gravel- walks, which it does most effectually. It has been used 
also for washing salads and other vegetables when gathered for the kitchen, 
when they are supposed to contain snails, worms, or insects. It forms a 
direct constituent of some marine plants, and plants of saline marshes or 



64 MIXED MANURES, CONSIDERED 

steppes ; and, applied in small quantities, it appears to hasten the decompo- 
sition of organised matter in the soil. As a manure, however, it requires to 
be applied with very great caution ; and, in gardens, is perhaps safest when 
used in walks for the purpose of killing weeds and worms. 

206. In suburban villas calcareous manures are often required for the im- 
provement of lawns and other grass lands ; and a stock of quicklime, un- 
slaked, should always be kept in a cask, or other closed vessel, to be ready 
for use with water. Where lime is not at hand, common pptash or Ame- 
rican pearlash dissolved in water, or urine especially that of cows, will have 
the same effect on insects as lime-water ; but they are more expensive. 

SECT. III. Mixed Manures. 

Mixed Manures include coal ashes, vegetable ashes, street manure, soot, 
and vegetable or vegeto-animal composts. 

207. Coal Ashes are of very different natures in different parts of the 
country ; the constituents of coal varying in the quantity of clay and lime, 
and also of sulphur and iron, which it contains. Many persons object en- 
tirely to coal ashes as a manure, considering them poisonous rather than 
beneficial. The portions of coal which contain iron or other metallic ores 
are converted by burning into hard porous masses, which, when buried in 
the soil, absorb moisture, and consequently soluble organic matter ; and as 
the spongioles of the roots cannot be supposed to penetrate into cinders or 
scoria, that soluble matter must remain there till it is washed out by rains or 
set free by the disintegration of the cinder. Supposing this to be the case, 
the principal benefit to be derived from coal ashes would appear to be that 
of increasing the friability of stiff clayey soils. 

208. Vegetable Ashes are obtained by burning weeds, leaves, prunings, or 
roots of woody plants, and in general of all kinds of vegetable matter not 
readily decomposed by fermentation. The burning of vegetable substances 
must necessarily dissipate the whole of the oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen 
which they contain, together with more or less of the carbon, according to the 
degree in which the burning mass is exposed to the action of the atmosphere, 
Hence in burning wood for charcoal, the pile of logs is covered with earth 
or mud to prevent the production of flame, and consequent decomposition 
of the carbon, by the action of the oxygen of the atmosphere. The 
burning of vegetables, however, does not destroy the fixed saline ingredients 
which they contain ; and hence vegetable ashes, as manure, will be valuable 
as containing salts which are either of general or specific use to plants, and 
also as containing more or less carbon. If one kind of plant only were 
burnt at a time, then the ashes of that plant would form a specific manure 
for plants of the same kind ; but as a number of kinds are generally burned 
together, their ashes must contain salts of various kinds, and they may be 
considered as being useful to plants generally. Among these ashes there 
is always a large proportion of vegetable alkali (carbonate of potass) ; and 
this, when mixed with soil, combines with insoluble organic matter and ren- 
ders it soluble ; and hence vegetable ashes form a useful manure for all soils, 
since potass is of almost universal existence in plants. It is therefore not 
only a general manure by its action on organic matter, but a specific con- 
stituent of plants. Soda, which exists but in few plants, differs from potass 
in not being a specific manure, its action being limited to increasing the 



WITII REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 65 

solubility of organic matter already in the soil ; and in performing this office, 
it is found to be more efficient than potass. 

209. Soot is composed of the various volatile matters derived from the 
burning of coal or wood, together with carbon, and earths which have been 
mechanically carried up the chimney with water in the form of smoke. 
From experiment it appears that soot owes its value as a manure to the 
saline substances which it contains ; and these are chiefly the carbonate and 
sulphate of ammonia, together with a small quantity of a bituminous sub- 
stance. The fact of carbonate of soda proving useful as a manure is un- 
doubted, though it is difficult to explain in what manner it acts, unless, like 
saltpetre, it stimulates the roots. Soot when applied in gardens is generally 
strewed on the surface, and it is considered as annoying snails, slugs, and 
worms; though by no means killing them, as is frequently supposed. Its 
effects are rarely perceptible after the crop to which it is applied ; and there- 
fore, like liquid manures, soot affords a quick return for the capital em- 
ployed in it. 

210. Street manure, or that which is swept up in the streets of towns, 
consists of a great variety of matters, animal, vegetable, and mineral. Jn 
the manner towns are now kept, it is small in quantity and of little value ; 
but formerly it was among the richest of all manures. When collected in 
quantities, even though containing a large proportion cf earth and coal ashes, 
it ferments powerfully, and will continue giving out heat throughout a 
whole summer. For this purpose it has been used in forcing- gardens as a 
substitute for tanners' bark and stable-dung ; and it has the advantage of 
not subsiding so much as those materials. Wherever it can be obtained, it 
may be applied to all soils ; and when obtained from towns still under the 
old system, it may rank next to nightsoil and bones. 

211. Composts of vegetable or vegeto-animal matter and earth are of various 
kinds. The most common in gardens is that produced by rotten leaves or 
vegetable refuse mixed with sand or with some other earth, or with stable- 
dung : composts of bones are likewise formed in this manner, and also of peat, 
where that material abounds. Peat composts have been already mentioned. 

212. Mixed manure in a liquid state consists of the urine of animals, 
soap-suds, the foul water of kitchens and other offices, waste surface or rain 
water, and drainings of dunghills. The most advantageous way of employing 
it is by applying it, after being properly diluted and fermented (182), di- 
rectly to growing crops. It may also be profitably employed by throwing 
it on heaps of vegetable matter, such as moss, leaves, straw, or any vege- 
table refuse matter whatever not containing woody matter of several years' 
growth. In this way, Jauffret, a French agriculturist, proposed to create 
immense quantities of manure by fermenting weeds and other refuse 
collected by hedge-sides, or on commons or wastes. The fermentation 
of such matters does not take place without the aid of animal manure 
or stable-dung ; but, when once commenced, it can be continued for aii 
indefinite period by adding to the heap. If the liquid manure and the 
excrementitious matter accumulated in every large establishment, independ- 
ently altogether of the stable manure, were collected and fermented, we have 
little doubt it would suffice for all the kitchen-garden crops ; the refuse of 
these crops and the weeds of the garden being added and fermented. It is 
highly probable that every individual animal produces as much manure as 
would raise the vegetables necessary for his support, because in the nourish- 



66 MIXED MANURES CONSIDERED. 

ment of animals, as of plants, nothing is annihilated, but merely changed: 
what escapes into the atmosphere is counterbalanced by what is absorbed 
from it ; and what is embodied in the animal during life, is restored to the 
soil at its death. 

213. Application of Manures. Too much manure is injurious to all crops 
whatever, by increasing the proportion of watery matter, and by producing 
such an exuberance of growth as to prevent the maturation of the parts, 
the formation of blossom-buds, and the setting of fruit. It is particularly 
injurious to corn-crops ; produces more sap than can be properly elaborated 
in the leaves, and hence disease. In this case the evil is counteracted by 
the application of lime or common salt. 

214. All mineral manures ought to be employed in a dry and powdery 
state, and if possible, when the soil is equally dry and powdery ; and all 
moist manures, when the soil is somewhat drier than the manure. Other 
circumstances being the same, spring is better than autumn for applying 
manures, because the winter might wash them away, &c.; but universally, the 
proper time is immediately before sowing or planting the crop. Calm weather 
is better than windy weather, and bulky manure ought no sooner to be laid 
on than buried in the soil. Exhausting land of the manure which it contains 
by over-croppings, is like depriving a commercial man of his capital. 

215. In consequence of the great value of manures in increasing the 
amount of the produce of land, many ingenious persons have contrived 
mixtures which, in small bulk, they allege will produce extraordinary 
effects; and this idea seems to have been long since indulged by some 
writers. Lord Kaimes, nearly a century ago, thought the time might come 
when the quantity of manure requisite for an acre might be carried in a 
man's coat-pocket ; a recent author speaks of " a quart of spirit sufficient to 
manure an acre ; " and even Liebig says, that " a time will come when 
fields will be manured with a solution of glass (silicate of potash), with the 
ashes of burned straw, and with salts of phosphoric acid prepared in chemi- 
cal manufactories, exactly as at present medicines are given for fever and 
goitre." (Organic Chemistry, p. 188.) To those who believe in the homreo- 
pathic hypotheses of medicine such speculations will not appear unreasonable; 
and there may be some truth in them, on the supposition that the soil to 
which these small doses of spirit, or of silicate of potash, are to be applied, 
are to act as stimulants to the organic matter already in the soil ; but to 
ordinary apprehensions it seems difficult to conceive how bulk and weight of 
produce can be raised without the application of a certain degree of bulk of 
manure. All deference, however, ought to be paid to the opinions of 
philosophers who, like Liebig, have profoundly studied the subject. (See 
the notes to this chapter in our Appendix.) 

216. All the manures mentioned in this section arc easily obtained by the 
possessors of suburban villas. Soot and ashes are produced on their own 
premises ; compost may be formed by the mixture of various articles col- 
lected or procured ; liquids abound, and have only to be collected and pro- 
perly fermented ; and street manure may in general be purchased from the 
nearest town. It cannot be too strongly impressed on the possessor of a 
country residence who wishes to make the most of it, that no particle of 
organic matter, whether animal or vegetable, and no drop of water, with 
whatever it may be discoloured, ought to be left uncollected or allowed to 
run to waste. 



HEAT, CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 67 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE ATMOSPHERE, CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO 
HORTICULTURE. 

217. THE influence of the atmosphere on the geographical distribution^ 
of plants has been noticed in a preceding chapter (147), and we shall here 
consider the subject with reference to the culture of plants in gardens, 
taking as our guide, Daniel's Essay on Climate with regard to Horticulture, 

( Hort. Trans, vol. vii.,J Daniell's Meteorological Essays, and examining 
also what has been written on the subject in subsequent works. Among 
the latter may be mentioned Howard's Climate of London, Hutchison's 
Treatise on Meteorological Phenomena, Murphy's Meteorology, and two 
excellent articles on the latter two of these works in the Atheneeum for 1837, 
p. 5G1 and 580. 

The atmosphere on every part of the globe consists of the same consti- 
tuent parts, to wit, carbonic acid gas and water in a state of vapour about 1 
part, oxygen 23, and azote or nitrogen 76, reckoning by weight. The 
aqueous vapour and carbonic acid gas are variable admixtures ; but in all 
cases they bear only a very small proportion to the other ingredients. All 
the variations, therefore, which are found in the atmosphere in different 
> countries, and at different times in the same country, depend upon the 
modifications impressed upon it by heat, moisture, motion, and light. 

SECT. I. Heat, considered with reference to Horticulture. 

218. Heat, like light, is found to be capable of radiation, reflection, 
transmission through transparent media, and refraction ; but it is radiated, 
reflected, transmitted, and refracted, in a different manner and degree from 
light. Thus it appears that both light and heat can be transmitted through 
either gaseous, fluid, or solid media, provided they are transparent. Any 
opaque body is to light, however, an impenetrable barrier ; but to heat, or to 
its conduction, neither opaqueness nor solidity affords resistance. On the 
contrary, heat is conducted more rapidly by solid than by fluid or gaseous 
bodies ; a fact which will be noticed in treating of artificial coverings for 
protecting plants. A solid body will obstruct the radiation of heat, as is 
familiarly exemplified in the case of the common fire-screen. The diffusion of 
heat by conduction and radiation is what chiefly concerns the horticulturist. 

219. The conduction of heat is effected by the contact of bodies heated in 
different degrees, when the tendency to equal diffusion immediately raises 
the temperature of the one body and lowers that of the other. This takes 
place with different degrees of rapidity, according to the nature of the 
bodies in contact. If thermometers be placed on metal, stone, glass, ivory, 
and earth, all heated from the same source, we shall find that the thermo- 
meter placed on the metal will rise soonest ; next, that placed on the stone; 
next, that on the glass ; then that on the wood ; and lastly, that on the 
earth. The conducting power of bodies is generally as their density. The 
greatest of all conductors of heat are metals ; and the least so, spongy and 
light filamentous bodies. Silk, cotton, wool, hare's fur, and eider-down, 
are extremely bad conductors of heat, and hence their value as clothing. 
(Library of Useful Knowledge) art. Heat, p. 23.) They give us a sensation 



58 HEAT, CONSIDERED WITH 

of warmth, not by communicating heat to the skin, but by preventing its 
escape into the air, in consequence of their non-conducting properties. The 
power which these bodies have of stopping the transmission of heat depends 
on the air which is stagnated in their vacuities ; for when the air is expelled 
by compression, their conducting power is increased. Hence, in covering 
plants or plant structures with leaves, litter straw, mats, or other light, 
porous bodies, the less they are compressed the more effective will they be 
found in preventing the escape of heat by conduction. All tight coverings, 
whether of animals or plants, retain very little heat, when compared with 
loose coverings ; and hence mats, when drawn tightly round bushes, or 
nailed closely against trees on walls, are much less effective than when fas- 
tened over them loosely, and do not retain nearly so much heat as a covering 
of straw. Coverings of sand, ashes, or rotten tan, applied to the ground, or 
to the roots of herbaceous plants, are, for the same reason, much less effective 
than coverings of leaves so applied ; and these, again, are much less so than 
coverings of litter or long straw. The heat of the trunks of trees is pre- 
vented from escaping to the extent it otherwise would do by their bark, 
which is a powerful non-conductor (1^0), and the heat of the ground by a 
covering of snow, which, by its spongy, porous nature, contains a great deal 
of air. Without this covering, the herbaceous plants of the northern regions 
could not exist; nor would spring flowers, such as the aconite, snow- drop, 
crocus, daffodil, &c., in the climate of Scotland, come nearly so early into 
bloom. 

220. Heat is diffused amongst bodies not in contact by the process called 
radiation, in consequence of which property a person standing near any body 
heated to a higher temperature than himself will experience a sensation of 
warmth. The radiation of heat from any body proceeds from its surface 
in every direction in straight lines, in the same manner as the divergent rays 
of light from an illuminated body, as, for example, a lighted candle ; and 
rays of heat, like rays of light, may be reflected from polished surfaces, and 
transmitted and refracted through transparent substances, and even polarised. 
But though it be time that heat, in proceeding from a body, begins by radiat- 
ing from it at right angles and in straight lines, yet this can only be strictly 
said of heat which is radiated perpendicularly into the atmosphere. Thus, 
from a pipe of water equally heated, the heat tends to radiate at right angles 
from its surface in all directions; yet none but those rays which proceed from 
the uppermost part of the convex surface of the pipe will preserve their per- 
pendicularity. All the other rays, from their first contact with the air, will 
be deflected upwards, being in fact carried in that direction by the heating 
effects which those rays themselves produce upon the particles of air on which 
they impinge. The property of radiation, however, is that which chiefly 
concerns the horticulturist; and the following description of this pheno- 
mena is given by Mr. Daniel], the author of by far the best essay which 
has yet appeared on climate, as connected with horticulture. 

221. Radiation of heat is the " power of emitting it in straight lines in every 
direction, independently of contact, and may be regarded as a property 
common to all matter. Co-existing with it, in the same degrees, may be 
regarded the power of absorbing heat so emitted from other bodies. Polished 
metals, and the fibres of vegetables, may be considered as placed at the two 
extremities of the scale upon which these properties in different substances 
may be measured. If a body be so situated that it may receive just as 



REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. ('9 

much radiant heat as itself projects, its temperature remains the same ; if 
the surrounding bodies emit heat of greater intensity than the same body, its 
temperature rises, till the quantity which it receives exactly balances its 
expenditure, at which point it again becomes stationary ; and if the power 
of radiation be exerted under circumstances which prevent a return, the tem- 
perature of the body declines. Thus, if a thermometer be placed in the focus 
of a concave metallic mirror, and turned towards any clear portion of the sky, 
at any period of the day, it will fall many degrees below the temperature of 
another thermometer placed near it out of the mirror ; the power of radiation 
is exerted in both thermometers, but to the first all return of radiant heat is 
cut off. while the other receives as much from the surrounding bodies as 
itself projects. This interchange amongst bodies takes places in transparent 
media as well as in vacua ; but in the former case the effect is modified by 
the equalising power of the medium." This description is clear and satisfac- 
tory ; but it must not be supposed, that though the balance of temperature 
will not be disturbed from the effects of radiation when the body is completely 
enclosed, yet that it may not be so by the other law of heat, conduction. 

222. "Any portion of the surface of the globe which is fully turned towards 
the sun receives more radiant heat than it projects, and becomes heated ; 
but when, by the revolution of the axis, this portion is turned from the 
source of heat, the radiation into space still continues, and, being uncom- 
pensated, the temperature declines. In consequence of the different degrees 
in which different bodies possess this power of radiation, two contiguous 
portions of the system of the earth will become of different temperatures ; 
and if on a clear night w r e place a thermometer upon a grass plat, and 
another upon a gravel walk or the bare soil, we shall find the temperature 
of the former many degrees below that of the latter. The fibrous texture 
of the grass is favourable to the emission of the heat, but the dense surface 
of the gravel seems to retain and fix it. But this unequal effect will only 
be perceived when the atmosphere is unclouded, and a free passage is open 
into space ; for even a light mist will arrest the radiant matter in its course, 
and return as much to the radiating body as it emits. The intervention of 
more substantial obstacles will of course equally prevent the result, and the 
balance of temperature will not be disturbed in any substance which is not 
placed in the clear aspect of the sky. A portion of a grass plat under the 
protection of a tree or hedge will generally be found, on a clear night, to 
be eight or ten degrees warmer than surrounding unsheltered parts ; and it 
is well known to gardeners that less dew and frost are to be found in such 
situations than in those which are wholly exposed. There are many inde- 
pendent circumstances which modify the effects of this action, such as the 
state of the radiating body, its power of conducting heat, &c. If, for in- 
stance, the body be in a liquid or aeriform state, although the process may 
go on freely, as in water, the cold produced by it will not accumulate upon 
the surface, but will be dispersed by known laws throughout the mass ; and 
if a solid mass be a good radiator but a bad conductor of heat, the frigorific 
effect will be condensed upon the face which is exposed. So upon the sur- 
face of the earth absolute stillness of the atmosphere is necessary for the 
accumulation of cold upon the radiating body ; for if the air be in motion, 
it disperses and equalises the effect with a rapidity proportioned to its 
velocity." (Hort. Trans, vol. vi. p. 10.) 

223. All the phenomena connected with dew or hoarfrost have been ex- 



70 HEAT, CONSIDERED WITH 

plained by Dr. Wells on these principles. The deposition of moisture is 
owing to the cold produced in bodies by radiation, which condenses the 
atmospheric vapour on their surfaces. The deposition of dew takes place 
upon vegetables, but not upon the naked soil, because the latter is a bad 
radiator as well as a bad conductor of heat. The fibres of short grass are 
particularly favourable to the formation of dew. Dr. Wells says that dew 
is " never formed upon the good conducting surfaces of metals, but is rapidly 
deposited upon the bad conducting surfaces of filamentous bodies, such as 
cotton, wool, &c." There would appear to be some mistake in the assertion, 
that dew is never formed on metals ; for any one may prove the contrary by 
breathing on the blade of a knife. It is true dew is seldom found on bright 
surfaces, such as metals or glass, in the form of drops, as it is on rough and 
pointed objects like wool, grass, &c. ; but there can be no doubt of its exist- 
ence on these bodies, though in a less conspicuous form. Were this not the 
case, the law of the deposition of water from air would not be universal. 
This law is, that moisture, or deposition of moisture, including that modifi- 
cation of it called dew, is deposited more or less on all bodies in absolute 
contact with the air, whenever the temperature of the air is higher than that 
of the body with which it is in contact. 

224. In remarking that dew is never formed upon metals, Mr. Daniell 
observes, " it is necessary to distinguish a secondary effect which often causes 
a deposition of moisture upon every kind of surface indiscriminately. Tho 
cold which is produced upon the surface of the radiating body is communi- 
cated by slow degrees to the surrounding atmosphere ; and if the effect be 
great and of sufficient continuance, moisture is not only deposited upon the 
solid body, but is precipitated in the air itself; from which it slowly sub- 
sides, and settles upon everything within its range. 

225. " The formation of dew is one of the circumstances which modify 
and check the refrigerating effect of radiation ; for, as the vapour is con- 
densed, it gives out the latent heat w r ith which it was combined in its elastic 
form, and thus, no doubt, prevents an excess of depression which might in 
many cases prove injurious to vegetation. A compensating arrangement is 
thus established, which, while it produces all the advantages of this gentle 
effusion of moisture, guards against injurious concentration of the cause by 
which it is produced." 

220. " The effects of radiation come under the consideration of the hor- 
ticulturist in two points of view : the first regards the primary influence 
upon vegetables exposed to it ; the second, the modifications produced by it 
upon the atmosphere of particular situations. To vegetables growing in the 
climates for which they were originally designed by nature, there can be no 
doubt that the action of radiation is particularly beneficial, from the depo- 
sition of moisture which it determines upon their foliage : but to tender 
plants artificially trained to resist the rigours of an unnatural situation, this 
extra degree of cold may prove highly prejudicial. It also appears probable, 
from observation, that the intensity of this action increases with the distance 
from the equator to the poles ; as the lowest depression of the thermometer 
which has been registered between the tropics, from this cause, is 12, 
whereas in the latitude of London it not unfrequently amounts to 17. But 
however this may be, it is certain that vegetation in this country is liable to 
be affected at night from the influence of radiation, by a temperature below 
the freezing point of water, ten months in the year ; and even in the two 



REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 

months, July and August, which are the only exceptions, a thermometer 
covered with wool will sometimes fall to 35. It is, however, only low 
vegetation upon the ground which is exposed to the full rigour of this effect. 
In such a situation, the air which is evolved by the process lies upon the sur- 
face of the plants, and from its weight cannot make its escape ; but from the 
foliage of a tree or shrub it glides off and settles upon the ground." 

227. " Anything which obstructs the free aspect of the sky arrests in 
proportion the progress of this refrigeration^ and the slightest covering of 
cloth or matting annihilates it altogether. Trees trained upon a wall or 
paling, or plants sown under their protection, are at once cut off from a 
large portion of this evil, and are still further protected if within a moderate 
distance of another opposing screen." (Ibid. vol. vi. p. 12.) 

228. Almost all the modes in practice of protecting plants are founded on 
the doctrine of radiation, and hence the gardener should keep constantly 
in his miud the fact, that all bodies placed in a medium colder than 
themselves are continually giving out their heat in straight lines, and 
that these straight lines, when the body is surrounded by air, may always 
be reflected back on the body from which they emanate by the slightest 
covering placed at a short distance from them; while, on the other 
hand, if this slight covering is applied close to the body, instead of 
reflecting back the heat, it will carry it off by conduction : that is, the heat 
will pass through the thin covering closely applied, and be radiated from 
its surface. Hence, in covering sashes with mats, a great advantage is ob- 
tained by laying straw between the mats and the glass, or by any other 
means of keeping the mat a few inches above the frame. Hence also when 
the branches of trees are to be protected by mats, they will be rendered 
much more efficient if first surrounded by straw, fern, or some other light 
body which contains in its interstices a good deal of air. It should be borne 
in mind, Mr. Daniell observes, " that the radiation is only transferred from 
the tree to the mat, and the cold of the latter will be conducted to the former 
in every point where it touches. Contact should therefore be prevented by 
hoops or other means properly applied, and the stratum of air which is 
enclosed will, by its low conducting power, effectually secure the plant. 
With their foliage thus protected, and the roots well covered with litter, 
many evergreens might doubtless be brought to survive the rigour of our 
winters which are now confined to the greenhouse and conservatory." The 
practice thus recommended in 1824 is now, 1841, generally adopted in the 
management of plants on conservative walls. 

229. " The secondary effect which radiation has upon the climate of par- 
ticular situations is a point which is less frequently considered than the 
primary one which we have been investigating, but which requires perhaps 
still more attention. The utmost concentration of cold can only take place 
in a perfectly still atmosphere : a very slight motion of the air is sufficient 
to disperse it. A low mist is often formed in meadows in particular situ- 
ations, which is the consequence of the slow extension of this cold in the air, 
as before described ; the agitation of merely walking through this conden- 
sation is frequently sufficient to disperse and melt it. A valley surrounded 
by low hills is more liable to the effects of radiation than the tops and sides 
of the hills themselves ; and it is a well-known fact that dew and hoarfrost 
are always more abundant in the former than in the latter situations. It 



72 HEAT, CONSIDERED WITH 

is not meant to include in this observation places surrounded by lofty and 
precipitous hills which obstruct the aspect of the sky, for in such the con- 
trary effect would be produced. Gentle slopes, which break the undulations 
of the air without naturally circumscribing the heavens, are most efficient 
in promoting this action ; and it is worthy of remark and consideration, that 
by walls and other fences, we may artificially combine circumstances which 
may produce the same injurious effect." 

2-30. u But the influence of hills upon the nightly temperature of the valleys 
which they surround is not confined to this insulation ; radiation goes on 
upon their declivities, and the air which is condensed by the cold, rolls down 
and lodges at their feet. Their sides are thus protected from the chill, and 
adouble portion falls upon what many are apt to consider the more sheltered 
situation. Experience amply confirms these theoretical considerations. It 
is a very old remark, that the injurious effect of cold occurs chiefly in hollow 
places, and that frosts are less severe upon hills than in neighbouring plains. 
The leaves of the Vine, the Walnut-tree, and the succulent shoots of Dahlias 
and Potatoes, are often destroyed by frost in sheltered valleys, on nights 
when they are perfectly untouched upon the surrounding eminences ; and 
the difference, on the same night, between two thermometers placed in the 
two situations, in favour of the latter, has amounted to thirty degrees." 

231. " Little is in the power of the Horticulturist to effect in the way of 
exalting the powers of the climate in the open air ; except by choice of situa- 
tion with regard to the sun, and the concentration of its rays upon. walls and 
other screens. The natural reverberation from these and the subjacent soil 
is, however, very effective, and few of the productions of the tropical regions 
are exposed to a greater heat than a well-trained tree upon a wall in sum- 
mer. Indeed, it would appear from experiment that the power of radiation 
from the sun, like that of radiation from the earth, increases with the dis- 
tance from the equator ; and there is a greater difference between a thermo- 
meter placed in the shade and another in the solar rays in this country, than 
in Sierra Leone or Jamaica. This energy of the sun is at times so great, 
that it often becomes necessary to shade delicate flowers from its influ- 
ence ; and I have already pointed out (227) a case in which it would be 
desirable to try the same precaution with the early blossom of certain fruit- 
trees. The greatest power is put forth in this country in June, while the 
greatest temperature of the air does not take place till July. The tempera- 
ture of summer may thus be anticipated a month in well-secured situations." 
(Ibid. p. 16.) 

232. The construction of houses for growing the plants of warm climates, or 
for forcing, is founded chiefly on the doctrine of radiation, as well as on that 
of producing heat by combustion or fermentation. The roof and sides of a 
frame or a hothouse serve the purpose of reflecting back the heat of the 
bodies within, whether that heat is only such as the soil enclosed naturally 
affords, or whether it is generated artificially. But though the roofs of hot- 
houses reflect back great part of the heat which is radiated to them, yet a 
great part also is conducted through the glass to its outer surface, and thence 
radiated into the free air. To prevent this waste of heat, without diminishing 
the quantity of light transmitted through the glass, is a desideratum in hot- 
house building. In Russia double sashes are used, and while the plants 
within are in a dormant state little injury is sustained by them ; but in green- 



REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 73 

bouses .and botanic stoves in tins country, where the plants are kept growing 
throughout the winter, this mode of saving heat would, for many purposes, 
exclude too much light. 

233. The power of man over the heat of the free atmosphere is compara- 
tively limited. Nevertheless, as heat is carried off from the surface of the 
ground, and from all other objects, by wind, by radiation, and by evaporation, 
it follows that heat may be saved from the wind by shelter, and in being 
radiated into the air by a partial covering of the ground, on a large scale, by 
scattered standard trees, or, on a smaller scale, by covering beds or borders 
with straw ; and it may be saved from being carried off by evaporation by 
under-draining, surface -draining, and by such a composition of the soil as 
will readily admit the infiltration of water, so as to render it at all times, 
except during rains, tolerably dry. Other modes of increasing the heat of 
the atmosphere have been mentioned (231), or will readily occur; but per- 
haps those of most practical value are shelter and adding to the dryness of 
the soil. 

234. A distinction is to be made between increasing the heat of the atmo- 
sphere and the soil, and preventing the waste of the heat which they already 
contain. This, also, is to be effected chiefly by counteracting radiation. Mr. 
Lymburn, a scientific cultivator of great experience, has the following excel- 
lent observations on this subject : " The great effort," he says, " should be to 
retain (if possible) the heat which was accumulated near the plants through 
the day. If water be near, it has a tendency to assume the state of vapour, 
and rob the air of its heat ; the sap of the plant may be more abundant, also, 
from this cause, and increase the expansion of the fluids by frost, which may 
end in the bursting and laceration of the vessels, and be the cause of death. 
When a clear cold night succeeds to a wet day, if the night is long and the 
atmosphere does not get cloudy, the heat radiates upwards from the earth 
and plants into the cold air, while the evening at first is comparatively warm. 
The cold is also greatly accelerated by the evaporation of moisture : it is 
calculated that it takes above 800 of heat to convert water into steam ; and 
though vapour does not require so much, part of the vapour being chemically 
attracted by the atmosphere, still the consumption is great. From these 
causes the earth and plants by degrees get so cold, from having parted with 
their heat, that their temperature descends below the freezing point. In 
spring and autumn the air is comparatively warm, and the nights not so long ; 
and hence spring and autumn frosts seldom take place till near sunrise : and if 
a cloud happens to settle above any portion of the earth about that time, 
before the earth has been cooled down to the freezing point, it prevents the 
farther radiation of the heat upwards ; and hence we often find places lying 
contiguous and below the cloud to be saved from frost at one time, while at 
another they will be much hurt. Where plants partially cover one another, 
they help to prevent radiation ; and when one plant is more covered with 
moisture than another, or growing more vigorously, more full of watery 
sap, and the bark more tender, from these and other causes one plant is 
often, to all appearance, unaccountably killed, while another is left unhurt. 

235. In order to protect plants from frost^ we should study to have the 
plants themselves and the earth around as dry as possible towards the even- 
ing. The situation for plants liable to be hurt by spring and autumn frosts 
should be as much elevated as possible, in order to have the benefit of the 
wind in dispersing the cold heavy air and bringing forward the warmer ; in 



74 ' HEAT, CONSIDERED WITH 

low situations the cold air, being heavier, collects, and not being benefited 
by the dispersion of the wind and bringing forward a warmer air, plants are 
much more liable to be hurt by slight frosts in such situations. Wherever 
it is possible, when the clearness and coldness of the air indicate a tendency 
to frost, plants that are worth the expense should be covered with the best 
non-conducting substances we can fall in with. Metals are the worst, if 
polished and bright in the colour : however, they are better non-conductors 
than when dark-coloured and rough ; wood is still better ; but, unless when 
saturated with moisture, woollen, next to furs and eider-down, is the best of 
any, from the confined air retained between the hairs of the wool. 

230. Whatever covering is used, whether straw mats, bast mats, cloth, or 
wool, or wood, they should be elevated above the surface to be covered, so as 
to contain as much confined air as possible. Confined air is one of the worst 
conductors of heat ; the covering will not radiate or give out heat till the 
confined air and covering are both heated above the state of the atmosphere ; 
and the transmission of heat will take place more slowly through the con- 
fined air than anything else. Thus, for very little trouble, by elevating our 
coverings, we surround our plants or plant-structures with a substance which 
is very retentive of heat, and increases the power of the covering in an 
immense degree. The heat has most tendency to ascend upwards, and this 
should be most guarded against ; but it will also escape by the sides : and to 
confine the air and heat completely, the plant or plant-structure must be 
covered all round from the external air. A perfectly air-tight covering 
would be with difficulty either procured or applied ; but apertures in direct 
communication with the external air, may be guarded in such a manner as 
to prevent the escape of heat. Thus, if we suppose four coverings of woollen 
netting, with the meshes of 1-10 in. square open, and exactly as much space 
between the meshes closed ; then these four covers would afford comparatively 
little protection if placed so as the openings would be directly over each other ; 
but by alternately placing over each other the open and the closed parts, the 
egress of heated air, as well as the ingress of cold air, would be very much 
interrupted. The warm air would have to deviate three times from its 
direct upward tendency, which its greater elasticity, derived from the heat, 
imparts to it ; and the cold air would have to turn as often from the course 
in which, by gravitation, it would otherwise proceed downwards. The cur- 
rents of both the internal and external air would thus be impeded, and the 
interchange of temperature reduced to the very slow process resulting from 
mere contact. 

237. Wall-trees should have a broad coping of wood on the wall, to pre- 
vent the ascent of heat ; and woollen nets drawn down before tender peaches, 
&c., in cold nights, and carefully removed in good weather through the day, 
are a great help, when not left on in all weathers. The wall, for tender 
fruit-trees, or other tender plants, is best built of porous materials, as bricks, 
which retain the heat from the confined air better than stone ; and they 
should be built with hollow chambers for the same purpose. Where paint- 
ing is needed, white is the best colour. To prevent the bad effects of cold 
east winds in the spring, causing the sap to descend in standard fruit-trees, 
and destroying the blossom when expanded by the check it gives to the 
ascent of the sap that should nourish it, the stems and branches should be 
baund with straw ropes, and the ground mulched. 

238. Various situations should be chosen to protect tender shrubs and 



REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 75 

^ according to the nature of the plant. For those that spring early, and 
are apt to be nipped by spring frosts, a north border and cold soil are best to 
retard their time of starting till the danger from frost is less : for those that 
suffer from want of the wood being ripened sufficiently, as many American 
plants which have a warmer summer in their native situation to ripen the 
wood, as also for those that suffer by autumn frosts before the wood is 
ripened, a south exposure and warm dry early soil are best : in dry soils 
there is not so much wood made, but that which is made is more easily 
ripened ; and the more sun, the more likelihood that the wood will be 
ripened before frost sets in. In some late wet autumns, some of the hardiest 
of our trees have been killed : transplanted Birch, after being some years 
transplanted ; Oaks, that were apparently sound, dying down half their 
length in the ensuing spring ; and seedling American Oaks dying off in the 
ensuing summer, after having begun to grow ; thus showing that even the 
hardiest of our trees may be affected, from their wood not being sufficiently 
ripened in a cold wet autumn. 

239. The presence of a stream or river is generally allowed to increase 
the tendency to slight frosts in spring and autumn. The surface of the 
water ) as it condenses by cold, descends to the bottom, and a warm stratum 
succeeds to the surface ; and so far the tendency is towards heating rather 
than cooling the air : but the great evaporation that takes place through the 
day, and early in the evening, robs the air of so much caloric, that fields 
situated near shallow rivers, streams, or bogs, have generally been found 
most liable to frost ; near the sea, or near great bodies of deep water, the 
first -mentioned effect of a succession of warmer strata to the surface pre- 
vails, and we have less tendency to freezing. 

240. Watering in the morning early, if the frost has not penetrated to the 
juices of the plant, may, by washing off the cold dew, prevent the frost 
from penetrating ; and covering from the sun may save a plant partially hurt 
from the excessive change of temperature, if a bright sunny day succeed the 
frosty night : but no power on earth can recover the plant if the juices have 
been exposed by freezing till the vessels are burst, which may be known by 
the change of colour in the leaves by the suffusion of the sap. If some of 
the most tender leaves only are hurt on the young growths, the plant may 
survive ; if the wood is generally young and succulent, as in seedlings, 
Dahlias, c., the whole plant generally perishes, unless where there is an 
old ripened root or wood to renew vegetation. Some plants, as Beech, that 
throw out or evolve most of their young buds in spring, are apt to perish, 
even though some years old, before the latest buds can spring : the Oak, 
Ash, &c., that have always spare buds, are not so apt to perish." (Gard. 
Mag. vol. xvi. p. 4J30.) 

241. The general conclusions to be drawn from the observations contained 
in this section are : 1, that the heat of the soil and of the free atmosphere 
may be increased by diminishing evaporation, so as to receive a greater ad- 
vantage from the rays of the sun ; and 2, that it may be preserved 'by 
checking radiation. The means for diminishing evaporation are draining, 
improving the constituent parts of the soil, and shelter from cold winds ; and 
the means of diminishing radiation are simply coverings placed over the soil, 
or the plant about which the heat is to be retained. 



76 ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE, CONSIDERED 

SECT. II. Atmospheric Moisture, considered with reference to Horticulture. 

242. The existence of water in air, even when the latter is in its driest, 
coldest, and purest state, is easily proved ; and the quantity of aqueous 
vapour which it holds hi suspension has been ascertained by experiment. It 
varies with the temperature, increasing as the heat is greater, in something 
like a geometrical ratio. " At 50 Fahr. air contains about 1-50 of its 
volume of vapour ; and as the specific gravity of vapour is to that of air 
nearly as 10 to 15, this is about 1-75 of its weight. At 100, and supposing 
that there is a free communication with water, it contains about 1-14 part 
in volume, or 1-21 in weight." (Davy's Ag. Chem. Oth ed. p. 198.) Water 
is also held in the atmosphere hi a grosser form than that of elastic vapour ; 
for example, as mist, fog, or clouds, which three forms only differ in their 
appearances, and not in their nature. Mists are those clouds near the surface 
of the ground ; and fogs are only more dense mists, or, perhaps, mists diffused 
to a greater height in the atmosphere. Mists are of a floating nature, and 
the air is often seen clear above and below them ; but fogs are generally more 
dense, and they pervade the atmosphere to a greater extent. It will be found 
afterwards that it is of some importance to bear in mind the distinction between 
water held in suspension in the atmosphere in the state of invisible elastic 
vapour, and held in suspension in the state of steam, mist, or fog : in these 
latter states it is frequently found in greenhouses in the winter season, and 
in frames and pits, where the heat is communicated through the moist soil by 
a bed of fermenting dung laid below it. 

243. To measure the quantity of elastic vapour in the atmosphere, Hy- 
grometers have been invented, and the degree of moisture is indicated in 
these instruments by what is called the dew-point. The best hygrometer 
is that of Daniell ; but as some nicety is required in its use, a substi- 
tute has been found in two common thermometers. The mode of ren- 
dering these a substitute for a hygrometer is thus explained by Mr. 
Wailes: "The dew-point is that degree of temperature, in any place, 
at which moisture is deposited from the surrounding atmosphere upon 
any object of that particular temperature ; and it depends, of course, upon 
the humidity of the air. If, therefore, the air is very moist, the slightest 
depression of the heat of the body in it will cause dew to form ; and, on the 
contrary, if very dry, it will require a considerable fall of temperature to 
produce that result. Hence it is that the cold produced by evaporation of a 
liquid will be proportioned to the hygrometric state of the surrounding 
medium ; and by measuring that degree of cold, we readily ascertain the 
degree of humidity. The common thermometer is the best instrument for 
the purpose of showing the temperature ; and we have only to keep its bulb 
wet with some evaporating liquid of the same temperature as the medium 
it is suspended in, to measure the degree of cold produced by such evapo- 
ration, and thereby to find the dew-point." (Gard. Mag. vol. xv. p. 506.) 
Two thermometers being obtained and placed together, one must have the 
bulb dry to mark the temperature, and the other the bulb wet to indicate 
the cold produced. The bulbs of both thermometers should be covered with 
a fold of white silk or muslin, in order that both may be on a par, with 
respect to the reception of heat from the atmosphere in which they are 
placed, and pure water must be supplied to one of them from a phial or 
other vessel placed near it, by a thread of floss silk acting as a siphon. 



WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 77 

The cover of the moistened bulb and the silk thread must be renewed 
occasionally. The greater the difference between the heat indicated by the 
moistened thermometer and the dry one, the greater will be the want of 
atmospheric moisture. A table, with explanatory observations, will be found 
in our Appendix. Mason's hygrometer, which Mr. Newman informs us was 
in use upwards of thirty years ago by Sir H. Davy and others, (though 
recently brought into notice by Mason,) contains two common thermometers 
mounted side by side, with a glass fountain for water fixed between them ; 
it is a very neat instrument ; but the mode of using two thermometers above 
described is sufficient for all ordinary purposes. Still though the hygrometric 
state of the air may be known by a dry and a moistened thermometer, such 
as that bearing the name of Mason, the latter showing a depression corre- 
sponding with the rapidity of evaporation at the time, yet it is allowed by all 
who have studied the subject maturely, that the results are not so much to 
be depended on as when obtained by means of Daniell's hygrometer. 

244. Having described the means which may be resorted to in order to 
ascertain the hygrometric state of the atmosphere, we shall now give an 
example of the utility of that knowledge for horticultural purposes. We 
shall suppose that the grape is to be forced in a vinery ; and we shall first 
imagine the plant growing under the most favourable circumstances in its 
native country, at the time of its flowering ; enjoying a temperature of 7C or 
80 through the day, with 8 or ]0 of dryness, according to the hygrometer 
of Mason or Daniell. At night, whilst the air has still a genial warmth,' it is 
also charged with a refreshing moisture, or, in other words, it is in a state of 
saturation. The leaves expand, and the shoots become rapidly extended. 
The conditions under which this takes place, in the native country of the 
grape, we would wish to imitate in its artificial culture in our vineries. In 
a vinery we can, even in cold weather, command heat, and the degree of 
dryness through the day will not be much in excess ; but when night comes, 
although we can still keep up the heat, the moisture is diminished instead of 
being increased. More fire-heat being required, the air in contact with the 
hot flues, or hot-water pipes, ascends upwards in consequence of its increasing 
elasticity, till it reaches the cold glass ; the latter condenses the vapour which 
the air contains, just as the refrigerator of a still condenses, by its coldness, 
the spirituous or other vapour contained in the worm ; and the condensed 
vapour may be seen trickling down the glass roof. The portions of air thus 
successively drained of moisture being also cooled by contact with the glass, 
become specifically heavier, sink and give place to a fresh supply of warmer 
air, which in its turn descends, likewise deprived of its moisture. Herein 
we have discovered the source of an evil, the amount of which may be accu- 
rately ascertained by means of the hygrometer ; and it will sometimes, under 
such circumstances as are stated, indicate as much as 20 of dryness, or the 
double of what the vine naturally had in the day, instead of being in the 
natural state of saturation at night. 

245. " The amount of evaporation from the soil, and of exhalation from the 
foliage of the vegetable kingdom," Mr. Daniell observes, " depends upon two 
circumstances, the saturation of the air with moisture, and the velocity 
of its motion. They are in inverse proportion to the former, and in direct 
proportion to the latter. When the air is dry, vapour ascends in it with 
great rapidity from every surface capable of affording it ; and the energy of 



78 ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE, CONSIDERED 

this action is greatly promoted by wind, which removes it from the exhaling 
body as fast as it is formed, and prevents that accumulation which would 
otherwise arrest the process." Over the state of saturation the horticulturist 
has little or no control in the open air ; but over its velocity he has some com- 
mand. He can break the force of the blast by artificial means, such as walls, 
palings, hedges, or other screens ; or he may find natural shelter in situations 
upon the acclivities of hills. Excessive exhalation is very injurious to many 
of the processes of vegetation, and no small proportion of what is commonly 
called blight may be attributed to this cause. Evaporation increases in a 
prodigiously rapid ratio with the velocity of the wind, and anything which 
retards the motion of the latter is very efficacious in diminishing the amount 
of the former : the same surface which, in a calm state of the air, would 
exhale 100 parts of moisture, would yield 125 in a moderate breeze, and 
150 in a high wind. The dryness of the atmosphere in spring renders the 
effect most injurious to the tender shoots of this season of the year, and 
the easterly winds especially are most to be opposed in their course. The 
moisture of the air flowing from any point between N.E. and S.E. inclusive, 
is to that of the air from the other quarter of the compass in the proportion 
of 81 4 to 907, upon an average of the whole year: and it is no uncommon 
thing in spring for the dew-point to be more than 20 degrees below the 
temperature of the atmosphere in the shade, and the difference has even 
amounted to 30 degrees. The effect of such a degree of dryness is parching 
in the extreme, and if accompanied with wind is destructive to the blossoms 
of tender plants. The use of high walls, especially upon the northern and 
eastern sides of a garden, in checking this evil, cannot be doubtful ; and in 
the case of tender fruit-trees, such screens should not be too far apart. 

246. When trees are trained upon a wall with a southern aspect, they 
have the advantage of a greatly exalted temperature ; but this temperature, 
in spring, differs from the warmth of a more advanced period of the year, or 
of a more southern climate, in not being accompanied by an increase of 
moisture. In this extremely dry state of the atmosphere, the enormous 
exhalations from the blossoms of tender fruit-trees which must thus be in- 
duced cannot fail of being extremely detrimental ; the effect of shading 
the plants from the direct rays of the sun should therefore be ascertained. 
The state of the weather referred to often occurs in April, May, and June, 
but seldom lasts many hours. Great mischief, however, may arise in a very 
small interval of time, and the disadvantage of a partial loss of light cannot 
be put in comparison with the probable good effect of shading, by mats or 
canvas, at the distance of a foot or two from the wall." (Idem.) 

247. Mr. Daniell " kept a register of the weather, and has seen, in the 
month of May, the thermometer in the sun at 101, while the dew-point was 
only 34 : the state of saturation of the air, upon a south wall, consequently, 
only amounted to 120; a state of dryness which is certainly not surpassed by 
an African harmattan. The shelter of a mat on such occasions would often 
prevent the sudden injury which so frequently arises at this period of the 
year." With great submission to Mr. Daniell, who must necessarily know 
so much more of the subject than we can do, we cannot help thinking that 
this statement must be somewhat exaggerated. In this country we certainly 
have the sun frequently sufficiently powerful in summer to raise the ther- 
mometer in the free air, at a distance from the wall, to 101, whilst the air 



WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 79 

in the shade may, perhaps, be only 6G, and the dew-point 60. \Ve should 
in this case say, that the degree of dryness was 10, and not 51, as would 
be the result of subtracting 50 from 101, as Mr. Daniell has done 30 from 
] 50. Supposing a screen were put so as to intercept the sun's rays from the 
thermometer, the latter would soon fall, and it would be found that the tem- 
perature of the air was really not 101, and therefore that the latter number 
should not have been taken for the purposes of giving the difference or degree 
of dryness. 

248. 4i Some of the present practices of gardening," Mr. Dauiell continues, 
" are founded upon experience of similar effects ; and it is well known that 
cuttings of plants succeed best in a border with a northern aspect protected 
from the wind ; or if otherwise situated, they require to be screened from 
the force of the noon-day sun. If these precautions be unattended to, 
they speedily droop and die. For the same reason, the autumn is selected 
for placing them in the ground, as well as for transplanting trees; the 
atmosphere at that season being saturated with moisture, is not found to 
exhaust the plant before it has become rooted in the soil. 

249. Over the absolute state of vapour in the air we are wholly 
powerless ; and by no system of watering can we affect the dew-point in the 
free atmosphere. This is determined in the upper regions ; it is only, 
therefore, by these indirect methods, and by the selection of proper seasons, 
that we can preserve the more tender shoots of the vegetable kingdom from 
the injurious effects of excessive exhalation." (Hort. Trans. , vol. vi. p. 7.) 

250. Over rain, we may be said to have little influence ; but though we 
cannot prevent rain falling from the clouds, we can prevent it from falling 
upon particular plants or objects. By copings, we can protect fruit trees 
against walls from perpendicular rain, and thus preserve the bloom on the 
surface of fruit which would otherwise be washed off by it. The roofs of 
plant-structures of every kind, and even the surface of the ground, may be 
protected from rain by thatching or covering with any body that will carry 
off the rain at particular points, or channels, whence it may be conveyed 
away in underground drains. By these and other means the soil of a garden 
in a wet climate may be kept much drier, and consequently warmer, than 
it otherwise would be. Some situations are more liable to rain than others, 
such as the vicinity of woods and hills, and places exposed to the Western 
Ocean generally. Those, on the other hand, which are exposed to the 
Eastern Ocean have rains less frequently ; but these rains have a better effect 
on vegetation, because the soil, from the less frequency of rain, being gene- 
rally drier, is warmer to receive them. 

251. Though we have little or no power over the moisture of the free 
atmosphere, we may be said to have the perfect command of the atmospheric 
moisture of hothouses. Till within the last twenty or thirty years the prin- 
cipal points attended to in the atmosphere of hothouses were heat and light ; 
but meteorological and chemical researches having proved, as we have seen 
(242 and 253), that with every increase of temperature in the open air 
there is always an increase of aqueous vapour, this condition began to 
be imitated in hothouses in which tropical plants were cultivated. u Capt. 
Sabine, in his meteorological researches between the tropics, rarely found, 
at the hottest period of the day, so great a difference as 10 degrees on the 
temperature of the air and the dew-point ; making the degree of saturation 
about 730, but most frequently 5 degrees, or 850; and the mean satura- 



80 ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE, CONSIDERED 

tion of the air could not have exceeded 910." If the hygrometer were con- 
sulted in hothouses as commonly managed, Mr. Daniell observes, " it would 
be no uncommon thing to find in them a difference of 20 between the point 
of condensation and the air, or a degree of moisture falling short of 500." 
The causes of the dryness of our artificial climates has been admirably 
pointed out by Mr. Rogers. 

252. " The causes whose constant operation renders our artificial climates 
unnaturally dry are principally two : the condensation of moisture on the 
glass, and the escape of heated and damp air through the crevices of the 
building, the space which it occupied being constantly supplied by dry ex- 
ternal air. A third drain of moisture formerly existed in the absorbing surfaces 
of brick flues, which drank up the moisture of the air in contact with 
them, and carried it off with the smoke into the outer air. The very general 
use of hot water in iron pipes has removed this nuisance, and we have now 
only to contend with the two first mentioned. 

253. Some idea of the drain of moisture by the escape of heated air may 
be formed from the following considerations. The capacity of air for moisture, 
that is to say, the quantity of water which a cubic foot of air will hold in 
invisible solution, depends upon its temperature, and increases with it in a 
rapid ratio. It is doubled between 44 and 66. The consequence is, that 
every cubic foot of air which escapes at the latter temperature carries 
off with it twice as much moisture as it brought in. Where the difference 
of temperature is greater, the drain becomes greater also : air entering at 
44, and escaping at 80, carries off three times as much as it brought in ; 
escaping at 90, four times. Now the escape of air from our best glazed 
buildings is considerable at all times, even when the lights are closed ; and 
if the glazing be defective, and the laps be not puttied, it is very great in- 
deed. The amount of moisture thus abstracted cannot be very easily esti- 
mated, varying exceedingly according to the height and construction of the 
building heated. 

254. There exists, however, another drain of moisture, constantly 
affecting all hothouses, however perfectly constructed, and however cau- 
tiously ventilated : viz., the condensation on the glass. In this case the ex- 
penditure is capable of pretty accurate calculation. It has been ascertained 
by experiment, that each square foot of glass will cool 1^ cubic foot of air 
as many degrees per minute as the temperature of inner air exceeds that of 
outer air ; that is to say, if the temperature of outer air be 44, and of the 
house 06, for every square foot of glass 1^ cubic feet of air will be cooled 
22 per minute ; and the moisture which this air held in solution, in virtue 
of its 22 of heat, will be deposited on the glass, and will either drain away 
out of the house or fall in drip. The greater the difference between the 
temperature of internal and external air, the greater will be the amount of 
condensation ; and be it observed, that the capacity of air for moisture does 
not increase simply in the arithmetical ratio of its temperature, but by a 
scale considerably more rapid, so that the expenditure of moisture at high 
temperatures is much greater than at low temperatures, for equal differences 
between internal and external air." (Gard. Mag. vol. xvi. p. 282.) 

255. This dryness of the atmosphere of hothouses Mr. Daniell has shown 
to be frequently accompanied by an injurious degree of cold to the roots of 
plants. " The danger of overwatering most of the plants, especially at par- 
ticular periods of their growth, is in general very justly appreciated ; and in 



WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 81 

consequence the earth at their roots is kept in a state comparatively dry ; 
the only supply of moisture being commonly derived from the pots, and the 
exhalations of the leaves is not enough to saturate the air, and the conse- 
quence is a prodigious power of evaporation. This is injurious to the plants 
in two ways : in the first place, if the pots be at all moist, and not protected 
by tan or other litter, it produces a considerable degree of cold upon their 
surface, and communicates a chill to the tender fibres with which they are 
lined. The danger of such a chill is carefully guarded against in the case 
of watering, for it is one of the commonest precautions not to use any water 
of a temperature at all inferior to that of the hot air of the house ; inattention 
to this point is quickly followed by disastrous consequences. The danger is 
quite as great from a moist flower-pot placed in a very dry atmosphere. " 

256. " The custom of lowering the temperature of fluids in hot climates, by 
placing them in coolers of wet porous earthenware, is well known, and the 
common garden pot is as good a cooler for this purpose as can be made. 
Under the common circumstances of the atmosphere of a hot- house, a depres- 
sion of temperature, amounting to fifteen or twenty degrees, may easily le 
produced upon such an evaporating surface. But the greatest mischief will 
arise from the increased exhalations of the plants so circumstanced, and the 
consequent exhaustion of the powers of vegetation. Some idea may be 
formed of the prodigiously increased drain upon the functions of a plant 
arising from an increase of dry ness in the air, from the following considera- 
tion. If we suppose the amount of its perspiration, in a given time, to be 
57 grains, the temperature of the air being 75, and the dew point 70, or the 
saturation of the air being 849, the amount would be increased to 120 grains 
in the same time if the dew-point were to remain stationary, and the tem- 
perature were to rise to 80 ; or, in other words, if the saturation of the air 
were to fall to 726." 

257. " The cause why plants in living rooms do not thrive so well as those 
which are kept in plant structures, is chiefly owing to the extreme dry ness 
of the air, while a constant drain upon the leaves and the soil of the pots is 
maintained for moisture. Hence the fibres in the inside of the pots are alter- 
nately moistened and dried, and cooled and heated, and the leaves are deprived 
of their water by evaporation instead of by perspiration." 

258. " Besides the power of transpiration, the leaves of vegetables exercise 
also an absorbent function, which must be no less disarranged by any defi- 
ciency of moisture. Some plants derive the greatest portion of their nutri- 
ment from the vaporous atmosphere, and all are more or less dependent 
upon the same source." 

259. " These considerations must be sufficient," Mr. Daniell imagines, 
"to place in a strong light the necessity of a strict attention to the atmosphere 
of vapour in our artificial climates, and to enforce as absolute an imitation 
as possible of the example of nature. The means of effecting this is the next 
object of our inquiry." 

260. " Tropical plants require to be watered at the root with great caution, 
and it is impossible that a sufficient supply of vapour can be kept up from 
this source alone. There can, however, be no difficulty in keeping the floor 
of the house and the flues continually wet, and an atmosphere of great elas- 
ticity may thus be maintained in a way perfectly analogous to the natural 
process. Where steam is employed as the means of communicating heat, an 
occasional injection of it into the air may also be had recourse to : but this 

o 



82 ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE CONSIDERED. 

method would require much attention on the part of the superintendant, 
whereas the first cannot easily be carried to excess." It is true that damp 
air or floating moisture of long continuance would also be detrimental to 
the health of the plants, for it is absolutely necessary that the process of 
transpiration should proceed ; but there is no danger that the high tem- 
perature of the hothouse should ever attain the point of saturation by 
spontaneous evaporation. The temperature of the external air will always 
keep down the force of the vapour ; for as in the natural atmosphere 
the dew-point at the surface of the earth is regulated by the cold of the 
upper regions, so in a house the point of deposition is governed by the 
temperature of the glass with which it is in contact. In a well-ventilated 
hothouse, by watering the floor in summer, we may bring the dew-point 
within four or five degrees of the temperature of the air, and the glass will 
be perfectly free from moisture ; by closing the ventilators we shall probably 
raise the heat ten or fifteen degrees, but the degree of saturation will remain 
nearly the same, and a copious dew will quickly form upon the glass, and 
will shortly run down in streams. A process of distillation is thus established, 
which prevents the vapour from attaining the full elasticity of the tempera- 
ture. This action is beneficial within certain limits, and at particular seasons 
of the year ; but when the external air is very cold, or radiation proceeds 
very rapidly, it may become excessive and prejudicial. It is a well-known 
fact, but one which I believe has never yet been properly explained, that by 
attempting to keep up in a hothouse the same degree of heat at night as 
during the day, the plants become scorched ; from what has been premised 
it will be evident that this is owing to the low temperature of the glass, and 
the consequent low dew-point in the house, which occasions a degree of 
dryness which quickly exhausts the juices." Much of this evil might be 
prevented by such simple and cheap means as an external covering of mats 
or canvas; or by still slower conductors of heat, such as straw mats, or 
" thatched hurdles ;" the latter, from the direction of the straws, throwing 
off the rain, and, from their tubular construction, retaining a large proportion 
of stagnated air, and hence forming an excellent non-conductor. 

261. *' The heat of the glass of a hothouse at night cannot exceed the mean 
of the external and internal air, and taking these at 80 and 40, 20 of 
dryness are kept up in the interior, or a degree of saturation not exceeding 
628. To this in a clear night we may add at least 6 for the effects of radia- 
tion, to which the glass is particularly exposed, which would reduce the 
saturation to 434, and this is a degree of drought which must be nearly 
destructive. It will be allowed that the case which I have selected is by no 
means extreme, and it is one which is liable to occur even in the summer 
months. Now by an external covering of mats, &c., the effects of radiation 
would be at once annihilated, and a thin stratum of air would be kept in 
contact with the glass, which would become warmed, and consequently tend 
to prevent the dissipation of the heat. But no means would of course be so 
effective as double glass, including a stratum of air. Indeed, such a precau- 
tion in winter seems almost essential to any great degree of perfection in this 
branch of Horticulture. When it is considered, that a temperature at night 
of 20 is no very unfrequent occurrence in this country, the saturation of the 
air may, upon such occasions, fall to 120; and such an evil can only at pre- 
sent be guarded against by diminishing the interior heat in proportion. But 
by materially lowering the temperature, we communicate a check which is 



AGITATION OP THE ATMOSPHERE CONSIDERED. 83 

totally inconsistent with the welfare of tropical vegetation. The chill which 
is instantaneously communicated to the glass by a fall of rain and snow, and 
the consequent evaporation from its surface, must also precipitate the internal 
vapour, and dry the included air to a very considerable amount, and the 
effect should be closely watched." (Hort. Trans., vol. vi. p. 23.) 

262. " The skilful balancing of the temperature and moisture of the air," says 
Dr. Lindley, " in cultivating different kinds of plants, and the just adapta- 
tion of them to the various seasons of growth, constitute the most complicated 
and difficult part of a gardener's art. There is some danger in laying down 
any general rules with respect to this subject, so much depends upon the 
peculiar habits of species, of which the modifications are endless. It may, 
however, I think, be safely stated, that the following rules deserve especial 
attention : 

(1.) Most moisture in the air is demanded by plants when they first begin 
to grow, and least when their periodical growth is completed. 

(2.) The quantity of atmospheric moisture required by plants is, cateris 
paribus, in inverse proportion to the distance from the equator of the coun- 
tries which they naturally inhabit. 

(3.) Plants with annual stems require more than those with ligneous 
stems. 

(4.) The amount of moisture in the air most suitable to plants at rest, is 
in inverse proportion to the quantity of aqueous matter they at that time 
contain. Hence the dryness of the air required by succulent plants when 
at rest." (Theory of Hort., p. 153.) 

SECT. III. The Agitation of the Atmosphere considered with reference to 
Horticulture. 

263. The motion of the atmosphere., known as wind, and varying in grada- 
tion from the gentlest breeze to the most furious tempest, is, to a certain 
extent, under the control of the horticulturist. He cannot, indeed, agitate 
the air at pleasure, but he can lessen the agitation, when it is produced by 
nature, by shelter ; and he can take advantage of it when it is wanted, by 
exposure ; and, in hothouses, he can even create agitation. The use of wind 
in the economy of nature seems to be to carry off impure exhalations from 
particular spots, and to equalize in the atmosphere the diffusion of gaseous 
matters, and of moisture and temperature. The free action of the wind on 
the surface of the ground assists in drying it when moist, because air has a 
great capacity for water ; and it promotes the vigour of plants, and especially 
of trees, by the motion which it produces in their stems, branches, and leaves. 
In some cases it may do good by carrying off insects, and in others injury 
by bringing them. The fact that the motion of the stems and leaves of trees 
by wind increases their diameter, is doubted by some, though according to 
others it is easily proved by observing what takes place in fruit-trees trained 
against walls, as compared with the same species growing as standards. If, 
say those who are of the latter opinion, the deposition of woody matter in the 
stems and branches depended on the number and exposure to the sun of the 
leaves, then wall-trees must necessarily have a thicker stem than standard- 
trees ; but as the contrary is the case, and as the only difference in the circum- 
stances in which standard and wall-trees are placed is, that the standards are 
subject to be put in motion by the wind, to that cause we must attribute the 
greater thickness of their stems and branches. It is added, that tying the 

G2 



84 AGITATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE, 

stems of transplanted trees firmly to stakes impedes the growth of that part 
of their stems which is below the tie ; and that trees, after being fixed two 
or three years in this way, have their stems rapidly increased in thickness 
when set at liberty. De Candolle mentions a tree, which had been tied up 
in such a manner that it could only move from north to south, which at last 
formed a trunk the horizontal section of which was elliptic. The effect of 
motion on plants generally, he considers to be increased evaporation, and a 
more rapid movement of the descending sap. (Phys. Vegetale, t. iii. p. 1178.) 

264. By greatly increasing the perspiration of the leaves and other parts 
of plants, wind renders them less watery ; and when this is not carried to an 
injurious extent, plants are by that means rendered firmer, drier, and better 
adapted for being packed and sent to a distance. Hence greenhouse plants 
grown in pits, where the atmosphere is continually moist, are less adapted 
for being sent to a distance than such as have been grown in open, airy green- 
houses ; and such as have been grown in houses heated by brick flues, are 
better than those which have been grown in houses heated by hot water. 
In like manner trees grown in nurseries, situated on high dry situations, 
exposed to the wind, must necessarily have their wood harder and better 
ripened, than such as are grown in moist sheltered valleys. The uses of 
wind in the open air may be reduced to that of drying surfaces, and that of 
putting plants in motion ; and the evils attending wind result from these two 
properties being carried to an excess. All the advantages to be obtained 
from wind in the open air in horticulture are to be obtained by exposure ; 
and all the disadvantages are to be counteracted by shelter. In plant struc- 
tures the imitation of wind, by the agitation of the air, will have the same 
effect as in the external atmosphere, but in a diminished degree. It is also 
of use, by rendering air at a high temperature more agreeable to the human 
feelings than when it is in a stagnant state ; though some (268) consider that 
this is to be principally attributed to the air being saturated or nearly so 
with moisture. 

265. Shelter^ as every gardener knows, is produced by means of walls, 
hedges, plantations, and other screens, placed at right angles to the direction 
of the wind ; but the force of the wind is most powerfully reduced, not by 
opposing a strong barrier, such as a wall, but by an elastic, partially open, 
body, such as a hedge or a thin plantation. The most effectual mode of 
sheltering any territorial surface, whether level or hilly, is by scattering 
over it single trees. In this way, a park or pleasure-ground in the most 
exposed situation may be sheltered in every part of its surface. In this way 
also an orchard or plantation of fruit-trees, the trees being equally distributed 
over the ground, produces its own shelter ; but as a kitchen-garden, if planted 
with standard fruit-trees so as to produce shelter, would be unfit for the 
culture of culinary vegetables, the best mode of sheltering it is by crossing 
it with walls and hedges at such distances as may produce the desired shelter 
in the given situations. A very efficient shelter for culinary vegetables may 
be produced by sticking in branches of young trees, four or five feet in length, 
like pea-sticks, all over the surface on which they are grown ; or by inter- 
secting the surface with lines of wicker-work hurdles, which could be put 
down and taken away at pleasure. By throwing the compartments of a 
kitchen-garden into squares of ten or twelve feet on the side, by wicker- 
work hurdles, an effective shelter would be produced ; and by covering these 
squares with netting, resting on the hurdles, a great deal of the heat radiating 
from the ground would be returned to it. Hedges of thorn, hornbeam, or 



CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. &J 

other plants, may be made to grow on a base of two feet, and trained so as 
to taper on the sides regularly to a top not thicker than an inch, at a height 
of six or eight feet from the ground. Such hedges would form an elegant 
and most effective shelter, provided they were at all times neatly kept. The 
subject of shelter and exposure, however, in the open air is so well under- 
stood, that any further observations seem unnecessary. 

266. The agitation of the air in plant structures has only lately been at- 
tempted ; but, as a substitute for this, a partial renewal of the air, by opening 
the sashes or ventilators of such structures, has long been in practice. This, 
under many circumstances, particularly in houses for tropical plants and for 
forcing fruits, is very injurious to the plants, though it has been found impos- 
sible to dispense with it to a certain extent. ,, The injuries sustained by the 
admission of the external air into a hothouse are greater or less according 
to the difference of temperature, and, consequently, as we have seen (252), 
of moisture. When the external air enters a hothouse in which the air is 
at a high temperature, it rushes in with considerable velocity, driving out by 
the pressure of the atmosphere the hot and vaporous air by which the plants 
are surrounded, and becoming heated and charged with moisture, at the 
expense of the earth in the pots and the foliage of the plants (270). 

267. The only complete remedy for this evil is to heat the air before it is 
admitted among the plants, by causing it to pass through a system of heated 
tubes ; and to saturate the heated air, as it passes through those tubes, with 
moisture, by placing among them a number of vessels of water. As this 
mode, however, is somewhat difficult and expensive in the attainment, a 
better practice is to put the air of the house in motion, admitting to it only 
occasionally a small portion of the external air. This is done in a very 
satisfactory manner by the mode of heating recently introduced by Mr. Penn. 
By this mode the air is continually circulating from one side of the house to 
the other, ascending on one side and 

descending on the other, from back 
to front ; one half of every revo- 
lution being among the plants, and 
the other half through a drain or 
tunnel under the floor, the bottom 
of which is covered with water, 
which, by the heated air passing 
over it, is kept at the same tem- 
perature as that of the house. Fig. 
2 is the section of a house heated 

in Mr. Penn's manner, in which a Fig. 2. Section of a Hothouse heated by hot water 
is the chamber containing the heat- according to Mr. Penn's manner. 

ing pipes; b a small opening in the front wall for, occasionally admitting fresh 
air ; c the drain from back to front, having the bottom covered with water, 
through which drain the air passes, as shown by the direction of the 
arrows in the figure. 

268. A sensible effect on the human feelings, produced by the atmosphere 
of hothouses heated according to Mr. Penn's principle, is, that a high tem- 
perature, say of 80 or 90, can be breathed in as agreeably, and for as long a 
period, as one of 60 or 70 not in motion. This result is partly attributed to 
the motion given to the air ; since, in the hottest days of summer, the heat 
which would be oppressive in still air, is rendered not only bearable but 
even agreeable, if the air is put in motion by a breeze. In like manner the 




86 



AGITATION OP THE ATMOSPHERE, 



absence of heat is much more severely felt when the air is in motion, than 
when it is at rest. Captain Parry and his companions, when in the Polar 
regions, could endure a degree of cold when the air was still, that, when it 
was put into motion, they found to be quite intolerable. It is certain, how- 
ever, that a part of the agreeable effect produced by the motion of the air in 
Mr. Penn's hothouses is owing to the moisture which it contains ; for the 
human feelings in a hothouse heated to 80, in which no attempt has been 
made to saturate the air with moisture, are much less agreeable than in one 
at the same temperature in which the paths are kept moist with water. 
Every one must be aware of this who has felt the heat of a stove heated by 
brick flues, as compared with one heated by hot water ; for though no water 
may escape from the pipes to moisten the air, yet no moisture is absorbed by 
them from the air of the house. In a house heated by flues, on the contrary, 
the clay of the bricks in the flue covers, and the lime by which the sides of 
the flues are plastered, having, as we have seen (155 and 156), a great che- 
mical attraction for water, abstract it from the air of the house, and give it 
that peculiar dryness which is so unpleasant to the skin, and so oppressive 
to the lungs. Alluding to this dry heat, Mr. Daniell says : 

269. " To the human feelings the impression of an atmosphere saturated 
with moisture is very different from one heated to the same degree without 
this precaution ; and any one coming out of a house heated in the common 
way, into one well charged with vapour, cannot fail to be struck with the 
difference. Those who are used to hot climates have declared that the feel 
and smell of the latter exactly assimilate to those of the tropical regions." 

270. The excellence, Mr. Rogers observes, " of Mr. Penn's method of 
warming and ventilating buildings appears to consist in the very uniform 
degree of moisture which it produces in the atmosphere. The heated air 
which enters the hothouse has already received a dose of moisture nearly 
sufficient to saturate it, and has not to seek its moisture among the plants, as 
is generally the case. In most plant houses the pipes are placed under the 
front shelves, at a considerable distance from the floor, and the atmosphere 
is moistened by syringing the plants, or throwing water on the floor and 
shelves. How greatly the state of an atmosphere so produced differs from 
that of Mr. Penn's houses, a little consideration of the annexed sketch will 
show. It is the section of a house heated by pipes under the front shelves ; 
and it must be borne in mind that the capacity of air for moisture varies 
with its temperature, so that air which was saturated at 56, becomes very 
dry when heated to 70. 

271. The sketch fig. 3 is the 
section of a house heated by pipes in 
the ordinary manner, under the front 
shelves. The arrows (numbered) 
indicate the course of the current. 
of air. At No. 1 the air comes 
heated from the pipes p, and ex- 
tremely thirsty; at No. 2 it find;* 
moisture among the plants, and. 
rising from the damp and warm 
shelf (slate, of course) ; at No. 3 it 

has parted with some of its heat ; it Fig. 3. Section of a Hothouse heated by hot u-ater 

is now supersaturated, and is parting in the ordinary manner. 




CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE, 87 

with the moisture deposited on the glass ; at No. 4 it is in the same state; at 
No. 5 it has ceased to lose heat or moisture ; at No. 6 and 7 the same ; at 
No. 8 it again comes within the influence of the pipes, and is heated, becoming 
again very dry. Now the air which descends to the floor (8) in the first 
place, is a small and feeble current, and secondly, is nearly saturated, so 
that it can take up little moisture ; and what little it does get is because the 
floor, being slightly warmed by the radiation of the pipes, warms, and at 
the same time moistens, the air ; but, nevertheless, the air at No. 1, in which 
air a visitor walks, is anything rather than saturated. My belief is that, air 
nearly saturated is always agreeable to the feelings. Dry air, which is ab- 
sorbing moisture, is anything but agreeable. Hence the unpleasant sen- 
sation in orchidaceous houses. Now it is unnecessary to show how Mr. 
Penn's plan obviates all these defects, and produces a uniformly saturated 
atmosphere which must be wholesome alike to plants and men." (Gard. 
Mag. vol. xvi. p. 273.) Corbett's mode of heating, by circulating water in 
open gutters (which can be closed at pleasure), is said to keep the air of 
those houses in which it is employed more effectually saturated with mois- 
ture than any other mode. (See Gard. Mag. 1841, p. 57, and Gard. Gaz. 
3841, Jan. 23.) 

272. Though too much moisture can scarcely be admitted into the at- 
mosphere of plant structures kept at a high temperature, yet this is not the 
case with houses in which the degree of heat is not much greater than that 
of the open air ; for example, Greenhouses. In these houses the object of 
the gardener is frequently more to exclude frost than to increase the heat 
already there ; and consequently, when the thermometer in the open air 
ranges between 40 and 50, no fire heat is required. In this case, however, 
if the air is not agitated by some artificial process, it becomes surcharged with 
moisture or damp, not in a state of elastic vapour, but as steam or fog. This 
excess is favourable to the growth of mould or fungi on the surface of the 
soil in the pots ; and being, from the excess of water, unfavourable for the 
respiration of the leaves, it occasions them to decay and drop off. In cases 
of this kind, it is more desirable to introduce dry air than moist air ; but as 
the air of the external atmosphere is generally not drier than that of the 
house, it is found desirable to employ heat so as to raise the temperature of 
the house, and this raised temperature having an increased capacity for 
heat, the water which was before in a state of mixture with the air is now 
changed into elastic vapour ; the consequence is, that the air of the house 
becomes dried, the growth of fungi checked, and the leaves of the plants no 
longer decay and drop off. Some persons are of opinion that Mr. Penn's system 
of circulating the air is only applicable to houses where fire heat is constantly 
used, and that for greenhouses and conservatories it is nearly useless. An 
experienced and scientific gardener, however, is of a directly contrary opinion. 
" In addition to its use in forcing- houses, where it may be deemed indispen- 
sable," he says, " I would adopt it in the greenhouse in preference to all 
other modes of heating. Greenhouse plants invariably do well while we can 
admit plenty of air, or while we can maintain a current to counteract the 
effects of damp. But there are sometimes months together that we cannot 
open a sash to effect this, without admitting air injuriously cold, or saturated 
with moisture ; it is then we are doomed to see many of our tender favourites 
pine, droop, and die ; and then that the advantage of an independent atmo- 



00 AGITATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE CONSIDERED. 

sphere, circulating at pleasure, and of any desired quality of heat and mois- 
ture, become of incalculable value. Admitting damp to be the greatest 
enemy that tender plants have to encounter during winter ; that a current 
of air dispels that damp as effectually, and much more safely, than fire heat 
(the least excess of which is always hurtful and often fatal), the conclusion 
is, that plants in a damp state are really more benefited by the application 
of fire heat, from the commotion it creates in the air, than from any trifling 
addition it may make to the temperature. Hence the great utility of Mr. 
Penn's apparatus, with which the same quantity of fuel will create a tenfold 
current, giving at all times the power of maintaining sufficient heat to keep 
plants in a state of health without the possibility of injuring them. Some 
persons suppose that plants will thrive better in a lower circulating medium 
than they will do in a higher stagnated one (that is, that they will do as 
well in a current of air heated to 60, as they would where it is stagnated 
and heated to 70) ; then I reply that we know that plants of a more hardy 
nature will bear much more heat with the air in a state of circulation than 
they will when it is stagnant. Therefore, with an atmosphere so truly 
under our control as that produced by Mr. Penn, we may reasonably ex- 
pect an approximation in the habits of plants, that will render the division 
of structures, however desirable under any circumstances, less a matter of 
absolute necessity than it has hitherto been. It is, I think, not improbable 
that this may be the case to an extent that will render greenhouse grapes 
equal to the present forced fruit." (Gard. Mag. vol. vi. 2d series, p. 64rl. 

273. Pits and cucumber frames, which are kept at a high temperature 
during winter, frequently have the air within surcharged with moisture to 
such a degree at that season as to endanger the health of the plants. The 
ordinary remedy for this evil is to admit a portion of the external air during 
bright sunshine ; but a safer mode, if it can be adopted, is to admit the ex- 
ternal air through tubes heated by being bedded in dung or tan, or by being 
placed in contact with the flues or hot- water pipes by which the pit is heated. 
By this means, the admitted air has its capacity for moisture greatly in- 
creased, and it will absorb and change the steam contained in the atmosphere 
of the pit and the dew-drops on the grass and framework into elastic invisible 
vapour. Where hot water is used as the sole means of heating pits, if Mr. 
Penn's system be adopted, the air will be kept constantly in motion, and 
very little danger will arise from the damp, as will be afterwards shown 
when we come to treat of the construction of pits. 

274. In all plant structures change of air and ventilation are least ne- 
cessary when the plants are beginning to grow, and most so when they are 
coming to maturity. The reason is, that at this latter period plants are 
more abundantly covered with leaves than at any other ; and these leaves 
being fully expanded, more air is required to enable them to perform their 
respiratory functions. It is also found that increased ventilation and a drier 
air are of great advantage to the maturation of the fruit ; but by dryness of 
the air must be here understood not so much the absence of invisible elastic 
vapour as of steam, or watery exhalations not held in a state of combi- 
nation. " When grapes begin to colour," says Mr. Duncan, a scientific and 
experienced gardener, " it is of as much importance to obtain a dry atmo- 
sphere as it was, previously, to have a moist one ; because the change 
effected in grapes while ripening is produced under the full influence of 
light, heat, and dryness : and it is well known that grapes grown in dry 



LIGHT CONSIDERED, WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 89 

heat, in properly managed houses, acquire a flavour superior to those grown 
in plant houses, where the air is kept moist for the sake of the plants." 
In corroboration of this, the same gardener mentions an instance in 
which " in forcing an old house of vines a continual current of air was 
admitted at the end where the fire entered, in order to maintain the tem- 
perature at both ends of the house nearly alike. At the end of the 
house where so much air was admitted, invariably, till the present year, the 
most abundant, finest, and best coloured grapes, have been produced ; but in 
the present year the case has been materially different, in consequence of 
one of Dr. Arnot's stoves being placed at the other end of the house, by 
which the necessity of admitting air at the usual place, and to the usual 
extent, became unnecessary. The difference in the colour and quality of 
the grapes between the two ends of the house is now inappreciable." (Gard. 
Mag., vol. i., third series, p. 25.) It will be observed, that in this case the 
air was heated before entering the house, which the writer represents as 
essentially necessary. " Good grape-growers," Mr. Duncan adds, " seldom 
admit a current of air directly from the atmosphere, except in extremely 
warm weather, and, even then, never through a doorway, unless it be situ- 
ated at the back of the house, where the temperature is in general higher 
than in front : to admit air in front, unless in very mild weather, would be 
most injurious to the plants." 

275. It is certain that in all countries the climate, during the growing sea- 
son, is moist, and at the ripening season comparatively dry, and hence the 
practice of withholding water from fruit-bearing plants under glass, when 
the fruit is ripening, is in direct imitation of nature. It is also natural to 
suppose, that in the ripening season in the open air, when the surface of the 
soil is dry, the atmosphere over it will be less saturated with vapour than 
when the soil is moist ; and hence, the recommendation of dry air for the 
maturation of fruits is also natural. The effect of this air must be greatly 
to increase the perspiration of the leaves, which is probably favourable to 
the increased action of solar light, in the production of the saccharine mat- 
ter, and the peculiar odoriferous properties of fruits. Where growth, and 
not the maturation of fruit, is the object, more water in the leaves appears 
necessary, probably to aid in the production of carbon. 

276. It will be obvious, from the foregoing remarks, that the mode of 
admitting air to hothouses, by a range of ventilators in front, and a corres- 
pondent range at the back, must be highly injurious to the plants in the winter 
season; and, indeed, more or less so at all seasons, when there is much 
difference between the temperature of the open air and that of the house 
to be ventilated. 

277. Indeed, cultivators may lay it down as a general principle, that 
neither water nor air ought to be given to plants at a much lower tempera- 
ture than that of the soil in which they grow, or the air by which they are 
surrounded. 

SECT. IV. Light) considered with reference to Horticulture. 

278. Light, as we have seen (143), is one of the most important agents 
in the growth of plants. It is to light they owe their green colour, and 
the maturation of their fruits. When plants are grown in situations where 
they obtain no light, as in dark cellars, instead of that beautiful variety of 
colours, and of properties, which they present when grown exposed to the 



90 LIGHT, CONSIDERED WITH 

air and the sun, they consist only of a colourless, inodorous, insipid mass ; 
so much so, that when they are dried and burned they do riot give out flame. 
The carbon contained in all plants, and which of course is in greatest abun- 
dance in such as have woody stems, is entirely the result of the action of 
light on the leaves, by which plants are enabled to decompose carbonic acid, 
and thus to fix its carbon in their structure and expel its oxygen. (Dec. 
Phys. vol. i. p. 47.) Fruits before they are ripe are acid ; that is, their hy- 
drogen and carbon are combined with an excess of oxygen ; but they are 
rendered saccharine by the action of light, which occasions the evolution of 
the oxygen, and the fixation of carbon, by which the vegetable acid is con- 
verted into sugar. In a word, no plant, nor any part of a plant, can be 
brought to perfection without light ; but it deserves also to be remarked, that 
in the cultivation of plants for the use of man, it is sometimes not desirable 
to bring all the parts of a plant to perfection ; and in these cases, the absence 
of light is as necessary as its presence is in others. For example, in the 
case of the Celery and other plants, the stalks of which, when rendered 
green by light, are disagreeable to the taste and even poisonous ; but which, 
by excluding the light, are rendered wholesome and agreeable : the same 
may be said of the tubers of the Potatoe, and of the stalks and leaves of 
Cardoons, Endive, &c. 

279. Light, to a certain extent, follows the same laws as heat. It is re- 
ceived by radiation from the sun, reflected by smooth surfaces, transmitted 
and refracted by transparent substances, such as water and glass ; concen- 
trated by reflection from concave surfaces, and dispersed by reflection from 
surfaces which are convex. All these properties of light are rendered more 
or less available in horticulture. Light, however, differs from heat in the 
impossibility of retaining it after the absence of the sun ; whereas heat can 
be retained by enclosing heated bodies in non-conducting mediums, and by 
reflecting it back to the surfaces from which it is radiated (218). 

280. The radiation of light is greatest when the radiating rays strike the 
surface at a right angle, and least when the angle is most oblique : because, 
in the former case, the rays are reflected on every side, and consequently 
the surrounding objects are illuminated proportionately ; and in the latter 
case the greater number of rays pass off at one side, and illuminate less 
effectively the surrounding medium. The reflected rays arc always returned 
from the surface on which they radiate, at an angle equal to the angle 
of incidence ; and if the reflecting surface be a plane, the reflected rays will 
be parallel to each other : if the surface be convex, they will be diver- 
gent, and consequently dispersed ; and if it is concave, they will be con- 
vergent, and hence concentrated. Smooth and shining surfaces reflect most 
light, and rough and dark surfaces least ; and with respect to colour, white 
reflects almost all the rays of light which fall on it, and black absorbs them all. 

281. When light falls on a transparent medium, a portion of the rays is 
transmitted through it, and a portion is reflected from its surface. The 
latter portion follows the same laws as the light which is reflected from 
opaque surfaces ; arid the portion which passes through it is refracted that 
is, it leaves the transparent medium at a different angle from that on which 
it fell upon it ; and by this change the light is also weakened, so as at a 
very short distance from the surface of the transmitting medium, as of 
glass for example, to be dispersed and transfused in the atmosphere, in 
which state in hothouses it has no longer the same power on the vital energies 



REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 91 

of plants. We are not aware that the cause of the inefficiency of light 
after it has passed through glass and reached a certain distance, has been 
fully explained ; but the fact is well known to gardeners, who, in hothouses, 
invariably place the plants they wish to thrive best at the shortest distance 
from the glass. As the quantity of light which passes through glass at the 
roof of hothouses is, all other circumstances being the same, greatest when 
the plane of the roof is at right angles to the plane of the sun's rays ; 
hence, the slope of the roof is, or ought to be, adjusted to the direction of the 
sun's rays at that season of the year, when its light is most wanted. As in 
houses for early forcing, the greatest deficiency of solar light is in the winter 
season, when the sun is low, so the roofs of such houses are made steep, in 
order that the sun's rays may be received at a larger angle. Summer forcing 
houses, on the other hand, have less steep roofs, so as to receive most benefit 
from the sun in April, May, and June, when forced fruits are ripening. A 
greenhouse, in which no fruit is ripened, but in which abundance of light 
is required all the year, has commonly perpendicular glass to receive a maxi- 
mum of light during winter ; and a sloping roof of glass at an angle of 45; 
which is found favourable for the admission of light at every season, as well 
as for throwing off rain, &c. This subject, however, will receive more 
attention when we come to treat of the construction of hothouses. 

282. The light of the sun, after it has passed through the clouds, is 
refracted, to a certain extent, in the same manner as when it passes through 
glass or water; and if plants were kept constantly under a cloud, but at 
some distance from it, and if the space in 'which they grew were enclosed 
by clouds on every side, we believe the effect on the plants thus enclosed 
would not be materially different from that produced by an enclosure of 
glass. In the open air, however, clouds are not stationary j and even where 
a succession of clouds covers growing plants for several days together, the 
space on which the plants grow is open on every side for the access of re- 
flected and transfused light. This prevents the etiolation and want of colour 
which are found in plants in the back parts of hothouses having shed-roofs ; 
but which are never found in nature, even on the north side of walls, except to 
a very small extent. Hence plant structures which are enclosed by glass on 
every side, and which are circular in the plan, are more likely to produce 
an equalization in the growth and appearance of the plants within, than 
such as have glass on one side, and a wall or opaque body on the other. 

283. As an isolated body, such as a cone or small hill, disperses light 
most extensively when the sun shines, so when the sun is obscured by clouds 
the same body receives most of the reflected light transfused in the atmo- 
sphere, because it is exposed to the atmosphere on every side. For the 
same reason the summits of all bodies in the free atmosphere receive more 
light than their sides ; and hence the trees in dense forests, and the thickly- 
standing corn plants in cultivated fields, continue to grow and thrive though 
they receive little benefit from light, except from that which strikes on the 
tops of the plants. Hence the great importance of perpendicular light to 
plants under glass, and the advantages of conical, domical, angular, or 
ridge and furrow roofs, to plant structures ; because they receive from the 
atmosphere the transfused light on every side. Hence also, if only a certain 
quantity of glass were to be allowed for the construction of a plant house, 
the most beneficial application of it would be in the roof. In the construction 
of conservatories about sixty years ago, it was customary to have opaque 



92 LIGHT, CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 

roofs ; and even about the beginning of the present century half the roof on 
the south side of conservatories, as for example at Southgate Lodge, was 
frequently formed of glass, and the remaining half, on the north side, was 
opaque as before : but this remaining half was placed at such an angle as to 
allow the rays of the sun when highest in the firmament, and consequently 
whenever it shone throughout the year, to reach the back wall. This, it 
was thought by the architects of those days Mr. Nash, for example, who 
introduced this practice would answer every purpose of a roof entirely of 
glass, and at the same time would be warmer and more economical. It was 
soon found, however, that not only the plants on the back wall, but all 
those that were deprived of perpendicular light, did not thrive much better 
than in opaque-roofed conservatories. 

284. From what has just been observed, the necessity of perpendicular 
light will, we trust, be strongly impressed on the mind of our readers ; and, 
also, the necessity, when plants in hothouses are intended to look well on 
every side, of having every side of the hothouse of glass. A third axiom to 
be kept in mind is, that a convex glass roof, or one with an irregular surface, 
is, all other circumstances being alike, preferable to a roof in which the glass 
is all in one plane. 

285. Though art has little power in increasing the quantity or intensity 
of light, whether direct from the sun or transfused in the atmosphere, yet it 
possesses a considerable degree of power in increasing the efficiency of light on 
plants, of such light as there may be in the atmosphere. Thus, by spreading 
out the branches of a tree against a wall exposed to the south, much more 
light as well as heat is brought to act upon the leaves, than if the tree were 
a standard in the free air ; because, in the latter case, there would be neither 
the benefit of the reflection of the wall, nor that resulting from the circum- 
stance of every leaf being exposed to the direct influence of the sun's rays 
when it shone. In like manner, herbaceous plants or shrubs may be planted 
or trained on surfaces sloping to the south; and on surfaces elevated and freely 
exposed rather than in low and confined situations, in which light is obscured 
by surrounding objects or by aqueous vapour. The light thrown on the 
leaves of a plant in the open air may be increased by surrounding it on the 
north, and part of the east and west sides, by a wall or other upright surface 
painted white, or covered with glazed tiles or tinned iron. Practically, how- 
ever, the grand means of increasing the efficiency of such light as there may 
be in any gi'/en situation on plants, is by training them against walls, espa- 
liers, or on the surface of the ground ; or, for those that cannot be conveniently 
so trained, by removing all other plants and objects which are so near them 
as either to obstruct the sun's rays or to interfere with circumambient radia- 
tion. To insure the full effect of the radiation of transfused light upon a 
plant, it ought to have a free space around it, in width on every side at least 
equal to its own height. No timber tree, which has not at least this space, 
can receive from light the full influence which it ought to have on its hori- 
zontal branches ; and hence (278) the trees in dense forests must necessarily 
produce timber inferior in bulk to those of the same kinds in the same 
climate and soil, which are grown as single trees in parks, or in hedge-rows. 

286. In plant-structures a due proportion between light and heat ought, as 
much as possible, to be preserved, because this is always the case in nature, 
where both depend on the sun. It is not in our power to increase the natu- 
ral light of the atmosphere ; for the great disadvantage to which horticulture 



WORMS, SNAILS, SLUGS, &C-, CONSIDERED. 93 

is subject in this climate, as Mr. Daniell has observed, is the uncertainty of 
clear weather ; hut artificial warmth can be supplied or withheld at pleasure. 
" After trying everything that I had seen recommended for the shrivelling of 
grapes," says an experienced scientific gardener, " and feeling fully convinced 
in my own mind, that want of light was one of the causes of this evil, I 
thought I would try what effect proportioning the heat to the light would 
do. This I did, and after several years' practice, I can assert that the 
success has been beyond my expectation." (Gard. Mag.^ vol. vi., second 
series, p. 529.) 

287. The absence of light, as we have before mentioned (278), is necessary 
to render certain bitter or unwholesome parts of plants fit for culinary pur- 
poses ; and the diminution of light is frequently had recourse to, when the 
habitation of plants which grow in shady places is to be imitated, and when 
the perspiration from the leaves of plants is to be diminished. In all cases 
of rooting plants from cuttings which have the leaves on, the diminution of 
perspiration, by shading them from the direct rays of the sun, is necessary, 
till the cuttings have taken root ; and this is also more or less the case with 
all rooted plants which are transplanted with the leaves on, for some days 
after transplanting. When plants are in a dormant state, and without leaves, 
no light is requisite to maintain them in a healthy state ; and even such 
evergreens as are in a state of comparative rest require very little. Hence 
Orange-trees and other greenhouse evergreens, may be kept through the 
winter in an opaque-roofed conservatory ; and deciduous plants, which have 
lost their leaves, may be kept through winter in houses or in cellars into 
which no light is admitted. Plants which naturally grow in the shade (122), 
are not here taken into consideration. 



CHAPTER V. 

WORMS, SNAILS, SLUGS, REPTILES, BIRDS, &c., CONSIDERED WITH 
REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 

288. THE natural uses of plants are for the support of animals, and hence 
every plant, whether in a wild state or in cultivation, is more or less liable 
to their attacks. The most universal enemies to plants in British gardens 
are insects, snails, slugs, and earth-worms ; but they are also subject to be 
devoured or injured by reptiles, birds, and some quadrupeds. With the 
introduction of new species and varieties of plants, the refinements of garden 
cultivation in forcing-houses, and the cultivation of tropical plants in stoves, 
the attacks of ordinary insects have been more severely felt, and several new 
species have been introduced. Hence, to prevent the increase of insects and 
other garden vermin, or to destroy them after they have commenced their 
attacks, has become an important element in garden-culture. 

289. Till about the end of the last century very little attention was paid 
to garden vermin by horticultural writers. Birds were considered to be the 
chief enemies of gardeners, and they were directed to be scared away or shot 
at on account of the injury they did to the rising seeds, or the ripe fruit 
which they ate or destroyed. The injuries done by insects of whatever kind 



94 EARTH-WORMS, CONSIDERED 

then passed under the general term of blight. The scientific study of insects 
had then made little or no progress in this country ; and it does not appear 
to have been then known that birds, though injurious to gardens to a limited 
extent, are yet on the whole, by living in great part on insects, slugs, worms, 
&c., the gardener's best friends. Neither docs the use of certain reptiles, 
such as the frog and toad, and even of quadrupeds, such as the weazel, appear 
to have been understood in gardens by the gnrdeners of the past generation. 
In the present day, however, this branch of garden management, like every 
other, has been subjected to scientific inquiry, and the object of this chapter 
is to generalize the results ; leaving details relative to particular species of 
garden vermin till we come to treat of the plants by which they are chiefly 
affected. The order which we shall follow will be that of worms, slugs, 
snails, insects, reptiles, birds, and quadrupeds. 

SECT. I. The Earth-Worm, considered with Reference to Horticulture. 

290. Lumbricus terrestris, L., the common earth-worm, has a body 
composed of numerous narrow rings, of a reddish colour, and shining from 
a viscous substance, which forms a sort of protecting sheath to its body, 
and facilitates its progress through the soil. It is without eyes ; and its 
blood is aerated by means of a series of small vesicles along its sides, which 
open externally by very minute pores. The mouth consists of two lips, the 
upper one of which is elongated somewhat like a proboscis, and therefore 
admirably fitted for boring through the soil. " The oesophagus or gullet 
is a wide membranous canal, continued straight down for half an inch, and 
ending in a dilated bag or reservoir, to which succeeds a muscular stomach 
or gizzard, disposed in the form of a ring. The intestine is constructed at 
each segment of the animal by a series of ligaments or partitions, connecting 
it to the parietes of the body, and swells out the intermedial spaces when 
distended by the particles of earth." The nervous system consists of a 
series of small ganglions close to each other. Worms are oviparous ; though, 
under certain circumstances, they are supposed to hatch their eggs internally. 
The eggs are white, round, rather larger than white mustard -seed, pellucid, 
and laid in clusters of a dozen or more together. The accouplement of worms 
takes place in spring during the night, or shortly after rain, and always out 
of the soil. " Earth-worms creep at a good pace by means of muscular 
contraction and dilation, acting on the rings, which carry on their under-sides 
certain bristle- like processes ; these last operate as feet. The power of 
elongation is considerable, and the anterior part of the animal acts as a sort 
of awl in penetrating the earth/' {Penny Cyc. art. Lumbricus.') 

291. The habits of the earth-worm appear to have been very imperfectly 
understood by naturalists. They are always most abundant in moist rich 
soil, and they are found more or less in every country in the world. During 
the severe weather of winter they descend deep into the soil, so as to be out 
of the reach of frost ; and during summer and very dry weather at other 
seasons they also withdraw to a considerable depth, appearing on the surface 
after rain, and more especially during the night. The food of worms is 
evidently the vegetable matter contained in the soil, and they reject the 
soil from which they have abstracted the nourishing part in the form of casts. 
It does not appear that they devour any part of the plants ; though they 
lacerate the fibrous roots by passing and repassing through them in search 



WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 95 

of fresh food. Worms are particularly injurious to plants in pots ; as, from 
the small space to which the roots are confined, they are continually liable 
to be torn asunder by the worms passing through the earth ; and thus the 
mass of roots frequently falls in two when the plant is turned out of the pot, 
instead of remaining in a solid ball. When this is the case, the plant has 
generally become sickly ; as, from the spongioles at the extremity of the 
roots being torn off, the plant is unable to obtain its proper food. The ex- 
crement of the worm is never voided except on the surface of the ground, 
and it is so placed as to form a covering to the hole by which it retreats 
into the interior of the soil. At certain seasons of the year, more particu- 
larly when the weather and the surface of the ground are dry, the slimy 
matter of the worm adheres to leaves, straws, and other light substances, 
which it drags after it to the orifice of its holes ; where, on entering, it 
leaves them so as to stop up the passage as effectually as worm' casts. We 
are uncertain how far this mode of stopping the orifice of the passages is 
matter of accident or of design ; and therefore, like many other points of the 
natural history of the worm, it is open to observation and correction. 

292. The most remarkable property in the organization and functions of 
the worm is that of reproducing a part of its body after being mutilated. It 
is generally believed that when a worm is cut into pieces by the spade every 
portion of it becomes a perfect individual ; but it has been proved that it is 
only the portion which has the head and the organs of generation attached, 
and which must necessarily include more than one-half of its length ; which 
lengthens, survives, and forms a new anus. (Hose.) The duration of the 
life of worms is uncertain. 

293. The natural uses of the worm appear to be to serve as nourish- 
ment to moles, hedgehogs, frogs, toads, snakes, lizards, birds, fishes, and 
some kinds of insects. It is also said by naturalists that worms are useful 
to plants by penetrating the soil, loosening it, rendering it permeable to 
air and water, and even adding to the depth of the soil by bringing up its 
worm-casts to the surface. This last opinion, however, we conceive to be 
entirely erroneous. Soil is not loosened by boring through it, but rather 
rendered firmer in the parts not bored through ; and so far from surface 
soil being rendered permeable by water in consequence of the bores of worms, 
it is rendered less so, the worm-casts deposited on the orifices of the bores 
always being water-tight ; so much so, indeed, that when lawns where worms 
abound are to be watered by lime-water in order to destroy them, the first 
step is to brush away the worm-casts with a long flexible rod, or remove 
them by a rake, in order to let water enter the bores ; it having been found 
from experience, that when this operation is neglected, the lime-water sinks 
into the soil without producing much effect. With impervious loomy sub- 
soils, resting on gravel, the case is otherwise ; and under such circumstances 
worms may be useful, by permitting the escape of water where it would 
otherwise be retained. With respect to worms adding to the depth of the 
soil (an opinion first promulgated, we believe, by Mr. Charles Darwin), we 
believe it to be entirely a delusion, as we have endeavoured to show in the 
Gardener s Magazine, vol. xiv. p. 95. 

294. The injury done by worms in gardens we hold to be very consider- 
able. By their casts they disfigure walks and lawns, and by cutting through 
the roots they injure more or less all plants whatever, and particularly 
those which are weak, (to which worms always attach themselves more than 



96 SNAILS AND SLUGS, CONSIDERED 

believe, by Mr. Charles Darwin), we believe it to be entirely a delusion, a3 
we have endeavoured to show hi the Gardener s Magazine, vol. xiv. p. 95. 

294. The injury done by worms in gardens we hold to be very consider- 
able. By their casts they disfigure walks and lawns, and by cutting through 
the roots they injure more or less all plants whatever, and particularly 
those which are weak, (to which worms always attach themselves more thaii 
to healthy plants,) and plants in pots. Seedlings of all kinds are much in- 
jured by them, because when the point of the taproot is cut through the 
seedling has no other resource, and, unless it be vigorous enough to throw 
out lateral roots, it dies. 

295. To destroy worms is fortunately a very simple process; for such 
is the tenderness of their skin, that watering them with any caustic or 
bitter liquid deprives them of life in a few minutes. The cheapest caustic 
liquid is lime-water, which is made by dissolving quicklime, at the rate 
of half a pound of lime to twelve pints of water, and letting it stand 
a few minutes to clear. Before pouring it on the soil from a watering- 
pot with a rose on, the worm-casts ought to be removed, and the effects 
of the water will soon become obvious by the worms rising to the surface, 
writhing about there, and in a few minutes dying. To hasten their 
death, some more lime-water should be poured on them after they come 
to the surface. The quantity of lime-water required will depend partly 
on the depth of the soil and the number of worm-casts in a given space, 
and partly on the state of the weather. Least will be required in shal- 
low soils moderately dry, and most in deep soils either very wet or very 
dry. Where lime is not at hand, potash, soda, or urine, may be used ; and 
a decoction of the leaves of Walnut-trees, of those of Hemp, Tobacco, or 
Potatoes, after being partially dried and fermented, will have the same effect. 
Hand-picking may also be resorted to ; but this requires to be performed 
in the night-time, when the worms are on the surface of the ground, or im- 
mediately after rain.. Worms in pots may either be removed by striking 
the sides of the pots, which will disturb the worms and cause them to rise 
above the surface ; or by turning out the ball on one hand, and picking off 
the worms, which seldom fail to come to the outside. 

296. To prevent worms from entering pots, a small cap (fig. 5, of the 

natural size) has been invented by Mr. 
Barron, which, when placed over the hole 
in the bottom of the pot, will permit the 
escape of water and effectually prevent the 
entrance of worms. It has been in use at 
the gardens at Elvaston Castle for several 

Fig. 5. Cap for covering the holes in years. 
the bottoms of pots. 

SECT. II. Snails and Slugs, considered with reference to Horticulture. 

297. The only snail which interests the gardener is the Helix aspersa of 
naturalists ; for that which they have named the garden snail (H. hortensis) 
is rather a field than a garden species. The former is much the larger of the 
two, and has a dull shell marked with three faint mottled brownish bandSj 
and a white rim round the aperture ; while the shell of the latter is glossy, 
distinctly banded with vivid colours, and the oral rim is brown. 




WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 97 

298. The slugs which frequent the garden are the Z/imax agrestis, L. 
cinereus, and L. ater. The L. agrestis, the commonest, is of a greyish 
colour, and from one to two inches long ; the L. cinereus is, on the con- 
trary, from three to five inches in length, of a greyish or dusky colour, 
with darker spots and stripes ; and the L. ater is easily known by the jet 
black and wrinkled skin of its back. 

299. Both snails and slugs are furnished with tentacula placed in front 
of the head, and which, by a singular process, can be drawn entirely within 
it. The mouth is armed above with a semi-lunar horny jaw, having its 
outer or cutting edge furnished with one or several serratures. On the right 
side or neck of the snail and slug there are three apertures, that nearest 
the head being the respiratory orifice, the next the anus, and the third the 
exit for the organs of generation. Snails and slugs crawl on the flat sole 
which constitutes their foot and belly, and which is very muscular : but 
progression is principally performed by a pair of muscles which extend from 
the tail to the fore part of the belly, running along the middle of the foot. 

300. Snails and slugs are hermaphrodite and oviparous. They deposit 
their eggs under clods of earth, loose stones, or in the ground, in which the 
parent digs, with its foot, a circular hole about an inch deep. The eggs 
vary from twelve to thirty in number ; they are white, oval or round, 
about the size of a common shot, with a smooth soft skin, which is entirely 
membranous in the slug, but in the snail contains innumerable minute cal- 
careous grains, always in a crystalline state, and usually of a rhomboid 
figure. They are, in ordinary seasons, hatched in about three weeks after 
being laid ; but the time is regulated much by temperature, so that in cold 
seasons it is greatly retarded. The young issue from the egg in the likeness 
of their parents, active and furnished with every organ ; and the young 
snails have even then a shell fitting their size and strength. The length of 
life of the snail or slug cannot be determined. The shell of the snail is 
usually completed before the termination of the second year, when the 
animal may have been said to have reached maturity. The snail and the 
slug are very patient of injury, often recovering from severe wounds ; repairing 
their broken shells, and reproducing such parts of their bodies, posterior to 
the neck, as may have been cut away. In winter, snails and slugs retire 
under stones, clods, or into the crevices of walls : the slugs become merely 
less active than usual, but the snails hybernate ; and to protect them from 
annoyance during this dead sleep of a winter's continuance, they seal up the 
apertures of their shells with a horny membrane. (Abridged from an article 
in Gard. Mag. for 1841.) 

801. The natural uses of the snail appear to be to serve as food for rep- 
tiles, birds, and the smaller quadrupeds, such as foxes, badgers, weazels, 
hedgehogs, c. The blackbird and thrush are remarkably fond of them, 
and may be seen and heard flying off with snails in their bills, and after- 
wards lighting on trees, and breaking the shells against the branches. 
There is some apparent reason for supposing that the worm is more useful 
than injurious to plants, but none that we know of in favour of the snail 
being useful either to gardeners or farmers. 

302. The snail retires under the cover of foliage or some other pro- 
tection from the sun and dry air during the day, and comes abroad to feed 
during the night, after rain, or when the weather is cloudy. It selects in 
preference tender seedling plants, or the leaves of maturcr plants which 



SNAILS AND SLUGS, CONSIDERED. 

have become tender and somewhat sweet by incipient decay. Snails are 
very fond of greasy matter ; and where a snail has been killed by crushing, 
its remains are preyed on by living snails, which crowd to it in numbers. 
About the end of autumn, when the weather begins to grow cold, the snail 
retires into sheltered places, where it will be protected from the weather 
during winter. Where there are evergreens, such as the Box or the Ivy, it 
resorts to them ; or if these be wanting, it will retire under loose stones, or 
rubbish of any kind, such as branches, spray, leaves, or litter ; and if no 
other covering is at hand, it has a power of burying itself in any soil not too 
hard on the surface. Whatever has been said of the habits of the snail will 
apply to those of the slug ; and the uses and the natural enemies of the 
two animals are exactly the same. 

303. To destroy snails in gardens, the only effectual mode is hand-picking, 
either in the evening, early in the morning, or immediately after rain. 
Empty flower-pots reversed and distributed over the surface, if an opening 
under the rim is left on one side by making a small depression in the soil, 
will attract a great number of snails ; and the more so if some greased cab- 
bage-leaves or slices of turnip, carrot, &c., be placed under the pots. In 
the course of the autumn, winter, and early in spring, all their hiding- 
places should be searched, and the animals taken out and destroyed by 
crushing, or by giving them to swine, which are said to be very fond of 
them. Hedgehogs and weazels being their natural enemies, may be kept in 
gardens, and poultry which do not scratch, such as the turkey, duck, &c., 
may be admitted occasionally ; though no mode of subduing the snail but 
hand-picking is to be depended on. 

304. To destroy slugs in gardens, less labour is required than in destroying 
snails ; because, their bodies being comparatively unprotected, they are liable 
to be operated on by any caustic or bitter liquid as readily as worms. 
Cabbage-leaves in a state of incipient decay, with the side which is to be 
placed next the soil rubbed over with greasy matter of any kind, or even 
with the bruised bodies of recently- killed slugs, distributed over any surface, 
will attract them in great numbers during the night ; and if the leaves are 
examined every morning, and the slugs which are found destroyed, the 
piece of ground so treated will soon be freed from them. Pea-haulm being 
very sweet when in a state of incipient decay, forms a powerful attraction 
to slugs ; and if handfuls of it are distributed over a piece of ground in the 
same manner as cabbage-leaves, the little heaps of haulm may be examined 
every morning, and the slugs shaken from them and then destroyed by 
watering with lime-water. Thin slices of turnip or potatoe placed under 
inverted empty flower-pots form an excellent attraction, as do the dead 
bodies of slugs themselves, some parts or the whole of which are greedily 
devoured by the living animals. Where slugs are very abundant in a soil 
not covered with plants so large as to shelter them, as for example with 
rising seedlings, the slugs may be destroyed by watering the soil thoroughly 
with lime-water, or tobacco- water, late in the evening or early in the 
morning. Abundance of water should be applied, in order that it may sink 
into the soil, which the slugs penetrate a foot or more in depth, according to 
its state of pulverization. Quicklime has been laid round plants to protect 
them from snails and slugs ; but it soon becomes mild and of no use as a 
protection. Coal-ashes and sawdust annoy slugs by sticking to their foot, 
but they will not be deterred by this annoyance so effectually as to starve 



NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS. 

for want of food. Soot is also a great annoyance to slugs ; but to keep them 
from a plant, it requires to be frequently and liberally renewed. " A stout, 
coarse, horse-hair line, such as is used for hanging clothes out to dry, coiled 
round the stems of wall-fruit trees, and stretched along the wall, will operate 
as a protection to the fruit from both snails and slugs, in consequence of the 
bristly surface presented to them, and which they shrink from encountering. 
Care must of course be taken that they do not get under it." (Penny Cyc.^ 
Limax.} No gardener ought to rest content with merely protecting his 
plants or fruits from snails and slugs ; because while they are in the garden, 
as they must live, if they are debarred from attacking one plant they will 
only have recourse to another. Nothing short of extermination, therefore, 
ought to satisfy him, and this he may accomplish by enticing the larger 
slugs into empty pots, or under cabbage- leaves or haulm ; and by soaking 
thoroughly with lime-water the soil which he supposes to contain young 
slugs or eggs. 

SECT. III. Insects^ considered with reference to Horticulture. 

305. The number of species of insects in the world greatly exceeds that 
of all other animals and plants put together, and the power which some 
insects have of multiplying themselves, such as the plant lice for exam- 
ple, is almost incredible. As by far the greater number of insects live on 
plants, some on several species, and others on only one, the importance of 
some knowledge of the natural history of insects to the gardener is sufficiently 
obvious. The subject, indeed, is one of great extent ; nevertheless every 
gardener may readily acquire, from books and observation, such a know- 
ledge of it as will suffice for the purposes of his profession. We shall there- 
fore lay before him the essence of that part of it which more especially 
relates to the insects which infest British gardens. We shall notice in suc- 
cession the general nature of insects, their different stages of life, their 
nourishment, propagation, duration, their natural enemies, and, above all, 
the means employed by art to mitigate the evils which they occasion, or to 
destroy them. We shall take as our guide Kollar, from whose treatise we 
have abridged great part of the article ; and the whole has been revised for 
us by J. O. Westwood, Esq., Secretary to the Entomological Society. 

Subsect. 1. Of the Nature of Insects and their Classification. 

306. Insects are animals which have a body consisting of one or more divi- 
sions, articulated feet, and a head conspicuously distinct from the body, on 
which are placed two movable horns, called antennae. They breathe through 
airholes, which are situated on the sides of the body ; the greater number have 
wings in their perfect state, and only a proportionably small number are 
entirely without them. With the exception of certain groups, all perfect 
insects have six feet, and their bodies are divided into a head, thorax, and 
abdomen, by notches or incisions ; hence the name insect, derived from the 
Latin word insecare, to cut or notch. Before they attain their perfect state 
they are subject to various transformations, which are called metamorphoses. 
For the sake of perspicuity the very numerous class of insects, the most 
extensive in the whole animal kingdom, has been divided into two principal 
divisions the winged, and the wingless. 

307. Winged insects are divided into the following orders : 



100 NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS. 

(1.) Coleoptera (Beetles; Sheath- wings). Six feet, and mostly four 
wings, the anterior pair of which are horny, in the form of a covering for 
the two posterior wings, which are sometimes wanting. They have upper 
and lower jaws (mandibles and maxillae) for gnawing or chewing : their 
under wings are transversely folded. Examples the may-bug, the long- 
horns (Cerambycidae), stag-beetles, ground-beetles (C'arabidae), weevils, &c. 
(2.) Orthoptera (Straight- wings). Six feet ; four wings, the two anterior of 
a leathery substance, serving as covers to the posterior, which are folded both 
longitudinally and transversely, but more generally only longitudinally, 
(whence the name straight- wings,) and which lie, when at rest, concealed 
under the others. They have upper and lower jaws (or mandibles and 
maxillae) for chewing. Examples the earwig, the black -beetle, the cock- 
roach, the field-cricket, the migratory locust, and the green grasshopper. 

(3.) Hemiptera (Half- wings). Six feet; four wings, the two anterior form- 
ing hard coverings with membranous ends, or resembling the lower ones, but 
being larger and stronger. Instead of upper and lower jaws, the organs of 
the mouth are formed of bristles, inclosed in an articulated sheath, of a cylin- 
drical or conical shape, and forming a projecting beak or sucker. Examples 
the field and tree bugs, house bugs, cicadae, and aphides. 

(4.) Neuroptera (Net- wings). Six feet ; four membranous naked wings, 
upper and lower jaws for chewing ; the wings are delicately veined, the 
under nearly the size of the upper, or even broader hi diameter. Examples 
the dragon-fly, or Libellula ; lace- fly, or Hemerobius ; and day-fly, or 
Ephemera. 

(6.) Hymenoptera (Membrane- wings). Six feet ; four membranous wings r 
upper and lower jaws ; the posterior wings smaller than the upper. In the 
abdomen of the female of most species is a sting, or ovipositor. Examples 
the saw-flies ( Tenthredinidse), Sirex gigas, gall-fly, bees, wasps, humble- 
bees, and ants. 

(6.) Lepidoptera (Scale- wings). Six feet; four membranous wings, covered 
with small, coloured, mealy, shining scales or feathers. Instead of the upper 
and lower jaws, two hollow filaments exist, which together form a spirally 
rolled tongue. Examples butterflies, moths, and hawk-moths. 

(7.) Rhipiptera (Fan- wings). Six feet ; two membranous wings, folded 
like a fan ; on the anterior part of the thorax are situated two small, bent, 
hard, movable bodies, like wing-covers. The masticatory organs consist of 
simple bristle-shaped mandibles, and two palpi. To this order belong two 
genera of parasites living on wasps and bees. 

(8.) Diptera (Two-wings). Six feet ; two membranous expanded wings, 
generally with two movable organs, called poisers or balancers, and which 
are situated behind the wings. The organs of the mouth consist of a sucker 
formed of a variable number of bristles, which are enclosed in an unarticu- 
lated sheath ; terminated in a double lip. Examples gnats, midges, house- 
flies, ox and horse breeze-flies, c. 

308. Insects without wings consist of the following orders : 
(9.) Myridpoda (Thousand-feet, Millepedes). They have more than six 
feet, twenty-four at least, and upwards, which are placed on a series of rings, 
extending the whole length of the body ; each ring has generally two pairs. 
The first, and sometimes also the second pair, form parts of the mouth. 
Examples the centipede, iulus, and scolopendra. 

(10.) Thysanura (Fringe-tails). Six feet; on the under sides of the 



TRANSFORMATION OF INSECTS. 101 

abdomen are situated flat movable appendages like pro-legs, and at the extre- 
mity is a forked apparatus, by which the body can raise itself and move by 
leaps. Example the sugar-louse (Lepisma saccharinum.) 

(11.) Parasita (Parasites). Six feet; no other organs of sight except 
simple (instead of composite) eyes; the mouth is mostly internal, and con- 
sists of a snout, which contains a retractile sucker, or it forms a cleft with 
two lips, two mandibles, and hooks. Examples the different species of lice. 

(12.) Suctoria (Suckers). Six feet, of which the posterior are the long- 
est, and adapted for jumping. These undergo a transformation, and acquire 
organs of motion which they had not at first. The mouth consists of a 
sucker, which is enclosed in a cylindrical sheath, and is formed of two articu- 
lated pieces. Example the flea. 

309. Crabs and spiders, which Linnaeus included among insects without 
wings, are now formed into two distinct classes Crustacea and Arachnida. 

310. The arrangement here given is that of Kollar ; but other authors 
differ in their views of the subject. By some the earwig is formed into an 
order distinct from, the Orthoptera. The Thrips is separated as an order 
from the Hemiptera, the caddice- flies (Phryganea) from the Neuroptera and 
the horse-flies (Hippobosca) from the Diptera. In a popular point of view 
the arrangement of Kollar may be considered as sufficiently detailed. 

Subsect. 2. Transformation of Insects. 

The greater number of insects properly so called, with the exception 
of some without wings, change their form several times during their life in 
. so striking a manner, that a person unacquainted with entomology would be 
inclined to consider one and the same insect, in different periods of its exist- 
ence, as entirely different animals. 

311. Insects, in general, are produced from eggs; a few species alone, in 
which the eggs are developed in the body of the mother, are viviparous ; for 
example, the aphis. Shortly after pairing, the female lays her eggs, which 
are often stuck on, and covered with, a sort of glue, to preserve them from 
the weather, instinctively in the place best adapted to their development, 
and which offers the proper food to the forthcoming brood. The white- 
thorn butterfly and the golden-tail moth lay their eggs on the leaves of fruit- 
trees or other leafy trees, and the latter covers them over with a gold- 
coloured covering of silk. The common lackey-moth (.Bombyx neustria) 
fastens them in the form of continuous rings round the stems of the fruit-trees; 
and the gipsy-moth (JSombyx dispar) fastens them in a broad patch on the 
steins of trees or on paling, and covers them with a thick coating of hair. 
The winter- moth (Gedmetra brumata) lays them singly on the buds of the 
leaves and flowers ; the printer-beetle (Bostrichus typographus) introduces 
them between the bark and the albumen, &c. 

312. Most insects are developed from the eggs in the shape of worms, 
which are called larvae. The larvae of butterflies, which are always provided 
with feet, are called caterpillars ; those of beetles and other insects, grubs ; 
and, when they have no feet, maggots. In this state, as their bodies increase, 
the insects often cast their skin, and not unfrequently change their colour. 
Many winged insects (e. g. cimices, cicadae, grasshoppers, and dragon-flies), 
in their larva state, very much resemble the perfect insect ; they only want 
the wings, which are not developed till after the last change of the skin. 
The larva state is the period of feeding, and at this period insects are usually 



102 FOOD OF INSECTS. 

the destructive enemies of other productions of nature, and objects of perse- 
cution to farmers, gardeners, and foresters. 

313. The nympha or pupa state succeeds that of larva. In this state 
insects for the most part take no nourishment (with the exception of the 
Orthopterous, Hemipterous, and part of the Neuropterous species, which vary 
but little in form from the larva), and repose in a death-like slumber. The 
body is covered with a skin more or less transparent, through which the 
limbs of the perfect insect are more or less apparent. To be safe from 
their enemies, or from the weather, the larvae of many insects, particularly 
moths, prepare for themselves a covering of a silky or cottony texture; 
many burrow in the soil, or form themselves a nest of moss, leaves, grass, 
haulm, or foliage ; many even go deep into the earth, or bury themselves 
in decayed wood, or conceal themselves under the bark of trees, &c. 

314. After a certain period, which is fixed in every species of insects, and 
which can either be hastened or retarded according to circumstances, the per- 
fect insect appears from the pupa. It is usually furnished in this state with 
other organs for the performance of its appointed functions. It is incumbent 
on the perfect insect to propagate its species, therefore the organs for this 
purpose are only perfected at this period of their lives. The male insect 
seeks the female, and the female the most suitable place for laying her eggs; 
hence most insects are furnished with wings. Food is now a secondary 
consideration, consequently, in many, the feeding organs are now less perfectly 
developed than in the larva state, or very much modified and suited for finer 
food, as for example in butterflies, which, instead of the leaves of plants, 
only consume the honey out of their flowers. 

Subsect. 3. Food of Insects. 

315. Insects, like other animals, derive their nourishment from the vege- 
table and animal kingdoms ; but a glance is sufficient to show, that they 
possess a much wider field of operations than the others. While the other 
animals make use for their subsistence of only a small portion of the inex- 
haustible treasures of the vegetable kingdom, and reject the rest as insipid 
or noxious, the insects leave perhaps no vegetable production untouched. 
From the majestic oak to the invisible fungus, or the insignificant wall-moss, 
the whole race of plants is a stupendous meal, to which the insects sit down 
as guests. Even those plants which are highly poisonous and nauseating to 
other animals are not refused by them. But this is not yet all. The larger 
plant- consuming animals are usually limited to leaves, seed, and stalks : not 
so bisects, to the various families of which every part of a plant yields suit- 
able provender. Some which live under the earth attack roots, others 
choose the stem and branches, a third division live on the leaves, a fourth 
prefers the flowers, while a fifth selects the fruit or seed. 

316. Even here a still further selection takes place. Of those which feed 
on the roots, stem, and branches, some species only eat the rind, like the 
bee-hawk-moth (Sphinx apiformis) ; others the inner bark and the albur- 
num, like the Tortrix Wcebermna, and the injurious bark-beetle ; and a 
third division penetrates into the heart of the solid wood, like the 
goat- moth (Cossus ligniperda), and the family of the long-horned beetles 
( Cerambycidae). 

317. Of those which prefer foliage, some take nothing but the juice out of 
the veins (aphides, in all their states) ; others devour only the substance of 



FOOD OP INSECTS. 103 

the leaves, without touching the epidermis (mining caterpillars) ; others only 
the upper or under surface of the leaves (many leaf-rollers, Tdrtrices) ; while 
a fourth division devours the whole substance of the leaf (the larvae of many 
other Lepidopterous insects). 

318. Of those which feed on fowers, there are some which eat the petals 
(the larvae of JVoctua verbasci, the mullein-moth, N. linariae, &c.) ; others 
choose the farina in a perfect state (bees, the rose-chafer, Cetonia, the 
Lepturidae, &c. c.) ; and a still greater number the honey from the necta- 
ries (most perfect Lepidopterous insects, wasps, and flies). There are also 
insects which, not satisfied with any existing part of the plants as such, 
cause injury to one part or another, by occasioning a peculiar body or 
excrescence in which their young live, as the various sorts of gall insects 
and other sorts of flies. But insects are not confined to plants alone in their 
living and unused state. The death-watch, or ticking-beetle (Anobium), 
feeds on wood which for years has been used in our dwellings, and in various 
articles of furniture and utensils. 

319. From what has been said it will appear, that a single plant can 
support a host of various sorts of insects on its different parts ; whence it 
also appears, that the number of insects greatly exceeds that of plants. 

320. An equal variety in the food of those insects which live on animal 
matter may also be pointed out. Some live as parasites on the skin of other 
animals, not excepting even insects themselves, suck their blood, and are a 
burdensome torment to the animals : to these belong the different sorts of lice 
(bird and sheep lice), ticks, and mites. Others attack man and the larger ani- 
mals only for a short time, and draw blood gnats, midges, autumn-flies, 
breeze-flies, bugs, and fleas. Some breeze-flies (ffi'stridae) penetrate through 
the skin into the flesh of the red deer and horned cattle, others live in the 
stomachs of horses and asses, and one sort in the frontal sinus of sheep. The 
/chneumonidae feed on the flesh of the larvae of other insects, and often 
greatly contribute to the extirpation of noxious insects. 

321. The Carabidae and other carnivorous beetles devour their prey entire, 
immediately after killing it ; while the Cimices and Hemerobii only suck 
out the juices. The larvae of the stinging- gnat and other flies which live in 
water devour whole swarms of infusoria alone. A great number live on 
carrion and the excrements of animals, and thus diminish and destroy the 
corruption proceeding from such matter : to these belong chiefly the blue- 
bottle fly, horse-beetle, carcass-beetle, and dung-beetle. Many feed upon 
prepared animal matter, and become very prejudicial to household economy. 
Many moths live entirely on hair, leather, wool, and feathers. 

322. With the various transformations of insects their economy is also 
changed, and consequently their abode is also varied : the caterpillar requires 
very different food from the butterfly ; the maggot, from the beetle and fly. 
The larva of Sirex gigas feeds on wood, while the perfect insect preys on 
flies. The larva of the May-bug or cockchafer lives on roots and tubers; the 
beetle, on leaves. 

323. Many insects are very gluttonous, and often consume more food in a 
day than is equal to the weight of their bodies. Thus the maggot of the 
flesh-fly, according to Redi, becomes 200 times heavier in the course of 
twenty-four hours. Caterpillars digest in one day from one third to one 
fourth of their weight ; and hence it is apparent that a comparatively small 
number of caterpillars can entirely strip a tree in a few days. 



104 DISTRIBUTION AND HABITS OF INSECTS. 

324. Opposed to this gluttony of caterpillars, some insects in their perfect 
state appear to take no nourishment, such as the day-flies (.Ephemeridse), 
and the breeze-flies ((E'stridae); the latter of which, in their larva state as 
maggots, feed on the flesh of horned cattle and red deer. Even among the 
Lepidoptera, many of those which spin cocoons, especially .Bombycidae, seem 
to take no nourishment in the perfect state. 

325. Many insects only eat in the day, others in the evening, and a third 
division, such as the caterpillars of the night-moths, only in the night. 
Most of them seek their own food ; but a few, namely, the larvae of bees, 
which live in communities, humble bees, wasps, and ants, are fed by the 
perfect insect. Many stow away their food ; others, indeed the greater 
number, live without making any previous supply of food. The larvae of 
the caterpillar-killing kinds of wasps (^phegidae), of wild bees, and of a few 
other insects, are provided by their parents with a stock of provisions suffi- 
cient for their nourishment in the larva state. 



Subsect. 4. Distribution and Habits of Insects. 

326. The distribution of insects is in exact proportion to the diffusion of 
plants ; the richer any country is in plants, the richer it is also in insects. 
The polar regions, which produce but few plants, have also but few insects ; 
whereas the luxuriant vegetation of the tropical countries feeds a numerous 
host of insects. With respect to their habitation, insects are divided into 
those which live upon land or water. 

327. Those which live in the water either never leave that element, or 
are able to live at will either in the water or on the earth, at least for a 
short time j for example, many water -beetles. Many live at certain periods 
of their development in water : at others, on land ; such as many sorts of 
flies, and all the dragon-flies, which as larvae and pupae live in water, but as 
perfect insects on land, or in the air. 

328. Land insects live in the earth, under stones, in decayed wood, in 
putrid animal substances, &c. Of these some pass their whole lives in 
these places, others only during a particular period of their development. 
The larvae of the dung-beetle live deep under the ground, while the perfect 
insect inhabits the excrement of animals ; many of the larvae of flies live in 
carrion or excrement, while the perfect insect flies about in the open air. 
A very great number choose the different parts of plants for their abode, as 
the roots, bark, inner bark, alburnum, wood, pith, buds, flowers, leaves, and 
fruit. They change their abode in every new stage of their development. 
Thus the bark-beetle, which in the larva state lived under the bark, swarms 
in its perfect state upon the trees ; the curculio of the apple-tree, the larva 
of which infests the bottom of the apple blossom, crawls on the trees, or on 
the surrounding ground ; the mining- moth, which as a larva lives under the 
cuticle of the leaves, flutters in its winged state about the flowers and leaves. 

329. A small number live upon other animals, on the skin, such as lice, or 
in the inside of the body, as the ox and horse breeze-flies (ffi'stridae). The 
two latter leave their first abode before entering the pnpa state, which they 
effect in the earth, and hover as flies round the animals to deposit their eggs 
upon them. 

330. Most insects live solitarily, either without any definite dwelling, or 
they construct for themselves a house composed of various kinds of vegetable 



USES OF INSECTS. 105 

or animal matter ; for example, many caterpillars. A few species live in 
society, such as bees, ants, wasps, &c. 

331. By obtaining a general knowledge of the abodes of insects, it is 
evident that the observer of the economy of insects will be able more satis- 
factorily to combat many that are injurious to him ; as thus he can, with 
little trouble, greatly diminish or entirely annihilate those which he has 
ascertained to live in society, or in places of easy access. 

Subsect. 5. Uses of Insects. 

332. There are among insects no very inconsiderable number from which 
man derives, in many respects, immediate and important uses. We need 
here only to mention the bees and the silkworm. The different sorts of gall- 
nuts, ingredients so essential to dyeing and the manufacture of leather, are 
the productions of several insects, namely, the gall-flies, which wound 
with their ovipositor various parts of oaks, &c., in order to deposit their eggs 
in the cavity, and which produce these useful excrescences. The most 
durable and most beautiful red (cochineal) we owe to a small insect, the 
Coccus cacti. Another, nearly allied to the above-named insect, Coccus 
manniparus, is supposed to have saved the lives of the Israelites in their 
journey out of Egypt, for they would have died of hunger if they had not 
been provided with manna, a sweet nutritive substance, which is regarded 
as identical with the material which, in consequence of a wound caused by 
this insect on the Tamarix gallica mannifera, trickles on the ground. 

333. The Cantharides, or Spanish blister-flies, are an essential article of 
medicine. Many insects accomplish the fructification of different plants. 
Whole nations in other quarters of the globe live on locusts. Many 
mammalia, a number of birds, amphibious animals, and fishes, live entirely 
on insects. 

334. A great number of these creatures even live upon other species of 
insects, and destroy them : thus preventing the hurtful from preponderating, 
and disturbing the balance in the economy of nature. To these belong 
chiefly the /chneumonidae and spiders. 

335. Lastly, how many diseases are obviated, particularly hi warm cli- 
mates, by insects speedily consuming dead animal substances, and thereby 
preventing the generation of noxious gases ! 

Subsect. 6. Means contrived by Nature to limit the Multiplication of Insects. 

336. Many appearances in nature, even such as at first cause anxiety and 
care, on account of their injurious consequences, are found to be in many 
respects highly beneficial and salutary, although we may not always under- 
stand them. Thus, continued rain, which in many respects is extremely 
hurtful, contributes greatly to diminish the number of noxious insects, and 
for a series of years renders them entirely innocuous. This continued rain 
may, for example, take place at the pairing time of certain insects, which 
will greatly obstruct them ; or at the time when the insects are in the cater- 
pillar or larva state, when thousands die in consequence of bad weather, 
and our fields, orchards, and woods are cleared of a dangerous enemy for 
many years. Thus in the spring of 1832, after incessant rain, Kollar saw 
the caterpillars of the white-thorn butterfly (Papilio cratae'gi), which for 
many years had not only stripped all the hedges, but also done considerable 



106 MEANS CONTRIVED BY NATURE TO LIMIT 

injury to the fruit-trees, dying by thousands, as if of a dropsy. The cater- 
pillars swelled, became weak, and died. If they did attain the pupa state, 
they suffered from the same evil, and the perfect insect was very rarely 
developed, on which account the gardens in the following years were entirely 
spared. 

337. Late frosts are also very beneficial, as they entirely destroy many 
insects in their larva state. Kollar had an opportunity early in the summer 
of 1833 of observing great devastations on the fir-trees in the neighbourhood 
of Vienna, by a species of saw-fly ( Tenthredo rufa King). The larva of 
this insect had attacked certain parts of a young forest of Scotch pine, and 
the question was how their ravages were to be prevented from increasing- 
next year. Fortunately, in the month of May, a moderate frost set in, and 
thousands, of these larvae were seen hanging to the twigs, as if scorched. In 
this manner their increase was limited for the future. 

338. A multitude of insects are also destroyed by inundations, particu- 
larly such as undergo their transformations in the earth, or live upon it in 
all their stages, more especially if the inundation happens when they are 
near their final transformation. In meadows the different species of May- 
bugs ( Jfelolonthidae) suffer by this means ; in kitchen gardens, the mole- 
cricket; in orchards, the pupa of the small winter-moth (Geometra bru- 
mata), when the water overflows the gardens late in the autumn, at the 
time when the moth is usually developed from the pupa lying in the earth. 
Besides the means of preserving an equilibrium by storms, and the effects 
of the elements, nature employs a multitude of others, although not so 
speedy and efficient, to the same end. 

339. To these belong the enemies of the destructive insects, which we meet 
with in all classes of the animal kingdom. Among the mammiferous ani- 
mals the bats hold a conspicuous place for their destruction of insects. We 
only see them flying about in the twilight, precisely at the time when many 
moths leave their hiding-places and hover round the flowers. As they live 
almost entirely on insects, they no doubt devour great numbers of the 
hurtful sorts ; and perhaps it is to be ascribed to this circumstance that 
fruit-trees standing near houses, churches, barns, &c., suffer less from insects 
than isolated trees. Bats do not confine themselves to moths, but eat 
the beetles which fly about in the evening ; and, among others, some of the 
weevils injurious to the flowers and buds of fruit-trees, as the Curculio 
(Anthonomus) pomorum, and pyri. These creatures, as they do no injury, 
should therefore be carefully preserved. 

340. To the insectivorous mammalia also belong various sorts of mice, the 
mole, badger, hedgehog, squirrel, fox, and wild swine. Whether the 
benefits derived from them hi this way counterbalance the mischief which 
many of these creatures cause, it is difficult to determine. At all events, 
the squirrel and the hedgehog deserve to be spared. 

341. Birds contribute much more than the mammiferous animals to the 
destruction of injurious insects. Many caterpillars know instinctively how to 
conceal themselves from the birds which prey on them ; in many their 
covering of stiff hair acts as a protection against their enemies ; others 
remain all day between rolled-up or flatly-united leaves, and only go out to 
feed at night ; others find sufficient protection in the buds, into which they 
soon penetrate. Gregarious caterpillars live while they are changing their 
skin, and when they are going into the pupa state, in webs, in which they 



THE MULTIPLICATION OF INSECTS, 107 

are inaccessible to birds. Others live under the bark of trees, and even deep 
in the wood. Notwithstanding these and other obstacles, a great number 
are yearly devoured by the birds, particularly during the breeding season. 
In winter a multitude of birds, driven by hunger into the villages, diligently 
search the branches of trees for the eggs of many sorts of moths that are 
glued to them, and which yield a scanty sustenance to these frugal animals. 
Reaumur states that the green-finch tears open the strong nest of the yellow- 
tail-moth (Bombyx chrysorrhce'a), and consumes the young caterpillars. 

342. Among the birds of the woodpecker race, the green and red wood- 
peckers (Picus viridis and major), the nut- hatch (Sitta cassia), and the tree- 
creeper (Certhia familiaris), may be considered the most useful. Although 
these birds seek beetles chiefly, and consequently contribute to the diminu- 
tion of the long-horned and weevil tribes of beetles, they also consume a 
number of caterpillars ; but it must be acknowledged, that they also devour 
the honey-bee, 

343. Among birds of the sparrow tribe, the starling deserves particular 
notice. It lives in summer chiefly in pastures, but comes in spring and 
autumn in great flocks to the meadows and orchards, where it devours a 
great number of insects, pupae, and larvae. The chaffinch is a determined 
consumer of caterpillars and moths' eggs. The titmice are particularly use- 
ful, viz. the ox-eye and torn -tit; then the goldfinch, redbreast, and red- start, 
and also the wagtails. 

344. The cuckoo also particularly deserves to be spared ; it not only devours 
many of the smaller smooth-skinned larvae, but even consumes the hairy 
caterpillars of many moths, particularly of the Itombycidae. On examining 
the intestines of a cuckoo, in the month of September, Kollar found therein, 
besides the remains of various insects, a great quantity of the skins of the 
caterpillar of the large .Bombyx pini, which is one of the largest European 
species, and has very stiff hair. The inner coat of the stomach was entirely 
covered with hair, but a close inspection with the magnifying-glass showed 
that the hair was not the hair of the stomach of the cuckoo, as some orni- 
thologists suppose, but only the hair of the caterpillars. This bird may 
therefore be of very essential service when there is a superfluity of the 
caterpillars of the lackey or processionary moths (jBombyx neustria or 
processionea). 

345. It is sufficiently known that great service is rendered by the whole 
race of crows to meadows and fields. Their favourite food consists of the 
larvae of the cockchafer, which are thrown up by the plough, and which they 
also draw out of the earth with their strong beaks. It is a wonderful provision 
of nature, that exactly at the time that the insects injurious from their 
great numbers appear, the greatest number of the insectivorous birds have 
hatched their broods, and their voracious young are ready to be fed upon 
them. 

346. Insectivorous birds are also sometimes granivorous, and feast readily 
on our fruit, particularly cherries ; but the injury they cause in this respect 
is not to be compared to the use they are of in destroying insects. At least 
we never hear of universal devastation caused by birds, though we do by 
insects. 

347. Among amphibious animals which destroy insects, lizards hold a 
conspicuous place. Grasshoppers are the favourite food of many species. 
Frogs and toads also devour many insects. 



108 MEANS FOR ARRESTING THE PROGRESS OF 

348. Besides mammalia, birds, and amphibious animals, Nature, to restore 
the equilibrium among her creatures, and particularly to prevent the prepon- 
derance of some sorts of insects, makes use chiefly of insects themselves, 
namely, those which feed upon others, and which by degrees obtain a supe- 
riority over those that are hurtful to us. 

349. Thus many sorts of beetles, particularly of the family of ground- 
beetles (Carabidae), destroy a multitude of the pupae of moths lying in the 
earth. Many flies, allied to our house-fly, but much larger, lay their eggs 
in living caterpillars and destroy them. But the most useful are the /chneu- 
monidse. The females of this numerous family, 1300 species of which Pro- 
fessor Gravenhorst has described in Europe alone, lay their eggs entirely hi 
the bodies of other insects. 

350. The manner in which these IchneumonidcB accomplish their work of 
destruction is highly curious and interesting. All the species are furnished 
at the end of the body with an ovipositor, composed of several bristles 
attached together, with which they pierce the larvae of other insects, and 
introduce their eggs into the flesh of the wounded animals. In some this 
sting is longer than the whole body, sometimes more than an inch long, 
namely, in those species which seek the objects of their persecution in the 
interior of trees or wood that has been much and deeply perforated by the 
insects which reside within. They perceive, either by their sense of smell 
or by their antennae, that their prey is at hand, and introduce their eggs, 
not without difficulty, into the bodies of the larvae living in the wood. Some 
attack caterpillars feeding openly on plants, others perforate the various 
excrescences, or gall-nuts, which also contain larvae : there are even many 
species, scarcely visible to the naked eye, which lay their eggs in the eggs of 
other insects, such as butterflies, and thus anticipate their destruction. The 
eggs are hatched within the body of the living insect, and the young para- 
sites, in the most literal sense, fatten on the entrails of their prey. At last 
the wounded caterpillar sinks, the enemies escape through the skin and 
become pupae ; or the caterpillar, notwithstanding its internal parasites, 
enters the pupa state, but instead of a butterfly, one or more /chneumonidae 
appear. To these wonderful animals we often owe the preservation of our 
orchards, woods, and grain. 

351. Besides the above-mentioned Jchneumonidae, ants, field or tree bugs, 
and many sorts of spiders, contribute greatly to the extirpation of various 
insects. 

Subsect. 7. Means devised by Art for arresting the Progress of Insects in Gardens, 
or of destroying them there. 

352. Insects may be destroyed in all their different stages ; in some, how- 
ever, with greater ease than in others. Some can only be taken or killed 
when in the perfect state, from the difficulty of discovering their eggs, or 
from their small size, or from the short period which elapses between the 
hatching of the insect and its maturity ; for example, the aphides. Others 
can only be destroyed in the perfect state, with great difficulty ; such as the 
different butterflies. A great number of the insects which infest British 
gardens are only to be destroyed in the larva state ; while some, such as the 
gooseberry-moths, may be destroyed in every stage. We shall briefly 
indicate the different practices which may be had recourse to in different 
stages, for deterring or destroying insects, by the gardener ; leaving particular 



INSECTS, OR DESTROYING THEM. 309 

details till particular insects come to be mentioned, when treating on the 
culture of the plants which they attack. We shall commence with opera- 
tions connected with the perfect insect, and take in succession the eggs, the 
larvae, and the pupae. 

353. Deterring the Perfect Insect. The perfect winged insect may, in some 
cases, be deterred from approaching plants by covering them with netting or 
gauze, the meshes of which are sufficiently small to exclude the insect, but 
not too small to prove injurious to the plant by excluding light and air. Wasps 
and flies are in this manner excluded from vineries and peach-houses while 
the fruit is ripening. Bunches of grapes against the open wall are also 
protected by putting them in bags of woollen netting or gauze. Choice 
plants in pots are sometimes protected from wingless insects by placing the 
pot containing the plant in the midst of a saucer which surrounds the pot 
with water, which it is found the insect will not cross. The stems of plants, 
such as dahlias and gooseberries, are sometimes protected by a zone of 
glutinous matter, on wool, tow, or paper, over which the insect will not 
venture. A remarkable mode of deterring some insects from entering houses 
by the windows is described hi the Architectural Magazine, vol. ii., as 
practised in Italy, and known even in the time of Herodotus. This is 
simply to place before the openings of the window a net of white or light- 
coloured thread, the meshes of which may be an inch or more in diameter. 
The flies seem to be deterred from entering through the meshes from some 
inexplicable dread of venturing within. If small nails be fixed all round 
the window-frame at the distance of about an inch from each other, and 
thread be then stretched across both vertically and horizontally, the network 
so produced will be equally effectual in excluding the flies. It is essential, 
however, that the light should enter the room on one side of it onty ; for if 
there be a thorough light either from an opposite or side window, the flies 
pass through the net without scruple. (W. Spence in Transact. EntomoL 
Society, vol. i.) It would appear to be a general principle, that winged 
insects may be deterred by meshes of such a size as will not admit them 
with their wings expanded, and also that insects will not enter from bright 
light into darkness, more especially if deterred by the slightest obstacle, such 
as the threads stretched across before large openings in Italy. 

354. Preventing the Perfect Insect from laying its Eggs. Insects may 
be prevented from laying their eggs on plants within reach by surrounding 
them with a netting or other screen ; or, in some cases, by sprinkling the 
plant with some liquid containing a very offensive odour. Thus moths are 
prevented from laying their eggs on gooseberry-bushes by hanging among 
them rags dipped in gunpowder and tar ; and probably there are various 
cheap liquids that might be used in the case of fruit-trees, and perhaps even 
forest-trees, and possibly for deterring butterflies from depositing their ova 
on the cabbage tribe. Insects which deposit their eggs in the soil cannot 
easily do so when the soil is very hard, and may therefore be enticed to depo- 
sit them in portions of soil made soft on purpose. Thus boxes or large pots 
filled with rotten tan, sunk in the soil, form an excellent nidus for the eggs 
of the cockchafer, and will prevent that insect from laying them in the com- 
mon soil of a garden. Hoeing or digging patches of soil here and there 
throughout the garden or plantation will have a similar effect, to a certain 
extent ; and after some weeks, when the larvae are some lines in length, 
the soil may be sifted, and the insects taken out and destroyed. While 



110 MEANS FOR ARRESTING THE PROGRESS OF 

loosening the naked soil serves as a trap for the cockchafer, covering that soil 
with straw is found to act as a defence against them ; and hence one of the 
principal uses of mulching in the rose-gardens and tree-nurseries in the 
neighbourhood of Paris. 

355. Catching the Perfect Insect, so as to prevent it from depositing its 
eggs. Though this cannot he done to any great extent with winged insects, 
such as the butterfly, moth, and some flies, yet it may be employed in the 
case of the cockchafer, the rose-beetle, &c., which may be collected by 
children ; and in the case of wingless insects, such as wood-lice, ants, and 
earwigs, which may be enticed into hiding-places by food, or by other 
means. Hay, mixed with crumbs of bread, and tied up in little bundles, 
or, what is better, stuffed into empty flower-pots or boxes, will attract wood- 
lice ; and the material may be taken out daily, and the insects destroyed, 
after which it may be replaced, occasionally adding some fresh gratings of 
cheese. Ants may be entrapped by sweetened water put in narrow-necked 
bottles and sunk in the soil ; or, better, by moist sugar, mixed with hay, 
and put loosely into flower-pots in the same manner as for wood-lice. 
Earwigs may be caught by placing hollow bean-stalks in their haunts, to 
which they will retire in the day-time, when they can be shaken out of the 
stalks into a vessel of water. A simple and effectual trap for both wood-lice 
and earwigs is composed of two pieces of the bark of any soft rough-barked 
tree, such as the elm, placed inside to inside, so as to leave in the middle 
between them a very slight separation, tying the two pieces of bark together 
by a wand or twig, part of which is left as a handle, and laying the trap 
where the insects abound. They will retire between the pieces in the 
day-time, which can be quickly lifted up by the twig and shaken over a 
vessel of water. No bait is required for this trap, the more tender part of 
the bark being eaten by the wood-lice and the earwig. The same bark-trap 
will also serve for millepedes, beetles, and, to a certain extent, for ants. 
The most effective mode of destroying ants in frames or hothouses is by 
placing toads in them. One toad will be sufficient for a frame or a hot- 
house. The toad places himself by the side of an ant-path, and by stretching 
out his tongue as the insects pass him, draws them in and devours them. Mr. 
"Westwood suggests to us, that, where ants abound, it is most advisable to 
watch for the period when the winged males and females swarm ; when this 
is perceived, they should be destroyed by beating them down with the spade, 
and turning up the nest. By this means the coupling of the sexes is pre- 
vented, as well as the formation of fresh colonies. 

350. Destroying the Perfect Insect. This is effected in the open air by the 
use of washes or decoctions in the case of the aphides ; or, in the case of 
the wasp, by hot water being poured into its nest, or sulphur being burnt 
in it ; or by pouring salt and water into ants' nests ; or by lighting a fire over 
the holes of burrowing insects, &c. In plant-houses, the perfect insect, such 
as the red spider, the green fly, &c., is destroyed by fumigation with tobacco- 
smoke, accompanied at the same time by steaming, which is found to con- 
dense the oil of the tobacco on the leaves of the plants. The perfect insect 
is also destroyed in hothouses by the sublimation of sulphur, which may be 
mixed with lime or loam, and washed over the heating flues and pipes, or 
placed on a hot stone or plate, or in a chafing-dish. Dusting the leaves of 
plants under glass with sulphur, in a state of powder, is found to destroy 
the red spider. Beetles, wood-lice, ants, and other crawling wingless 



INSECTS, OR DESTROYING THEM. 



Ill 



insects, are also destroyed by tempting them with food containing poison. 
A remarkable but very efficient mode of destroying the vine-moth in 
France has been discovered by Victor Audouin, which might in many cases, 
we have no doubt, be adopted in British gardens. This mode is founded 
on the practice of lighting fires during the night in vineyards, to which 
the moths are attracted and burn themselves. M. Audouin has modi- 
fied this practice in a very ingenious manner, which has been attended 
with the most effective results. He places a flat vessel with a light on the 
ground, and covers it with a bell-glass besmeared with oil. The pyralis, 
attracted by the light, flies towards it ; and, in the midst of the circle which 
it describes in flying, it is caught and retained by the glutinous sides of the 
bell-glass, where it instantly perishes by suffocation. Two hundred of these 
lights were established in apart of the vineyard of M. Delahante, of about four 
acres in extent, and they were placed about twenty-five feet from each other. 
The fires lasted about two hours ; and scarcely had they been lighted, when 
a great number of moths came flying around, which were speedily destroyed 
by the oil. The next day the deaths were counted. Each of the 200 vessels 
contained, on an average, 150 moths. This sum multiplied by the first 
number gives a total of 30,000 moths destroyed. Of these 30,000 insects, 
we may reckon one fifth females, having the abdomen full of eggs, which 
would speedily have laid, on an average, 150 eggs each. This last number, 
multiplied by the fifth of J)0,000, that is to say, by 6000, would give for the 
final result of this first destruction the sum of 900,000. On the 7th of 
August, 180 lamps were lighted in the same place, each of which on an 
average destroyed 80 moths, or a total of 14,400. In these 14,400 moths 
there was reckoned to be, not only one sixth, but three fourths, females : 
but, admitting that there was only one half females, or 7200 ; and, multi- 
plying this by 150 (the number of eggs that each would have laid), we have 
a total of 1,080,000 eggs destroyed. Two other experiments were made on 
the 8th and 10th of August, which caused the destruction of 9260 moths. 
(Gard. Mag. vol. xiii. p. 487.) 

357. Luring away the Perfect Insect. Attracting the perfect insect from 
the plant or fruit by some other kind of food to which they give the pre- 
ference, and which is of less value to the gardener, may perhaps sometimes 
be effected. Thus honeyed water in narrow-mouthed glasses, 
such as fig. 6, is used to entrap wasps and flies from wall- fruit ; 
and decayed fruit or small portions of meat, placed under 
hand-glasses in the following manner, may be used for a simi- 
lar purpose ; Take a common hand-glass, the hexagonal or 

any other form Fig. 6. Fly-glass 
will do (fig. 7) ; remove in the 
apex the whole or part of three 
of the panes, , 6, c. Then take 
a second hand-glass, which must 
be of the same form as the first, 
and place it on the roof of the 
first, so that the sides of the one 
may coincide with the sides of 






Fig. 7- Hand-glasses prepared for making a fly-trap. 



the other ; next stop all the interstices between the bottom of the one and 
the eaves of the other, at c, /, g, with moss, wool, or any suitable substance, 



i2 



112 



MEANS FOR ARRESTING THE PROGRESS OF 





Fig. 8. Plan of a fly -trap. 



which will prevent the entrance or exit of flies. The bottom hand-glass 

must rest on three pieces of bricks, fig. 8, to form 

an opening underneath. The appearance of the trap 

when completed is simply that of one hand-glass 
above another, fig. 9. Frag- 
ments of waste fruit are laid on 
the ground, unler the bottom 
hand-glass, to attract the flies, 
which, having once entered, 
never descend again to get out, 

but rise into the upper glass, and buzz about under its 
roof, till, fatigued and exhausted, they drop down, and 
are seen lying dead on the roof of the under glass. One 
of these traps, placed conspicuously on the ground be- 

Fig. 9. Hand-glasses ar- fore a fruit-wall or hothouse, acts as a decoy to all 

ranged as a fly-trap. kinds of w j nge( J i nsec ts. (Gard. Mag. vol. ii. p. 152.) 
358. Collecting the Eggs of Insects. The eggs of insects, after being depo- 
sited on the bark or leaves of plants, may sometimes be collected by hand ; 
for example, when they are laid in clusters or patches, so as to form a belt 
round the twig, as in the lackey-moth ; or when they are covered with 
fibrous matter, as in the .Bombyx dispar, which lays its eggs in large circular 
or oval spots, containing 300 or more each, on the bark of trees or hedges, 
and covers them with a yellow wool. The eggs of the yellow-tail moth are 
laid on the leaves of fruit-trees, in a long narrow heap, and covered with 
gold-coloured hair, whence the scientific naine^Bombyxchrysorrhcea, which 
makes them very conspicuous ; but the leaves may easily be collected, 
and the eggs destroyed. The satin-moth, jBombyx salicis, which, in its 
larva state, feeds on the leaves of willows and poplars, often stripping entire 
trees, when it becomes a perfect insect, lays its eggs in July, in small spots 
like mother-of-pearl, on the bark of the tree ; and as they are conspicuous, 
they may easily be scraped off. Practical men in general are too apt 
to undervalue the effects of hand-picking, whether of the eggs or larvae of 
insects ; not reflecting that every insect destroyed by this means, is not only 
an immediate riddance of an evil, but prevents the generation of a great 
number of other evils of the same kind. Circumstances have forced this on 
the attention of the French cultivator, and the following facts will place the 
advantage of hand-picking in a strong light. In 1837, M. V. Audouin, 
already mentioned, was charged by a commission of the Academic des 
Sciences, to investigate the habits of a small moth, whose larva is found to 
be exceedingly injurious in vineyards in France. During the month of 
August, women and children were employed during four days in collecting 
the patches of eggs upon the leaves, during which period 18(1,900 patches 
were collected, which was equal to the destruction of 11,214,000 eggs. In 
twelve days from twenty to thirty workers destroyed 482,000 eggs, which 
would have been hatched in the course of twelve or fifteen days. The 
number of perfect insects destroyed in a previous experiment, by an expensive 
process, was only 30,000. (Gard. Mag. vol. xiii. p. 486.) Many insects, how- 
ever, deposit their eggs singly or in very small quantities, or in concealed places ; 

and the eggs being in these cases very small, cannot be removed by art. 
359. Preventing Eggs from being hatched. Eggs, after being deposited, may 



INSECTS, OR DESTROYING THEM. 113 

sometimes be destroyed, or prevented from hatching, by the application of 
washes, or a coating of glutinous adhesive matter, such as gum, glue, paste, soft 
soap, sulphur, and clay, or in some cases clay alone. A mixture of lime and 
water will not always have the effect of preventing the hatching of the eggs ; 
because, when the egg begins to vivify and swell with the heat of the spring, 
the lime cracks and drops off. This, however, is not the case when the 
lime is mixed with soft soap, which renders it elastic. Water raised to the 
temperature of 200 will destroy the eggs of most insects ; and when these 
are deposited on the bark of the trunk of an old tree, or the well -ripened 
branches of a young hardy tree, water at this temperature may be applied 
freely. For young shoots in general the temperature should not exceed 130 
or 150. It should be remembered that insects, in depositing their eggs, 
always instinctively make choice of places where the newly-hatched insect 
will find food without going far in search of it. Hence they never lay them 
on walls, stones, glass, boards, or similar substances ; and therefore the atten- 
tion of gardeners, when searching for ova, should be directed much more to 
the plants which nourish the insects, than to the walls or structures which 
shelter the plants. (See 311.) 

360. Collecting or destroying Larvae. Insects are much more injurious to 
plants in their larva state than they are in any other ; because, as we have 
already seen (312), it is in this stage of their transformations that they chiefly 
feed. With the exception, however, of several of the wingless or crawling 
insects, and certain bugs and beetles, larvae are in general not difficult to dis- 
cover, because, for the most part, they live on those parts of plants that are 
above ground ; but some live on the roots of plants, and these are among the 
most insidious enemies both of the gardener and the farmer. The ver blanc, 
or larva of the cockchafer, in France, and that of the wire- worm, in England, 
are perhaps the most injurious of all underground larvae, and those over 
which the cultivator has least power. Underground larvae may be partially 
collected, but not without much care and labour, by placing tempting baits 
for them in the soil. As they live upon roots, slices of such as are sweeter 
and more tender may be deposited at different depths and at certain dis- 
tances, and the places marked, and the soil being dug up once a day, the insects 
may be picked off and the baits replaced. Slices of carrot, turnip, potato, and 
apple, form excellent baits for most underground larvae. Such as attack leaves 
as, for example, those of the gooseberry may be destroyed in immense 
quantities by gathering the leaves infested by them, as soon as the larvae 
become distinguishable from the leaf by the naked eye. Instead of this 
being done, however, it too frequently happens that the larvae escape the 
notice of the gardener till they are nearly full grown, and have done most 
of the mischief of which they are capable. Hand-picking has been found 
most serviceable in preventing the injury caused by the blak caterpillar on 
the turnip leaves, which, in certain seasons, has proved destructive of the 
entire crop. It may also be applied to the destruction of the cabbage cater- 
pillars. Here, also, we may notice the beneficial effects of picking out and 
destroying young onion plants infested by the grub of the onion-fly. This 
ought to be done as soon as the plants appear sickly, because the grubs 
arrive at maturity in a very short time ; and, by destroying the plant, future 
generations of the fly are prevented. Grub-eaten fruit ought also to be 
picked up as soon as it falls to the ground, before the enclosed grub has 
time to make its escape into the earth, and which it would do in a very short 



114 AMPHIBIOUS ANIMALS CONSIDERED. 

time, the fruit not falling until the grub has arrived at its full size. The 
larvse of some kinds of saw-flies envelop themselves in a kind of web in 
the day-time, and only go abroad to feed during the night. Webs of this 
sort may be seen in great numbers, in the early part of summer, on thorn 
hedges, fruit-trees, spindle-trees, and a great many others ; and they might 
readily be collected by children or infirm persons, and thus myriads of 
insects destroyed. The larva may be destroyed, both in its infant and adult 
state, by dashing against it water in which some caustic substance has been 
dissolved, such as quicklime or potass ; or a bitter or poisonous infusion may 
be made, such as tobacco-water. While the larvae are not numerous, or the 
plants infested by them are tender and highly valued, they ought to be collected 
by hand ; and in the case of the larvse of mining insects, in which the larva 
is concealed within the epidermis of the leaf, there is no way of destroying 
them but by gathering the leaves, or crushing the insects between the finger 
and thumb. 

SGI. Collecting the Pupa or Chrysalids. Insects may be destroyed in the 
pupa state by collecting their chrysalids or cocoons, when these are placed 
above ground, as is most commonly the case with those of moths and butter- 
flies. These are commonly deposited in crevices in the old bark of trees, or 
in sheltered parts of walls or buildings ; rarely on young shoots or in the 
tender parts of plants, because, when the perfect insect comes forth, it no 
longer requires such food. Often the larva descends into the soil, there to 
undergo its pupa state ; and in some cases it may be destroyed by water- 
ing the soil with boiling water, or by deep trenching ; the surface soil, con- 
taining the insects, being placed in the bottom of the trench. As the eggs 
and chrysalids require the presence of air for their vivification and maturity 
no less than the seeds of vegetables, they are consequently, when deposited 
in the soil, always placed near the surface ; and hence they may be destroyed 
either by heaping earth on the surface, or by trenching or digging down the 
surface soil, so that the eggs or pupae may be covered at least to the depth 
of six inches. How long vitality will be retained under such circum- 
stances is uncertain. In destroying the cocoons of insects, care should be 
taken not to destroy those of the insect's enemies, such as the cocoons of the 
spider, or those of the ichneumon flies. These are sometimes deposited in 
heaps on the bark of trees, and are individually not larger than the egg of a 
butterfly. The gardener ought to be able to recognise them, because they 
are his best friends. 

This general outline will be sufficient to show the necessity of every gar- 
dener, who would be a master of his profession, studying the natural history 
of insects, and more especially of those which are known to be injurious or 
useful to him, whether in the open garden or in plant-structures. It is only 
by such a study that he can be prepared to encounter an insect which he 
has never heard of before, and that he will be able to devise new modes of 
counteracting the progress of, or destroying, already known insects. For 
this purpose we recommend to his study the work of Kollar already men- 
tioned, and next Mr. Westwood's Introduction to the modern Classification 
of Insects. 

SECT. IV. Amphibious Animals, considered with reference to Horticulture. 

362. The frog, TJana temporaria L., and the toad, Bufo vulgaris Fleni,, 

are found useful in gardens, because they live upon worms, snails, slugs, and 



BIRDS, 



115 



terrestrial insects. The toad being less active than the frog, and being capable 
of living a longer period without food, is better adapted for being shut up 
in frames, or kept in stoves. Both prefer a damp and shady situation ; and 
where they are intended to breed, they should have access to a shallow pond, 
or shady ditch. The ova of the frog is deposited in clusters in ditches and 
shallow ponds, about the middle of March ; and the young, or tadpoles, are 
hatched a month or five weeks afterwards, according to the season : by the 
1 8th of June they are nearly full-sized, and begin to acquire their fore 
feet ; towards the end of that month, or the beginning of the next, the 
young frogs come on land, but the tail is still preserved for a short time 
afterwards. The common toad is a few days later in spawning than the 
frog. Its ova are deposited in long necklace-like chains in shallow water 
in shady ponds or ditches. There is one species, B. Calamita Laurent, the 
Natter-Jack, which inhabits dry localities, and is a much more active 
animal than the toad, but much less common. 

363. The common Eft, Z/acerta palustris Z>., and L. aquaticus Z,., are 
occasionally met with hi gardens hi damp situations ; and they live upon 
aquatic insects, snails, worms, &c. ; but nevertheless, from their disagree- 
able appearance, we cannot recommend their introduction. On the contrary, 
we think they ought to be destroyed either by art, or by their natural 
enemies, such as the turkey, weazel, &c. The ova are deposited on aquatic 
plants about the same time as those of the toad. 

SECT. V. Birds, considered with reference to Horticulture. 

Birds are, upon the whole, much more beneficial than injurious to gar- 
dens ; and being also larger animals and more familiar to every person living 
in the country than insects, very little requires to be said respecting them. 
We shall briefly notice the commonest English birds of the different orders ; 
taking as our guide Jenyns' Manual of British Vertebrate Animals. 

364. Raptores (Seizers). Birds with feet formed for grasping : food, en- 
tirely animal substances. This order includes the eagle (ylquilaZ,.) and fal- 
con (Falco Z/.), which may be considered injurious to gardens by scaring away 
other birds which are useful. It also includes the sparrow-hawk (^ccipiter 
/ringillarius Will.), which preys upon the smaller birds and quadrupeds, 
and also on amphibite ; on which account it may be considered as partly in- 
jurious and partly useful. This may also be said of the kite (Jfilvus 
Zctinus Sav.) The kestril, or wind-hover hawk (Falco Tinnunculus L.) is 
peculiarly valuable for killing beetles, and it also destroys slugs and snails. 
It is peculiarly fit for a garden, because cats dare not venture to attack it. 
The white owl, or barn-owl (/Strix flammea Z/.), with tawny yellow 
plumage, white underneath, is one of the most valuable birds of this order, 
because it feeds principally upon mice, snails, and slugs, and occasionally 
devours other small animals, such as rats, and sometimes, but rarely, fish. 
It is common in every part of the kingdom ; it comes abroad about sunset, 
and collects its food during the night. It may be known from the tawny 
owl or wood-owl by screaming in its flight, but never hooting like that 
species. " If this useful bird caught its food by day," Mr. Waterton 
observes, " instead of hunting for it by night, mankind would have ocular 
demonstration of its utility in thinning the country of mice, and it would 
be protected and encouraged everywhere. It would be with us what the 



116 BIRDS, CONSIDERED WITH 

ibis was with the Egyptians. When it has young, it will bring a mouse 
to the nest about every twelve or fifteen minutes. But in order to have a 
proper idea of the enormous quantity of mice which this bird destroys, we 
must examine the pellets which it ejects from its stomach in the place of 
its retreat. Every pellet contains from four to seven skeletons of mice. In 
sixteen months from the time that the apartment of the owl on the old 
gateway at Walton Hall was cleaned out, there has been a deposit of above 
a bushel of pellets." (Essays on Nat. Hist. 3rd edit, p. 13.) The tawny 
owl (trix Aluco Tamm.) with reddish-brown plumage, is found only in 
woods, where it builds in the hollows of old trees, or amongst ivy. It preys 
upon various small quadrupeds and birds ; it comes abroad only during the 
night, and has a clamorous and hooting note. By destroying small birds, 
this owl becomes injurious to the gardener as well as useful, and therefore 
he ought chiefly to encourage the barn-owl. For this purpose a picturesque 
tower might be formed in some retired situation in the flower-garden or 
shrubbery, or on one of the angles of the kitchen-garden wall, like a watch- 
tower, where it would prove ornamental ; and a brood of young owls might 
be brought to it, and supplied abundantly with mice till they were full-grown, 
and able to provide for themselves. The time to procure the young birds 
is about the end of April ; or the eggs might be procured and hatched in 
the bark-bed of the stove, &c. There are some other species of owl occa- 
sionally found in England, but they are too rare to be of any practical use. 

365. Insessores (Perchers). Birds with feet adapted for perching : food, 
chiefly insects and the smaller quadrupeds, but partly fruits and seeds. This 
order includes a number of birds which are interesting to gardeners. The 
shrikes (Lanius L.}, of which there are two species, feed on small birds, mice, 
snails, and insects. The fly-catchers (Muscicapa? L.) feed on insects taken 
on the wing ; and among these the cultivated or hive-bee does not escape. 
The water ouzel (Cinclus aquaticus Bechst.) feeds on aquatic insects, and 
is capable of diving for them. The missel- thrush (Turdus viscivorus L.) 
lives on insects and berries, particularly on those of the mistletoe. The 
field-fare (T. pilaris L.) feeds on haws and other berries, and also on in- 
sects and worms. The song- thrush (T. musicus L.) feeds on berries, in- 
sects, and snails ; as does the blackbird and the redwing ( T. iliacus L.) 
The red-breast (Sylvia Rubecula Lath.} feeds on insects and worms; and 
also, when the food is scarce, on seeds or crumbs of bread. The black- cap 
(Sylvia Atricapilla Lath.) lives chiefly on insects; the wag-tail (Motacilla, 
L.) on aquatic insects. The titmouse (Parus L.) lives chiefly on insects, 
but will also eat seeds. The greater titmouse (P. major), when hard 
pressed for food, lives upon the honey-bee ; and, according to Mr. Main, 
sometimes destroys great numbers of them. The bird " seats himself at 
the door of the hive, and taps with his bill to provoke the bees to come 
forth. The first bee that comes out is instantly seized by the middle and 
carried off to a tree, and there beaten against a branch till it is nearly dead. 
The bird then separates the head and thorax, which it swallows, from the 
abdomen, which it rejects, as containing the sting, and then flies back 
for another victim." (Ladies' Mag. of Gard. vol. i. p. 52.) The bearded 
titmouse, an inhabitant of fenny districts, lives on snails and other land 
molluscse. The lark (^lauda L.) feeds on insects and small seeds. The 
bunting (Emberiza Z/.) feeds principally on seeds. The CM bunting, 
found in Devonshire and some of the adjoining counties, is said to feed on 



REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 117 

the berries of the Solanum Dulcamara. The chaffinch, the house-sparrow, 

the tree-sparrow, and different other species belonging to the genus Frm- 

gllla, feed on insects and seeds ; sometimes on berries ; and when food is 

scarce, on the buds of trees. They also eat the anthers of Crocuses and 

other spring flowers. In severe winters the buds of the Gooseberry and 

Currant tribe are sometimes devoured by the common house-sparrow; 

and this even in the neighbourhood of London, where it might be suppose d 

this bird would find food at all seasons. The bullfinch, cross-bill, and 

starling, live on insects and worms, and occasionally grain. The raven 

(Corvus Corax Z.) lives on mice, rats, poultry and other animals, as well 

as on carrion. The carrion crow (C. Corone Z/.) and the hooded crow (C. 

Cornix L.) have similar habits. Mr. Waterton considers the carrion crow 

as merely a variety of the raven ; " he rises long before the rook, and retires 

to rest later than that bird. Indeed, he is the first bird on wing in the 

morning, and the last at night, of all our non-migratory, diurnal British 

birds. He feeds voraciously on ripe cherries, and in autumn eats walnuts ; 

but he destroys many worms and caterpillars ; though when his young are 

in the nest, he seizes game and young poultry wherever he can find them." 

(Essays on Nat. Hist.) The rook (Corvus frugllegus L.) lives principally 

on the grub of the cockchafer, the wireworm, and other insects ; but will 

occasionally devour corn ; and, during the winter season, is very destructive 

to turnips. The jackdaw (C. JZonedula Z,.), the jay, and the magpie, feed 

on a great variety of animal and vegetable substances. The woodpecker 

(Picus Z/.), of which there are several species, feeds on ants and other 

insects ; more especially on the larva of the timber-eating species, which it 

extracts by means of its long tongue, after having perforated the wood with 

its bill. Neither the titmouse nor the woodpecker, Mr. Waterton observes, 

ever bore into the hard and live wood. The wryneck (Funx Torquilla Z/.) 

lives principally on ants; and the common creeper (Certhia familiaris Z/.), 

which is generally dispersed through the country, and is remarkable for the 

great facility with which it climbs up the trunks of trees, feeds entirely on 

insects. The nuthatch (itta europae'a L.) lives occasionally on insects, 

but principally on nuts, which it breaks with its bill after having firmly 

fixed them in the crevices of old trees. The cuckoo feeds principally on 

caterpillars and other insects. The swallow and the martin feed entirely on 

insects taken on the wing ; they appear about the end of April or beginning 

of May, and depart in October. The goatsucker (Caprimulgus L.) lives 

on insects, particularly on cockchafers, which it seizes on the wing, and on 

butterflies ; but this bird is more frequently found hi solitary woods than in 

gardens or frequented places. 

366. The greater number of birds which frequent gardens belong to this 
order ; and while they do good by devouring insects, snails, and worms, 
they are also to a certain extent injurious, by eating fruits and attacking 
newly-sown or germinating seeds. The singing-birds are the best for 
destroying soft-winged insects, such as moths and butterflies. Of all the 
birds of this order, perhaps the hedge-sparrow is the most harmless, and the 
house-sparrow the most mischievous. The former lives upon the seeds of 
weeds or other plants that lie upon the surface of the ground, and it rarely 
attacks buds; while the house -sparrow scratches up newly-sown seeds and 
crops the tops of seedling plants when they are just penetrating through 
the surface of the soil, such as peas : it also eats the smaller fruits, and, 



118 BIRDS, CONSIDERED WITH 

when other food is wanting, attacks buds. The robin devours currants, more 
especially about the time the young robins leave the nest, in June, when 
the currants are beginning to ripen. Blackcaps, whitethroats, and bull- 
finches, eat currants, strawberries, and raspberries ; and of the latter fruit, 
bullfinches are particularly fond. Gooseberries, being too large for the 
soft-billed birds, as soon as they ripen are attacked by blackbirds and 
thrushes ; and the fondness of these birds for ripe cherries has long been 
notorious. The wren and the fly- catcher are purely insectivorous ; and 
the tomtits, though they sometimes destroy buds, yet are far more useful 
than injurious, from the number of caterpillars which they devour. 

367. Rasores (Scratchers}. Birds with feet not formed for scraping: food, 
chiefly seeds and terrestrial vermin. The ringdove, and different other species 
of doves, live on all kinds of grain and seeds, and, during severe weather, on 
the leaves of turnips and other cultivated plants ; and some of them occasion- 
ally eat the smaller snails and slugs. This is the case with the domestic 
pigeon ; though it more frequently lives on peas and grain. The turkey lives 
on snails, slugs, worms, lizards, frogs, and terrestrial insects, together with 
corn and seeds of almost every other kind. The peacock lives on similar food, 
and will even attack small snakes. The Guinea pintado, the domestic cock, 
and the pheasant, are omnivorous, eating roots as well as animals, fruits, and 
seeds. The corm of .Ranunculus bulbosus, where it abounds, is greedily 
eaten by the pheasant. The grouse (Tetrao Z/.) frequents woods of pines, 
birch, and juniper, and feeds on the berries of the latter, and on the buds 
and tender spray of the two former. The black grouse feeds on berries, and 
on the tops of heath and birch. The common partridge feeds on seeds and 
insects, and especially on the pupae of ants. Few of these birds concern the 
gardener, except the turkey, peacock, and pheasant, which may be useful 
in pleasure-grounds in picking up vermin. 

368. Grallatores (Waders). Birds with legs adapted for wading: food, 
chiefly animals and grain. The plover (Charadrius Z,.), of which there are 
several species, haunts moors and other open districts, and lives on worms and 
insects. The heron feeds principally on fish and small reptiles. The stork, 
which sometimes appears in Suffolk, lives on reptiles, insects, small quadru- 
peds, such as mice, rats, &c., and might be usefully domiciliated in gardens ; 
as might the crane, as an ornamental object, and because it feeds on aquatic 
plants, worms, and small reptiles. The woodcock ($c61opax Z.), a winter 
visitant, lives on insects and worms ; as does the snipe. The water-hen 
(Galllnula Lath.\ and the coot (Fulica Z,.), feed on aquatic insects, seeds, 
and vegetables. The birds of this order may be said scarcely to concern the 
gardener. 

369. Natatores (Swimmers}. Birds with feet adapted for swimming, om- 
nivorous. The goose (^4'nser J5m*.), of which there are several species, and the 
swan (Cygnus Meyer) live upon grain of all kinds, aquatic vegetables, 
and grass. The common gull (Zarus canus L.) is an inhabitant of the sea- 
coast, but frequents inland districts during the winter months, where it lives 
upon worms, snails, and small fish. As it does not touch seeds or vegetables 
of any kind, it is kept in gardens in various parts of Scotland. The common 
duck (^4 v nas .Boschas Z.) feeds naturally on aquatic insects and vege- 
tables, fish, and molluscous animals, and is the most useful bird of this 
order for occasional admission into gardens. Ducks, however, when placed 
in a garden to destroy vermin, require to be withdrawn once a day, and 



REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 119 

either starved, or fed with grain, before being sent back again to eat the 
vermin. 

As a general conclusion to be drawn from this section, the gardener 
will learn on the one hand to be cautious how far he destroys birds of any 
kind ; but he will also, on the other, watch the operations of birds, and 
when he finds them committing depredations on newly- sown seeds, on seeds 
coming through the ground, on flowers, or on fruits, have recourse to some 
mode of deterring without destroying them. 

370. The different modes of deterring birds may be reduced to the follow- 
ing : Excluding by netting, or other coverings, supported at a few inches' 
distance from the rising seedlings, fruit, flower, or plant to be protected ; setting 
up scares, of different kinds, such as mock men or cats, mock hawks or other 
birds of prey, miniature wind-mills or clapper-mills ; lines with feathers tied 
at regular distances, placed at a few inches' distance above the rows of newly- 
sown peas, or other seeds sown in drills ; over rows of crocuses or other 
dwarf spring flowers, or over beds or entire compartments. A system of 
dark worsted threads, placed in front of wall-trees at a few inches' distance 
from the leaves, will scare a\vay most birds ; because, taking the worsted 
string for a twig, and lighting on it, it turns round by the grasp, and sinking 
at the same time by the weight, the bird falls, and if this happens to him on 
a second attempt, he will be deterred for the future. The following scare is 
founded on an idea given by Mr. Swainson in the Encyclopedia of Agricul. 2d 
edit., p. 1112 : Let poles, ten or twelve feet high, be firmly fixed in the 
ground, in conspicuous parts of the garden, each pole terminating in an iron 
spike six or eight inches long ; pass this spike through the body of a dead 
hawk in the direction of the back -bone : it will thus be firmly secured, and 
give the bird an erect position ; the wings being free, will be moved by every 
breeze, and their unnatural motion will prove the best scarecrow either for 
ravenous or granivorous birds, more particularly the latter. Cats are found 
useful in walled gardens as scares to birds, as well as for other purposes. 
R. Brook, Esq., of Melton Lodge, near Woodbridge, in Suffolk, has four or 
five cats, each with a collar and light chain and sw r ivel, about a yard long, with 
a large iron ring at the end. As soon as the gooseberries, currants, and rasp- 
berries, begin to ripen, a small stake is driven into the ground, or bed, near 
the trees to be protected, leaving about a yard and a half of the stake above 
ground; the ring is slipped over the head of the stake, and the cat being thus 
tethered in sight of the trees, no birds will approach them. Cherry trees and 
wall-fruit trees are protected in the same manner as they successively ripen. 
Each cat, by way of a shed, has one of the largest-sized flower-pots laid on its 
side, within reach of its chain, with a little hay or straw in bad weather, and 
her food and water placed near her. A wall of vines between 200 and SOO 
yards long, in Kirke's Nursery, Brompton, the fruit of which, in all pre- 
vious seasons, had been very much injured by birds, was one year completely 
protected from them, in consequence of a cat having voluntarily posted 
herself sentry upon it. (Hort. Trans. 2d series, and Gard. Mag. vol. xii. 
p. 429.) A stuffed cat has also been found efficacious. Crows and rooks are, 
in some parts of the country, deterred from lighting on sown wheats by pieces 
of rag dipped in a mixture of bruised gunpowder and tar, and stuck on rods, 
which are placed here and there over the field, and the rags renewed every 
three or four days. Of course this scare only operates where the birds have 
been previously accustomed to be shot at. The most certain mode of scaring 



120 THE SMALLER QUADRUPEDS, CONSIDERED 

away birds, however, is to set boys or other persons to watch and sound a 
wooden clapper all round the fruit, or seeds, which may be ripening, or 
germinating. 

371. The destruction of birds is most judiciously effected by traps, or by 
poisoning, because neither of these modes operates like the gun in scaring 
away others. " The report of fire-arms is terrible to birds ; and, indeed, it 
ought never to be heard in places in which you wish to encourage the pre- 
sence of animated nature. Where the discharge of fire-arms is strictly 
prohibited, you will find that the shiest species of birds will soon forget 
their wariness, and assume habits which persecution prevents them from 
putting in practice. Thus the cautious heron will take up its abode in the 
immediate vicinity of your mansion ; the barn-owl will hunt for mice under 
the blazing sun of noon, even in the very meadow where the hay-makers are 
at work ; and the widgeons will mix, in conscious security, with the geese, 
as they pluck the sweet herbage on your verdant lawn ; where the hares 
may be seen all the day long, now lying on their sides to enjoy the warmth 
of the sun, and now engaged in sportive chase, unbroken in upon by enemies, 
whose sole endeavour is to take their lives." (Essays on Nat. Hist., 3d ed. p. 
251.) One of the simplest bird traps, and one also of a very effectual descrip- 
tion, is to smear some of the twigs of the trees in which they are expected to 
alight with bird-lime. Every country boy can suggest the modes of collect- 
ing birds together by regular supplies of food, which may be poisoned by 
arsenic, or netting may be so contrived as to be pulled down over the birds 
and secure them. 

SECT. VI. The smaller Quadrupeds, considered with reference to Horti- 
culture. 

A few of these deserve notice, partly as the enemies of gardens, and partly 
as the subduers of other garden enemies ; and in order that none deserving 
notice may escape, we shall take them in scientific order. 

372. Ferce ( Wild Beasts). The badger (J/eles Cuv.) burrows in the ground 
and comes abroad in the night to feed, devouring indiscriminately animal and 
vegetable substances. The martin (M ustela Foina Z,.) inhabits the vicinity of 
houses, and preys on poultry, game, rats, moles, &c. It breeds in hollow trees. 
The polecat (M. Putorius L.) is a common inhabitant of woods and planta- 
tions in all parts of the country, and preys on game, poultry, eggs, and all 
the smaller quadrupeds, amphibiae, snails, slugs, and worms. The ferret 
(M. Furo Zr.), considered by some as the polecat in a domesticated state, 
is employed to destroy rabbits and rats. The weazel (M. vulgaris Gmel.) 
is common in the vicinity of barns and outhouses. It devours young birds, 
rats, mice, moles, frogs, toads, lizards, snakes, snails, slugs, &c. Mr. 
Waterton, after recommending this animal to farmers, says : " But of all 
people in the land, our gardeners have most reason to protect the weazel. 
They have not one single word of complaint against it not even for dis- 
turbing the soil of the flower-beds. Having no game to encourage, nor 
fowls to fatten, they may safely say to it, ' Come hither, little benefactor, 
and take up thy abode amongst us. We will give shelter to thy young ones, 
and protection to thyself, and we shall be always glad to see thee.' And 
fortunate, indeed, are those horticultural enclosures which can boast the 
presence of a weazel ; for neither mouse, nor rat, nor mole, can carry on 
their projects with impunity whilst the weazel stands sentinel over the 



WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 



121 



garden. Ordinary, and of little cost, are the apartments required for it. A 
cart-load of rough stones, or of damaged bricks, heaped up in some seques- 
tered corner, free from dogs, will be all that it wants for a safe retreat and a 
pleasant dwelling. Although the weazel generally hunts for food during the 
night, still it is by no means indolent in the day-time, if not harassed by 
dogs or terrified with the report of guns." (Essays, &c. p. 302.) The otter, 
which inhabits the banks of rivers, lakes, and marshes, swims and dives with 
great facility, and is destructive to fish, on which it preys. The fox and the 
wild cat prey on birds and small quadrupeds. The domestic cat is too well 
known and too useful where rats, mice, or birds are to be deterred or de- 
stroyed, to require further notice : but where birds are to be preserved or 
encouraged, cats are their greatest enemies. "Cats amongst birds," Mr. Water- 
ton observes, " are like the devil amongst us : they go up and down seeking 
whom they may devour. A small quantity of arsenic, about as much as the point 
of your penknife will contain, rubbed into a bit of meat, either cooked or raw, 
will do their business effectually ." The mole (Talpa europaesaZ,.) burrows 
beneath the surface, but never to a great depth, throwing up hillocks at in- 
tervals. It feeds on worms and the larvae of insects, and, according to some, 
on roots. It breeds twice a year, in spring and autumn ; and as it carries 
on its operations chiefly in the night-time, the runs and hills may be watched 
early in the morning, and the animals dug out wherever they give signs of 
movement. They may also be taken by traps, of which there are several 
kinds ; or poisoned by putting a little arsenic in worms, or in pieces of 
meat ; or by the use of nux vomica. They may also be caught by sinking 
in their runs narrow-mouthed vessels of water, into which the animals will 
descend to drink without being able to get out again ; or these vessels may 
have false covers similar to those set in the runs of rats. The shrew (orex 
.Z/.), of which there are three species, inhabits gardens, fields, and hedge- 
rows, and preys on insects, and also on vegetable substances. It may be 
caught by a water-trap in the same 
manner as the mole, or by an inverted 
flower-pot sunk in the soil, and slightly 
covered with litter or leaves, fig. 10, or 
subdued by employing some of its natu- 
ral enemies. The hedgehog ( JS'rinaceus 
L.) resides in hedges, thickets, &c., re- 
maining concealed in the day-time, but 
coming abroad at night in quest of 

worms, Snails, slugs, and even frogs and Fig. 10. Inverted flower-pot, for catching mice. 

snakes. It also lives on roots and fruits. Hedgehogs are occasionally kept 
in gardens for destroying frogs, toads, lizards, snails, slugs, and worms ; and 
in kitchens, for devouring beetles, cockroaches, woodlice, and other terrestrial 
insects. Care is requisite, however, that they are not annoyed by cats, 
which, though they cannot devour them, will, if not prevented, soon force 
them to quit a habitation which is not natural to them. The spines of the 
hedgehog are soft at its birth, and all inclining backwards ; but they become 
hard and sharp in twenty-four hours. The bat, of which there are several 
species indigenous, lives entirely on insects caught on the wing. It forms 
the natural food of the owl. The dog, which belongs to this order, is well 
known in gardens and country residences for his property of watching and 
attacking rats and other vermin. 




122 THE SMALLER QUADRUPEDS CONSIDERED. 

373. Gllres {Dormice}. The common squirrel feeds on birds, acorns, nuts, 
and other fruits ; and though he is very ornamental in woods, he should be 
but sparingly admitted into pleasure-grounds. The dormouse lives on similar 
fruit to the squirrel, and builds in the hollows of trees. The field-mouse 
may be caught and subdued in the same manner as the shrew. The field- 
mouse in the Forest of Dean had become so destructive in 1813, that after 
trying traps, baits with poison, dogs, cats, &c. with little success, at last the 
plan of catching it by holes was hit upon. These holes were made from 
eighteen inches to two feet long, sixteen or eighteen inches deep, about the 
width of a spade at the top, fourteen or fifteen inches wide at the bottom, 
and three or four inches longer at the bottom than at the top. The object 
was to get the bottom of the hole three or four inches wider every way than 
the top, and the sides firm, otherwise the mice would run up the sides and 
get out again. The holes were made at twenty yards apart each way, over a 
surface of about 3200 acres : 30,000 mice were very soon caught, and the 
ground was freed from them for two or three years. As many as fifteen 
have been found in a hole in one night ; when not taken out soon, they fell 
on and ate each other. These mice, we are informed, used not only to 
eat the acorns when newly planted, but to eat through the stems of trees 
seven and eight feet high, and an inch and a half in diameter : the part 
eaten through was the collar, or seat of life. (Billingtoris Facts on Oaks and 
Trees., &;c. p. 43.) The black and the brown rat are omnivorous, and the 
latter takes occasionally to water and swims readily. Both are extremely 
difficult to extirpate, and the various modes of entrapping them are too 
numerous and well known to require description here. The hare feeds 
entirely on vegetables, and is very injurious where it finds its way into 
gardens and young plantations. It eats the bark of several trees, and is 
particularly fond of that of the Laburnum. Various mixtures have been 
recommended for rendering the bark of young trees obnoxious to the hare, 
and an ointment composed of powdered sloes and hogs'-lard is said to prove 
effectual. Stale urine of any kind, mixed up with any glutinous matter 
that will retain it on the bark, has also been recommended. The rabbit is 
more injurious to gardens than the hare, because it is much less shy, and 
much more prolific. It may be deterred from injuring the bark of trees by 
the same means as the hare, and from eating pinks, carnations, and other 
evergreen herbaceous plants, by surrounding them with a tarred thread sup- 
ported by sticks at the height of six or eight inches from the ground ; or by 
a fence, formed of wires about eighteen or twenty inches long, placed upright, 
with the tops pointing outwards, the wires being connected by one horizontal 
wire at the bottom and another at the middle. When hares or rabbits are 
to be excluded from pleasure-grounds, a wire- wove fence is requisite ; and 
where it is intended that the effect of the irregularity of the margin of the 
plantation should not be impaired by the formality of a fence the lower part 
of which is as close as basket-work, and consequently more like a fence of 
boards painted green, than an invisible fence, which it is commonly called, 
the mode is to have three parallel lines of fences, two or three yards apart. 
The outer fence may consist of iron posts and rods, no closer together than 
is necessary to exclude horses, cattle, and deer ; the second fence should be 
such as will exclude sheep ; and between this fence and the outer one there 
may be several large bushes, or low trees, with branches reaching to within 
the height of a sheep from the ground. The third fence need not be more 



DISEASES AND ACCIDENTS OF PLANTS CONSIDERED. 



123 



than two feet high, with an iron wire about a foot higher along the top, 
and with the wires sufficiently close together to exclude hares and rabbits ; 
and between this fence and the sheep-fence there may be several shrubs, 
with their branches resting on the ground. Thus, by the distribution of the 




Fig. 11. Triple fence : a., for excluding cattle ; b, sheep fence ; c, hare and rabbit fence. 

materials which commonly form one fence into three fences, the outer margin 
of the plantation may be made to appear as free and irregular as if there 
were no fence at all. See fig. 11. 

374. Ungulata (Hoofed Animals). The ox, the sheep, the goat, the deer, 
the horse, the ass, and the hog, belong to this order ; and the means of pro- 
tecting gardens against them, or of using the animals or their manure so as 
to become subservient to gardens, are well known, and already pointed out 
in the Suburban Architect and Landscape Gardener, and in our chapter on 
Manures, p. 56. 



CHAPTER V. 

DISEASES AND ACCIDENTS OF PLANTS, CONSIDERED WITH 
REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 

THERE are various diseases and accidents to which plants are liable, some 
of which come little under the control of the gardener, and others he can 
avert or subdue. The principal diseases which affect garden-plants are the 
canker, mildew, gum, honey dew, and flux of juices. 

375. The canker chiefly affects fruit-trees, and of these perhaps more 
particularly the apple ; and some apples are constitutional^ more liable to 
disease than others, for example, the Ribston Pippin. The canker exhibits 
itself in small brown blotches, which afterwards become ulcerous wounds, on 
the surface of the bark, and soon extend on every side, eating into the wood, 
and sooner or later becoming so large as ultimately to kill the tree. The 
causes generally assigned are, the unsuitableness of the soil, the unpropitious- 
iiess of the climate, and the unfavourableness of the seasons ; and here the 



124 ACCIDENTS AND DISEASES OF PLANTS, 

matter generally rests. Now, though we cannot make a soil just as we would 
wish, still its improvement is within our influence ; and though we cannot 
change the climate in our neighbourhood, we can at least accommodate our 
operations to its character. A tree planted in a proper manner, with its 
collar little, if anything, beneath the surface, in a deep friable loam, resting 
upon a dry bottom, and where the climate is moderately favourable, will 
seldom show any sign of canker. Whenever a tree is planted deep, that is, 
when the collar is buried a foot or more beneath the surface, there the 
canker will be apt to appear, however favourable other circumstances may 
be. This aptness to canker will be increased almost to certainty, if the 
ground should be deeply dug, or trenched, and supplied with rank manure 
near the tree, as then, being forced to obtain its nourishment from a greater 
depth, it will require a higher temperature and more sunlight to inspissate 
and elaborate its crude juices. 

376. To prevent canker, where good soil is only of very moderate thick- 
ness, and where the subsoil is a ferruginous gravel, or a stiff cold clay, it is 
not only necessary to drain the ground and plant upon the surface ; but the 
trees should be set on the top of mounds from six inches to a foot above 
the surrounding level, and from four to eight feet in diameter ; the bottom 
of these mounds being covered with some hard substance, such as stone, 
slate, &c., to prevent the roots descending, and to lead them out as it were 
in a horizontal direction. No manure whatever should be incorporated 
with the soil, unless it should be very poor indeed : but it may be applied 
as a mulching round the mound, which will tend to keep the roots sufficiently 
moist and also near the surface. If these points were attended to, we should 
hear little of canker, unless in places naturally very damp, where more 
than a fair average of rain falls ; or where, from the prevalence of clouds, 
there is a deficiency of sunshine. In such places the shoots grow so luxu- 
riantly during summer, that they are yet soft and spongy, and filled with 
crude juices in the end of autumn. The frost sets in, freezes these juices, 
bursts the sap-vessels, and the decay of the shoots, or brown blotches, and 
ultimate canker, are the consequence. The only preventive in such cases is 
to plant on hillocks, and in soil made light and poor : the wood will then 
be less luxuriant and better ripened. 

377. "What has been said respecting the prevention of canker will also 
apply to its cure. No scrubbing, scraping, or anointing will be of the least 
use. Cutting down the trees and allowing them to shoot afresh may be of 
benefit, if the canker has been produced by one very unfavourable season ; 
grafting them with hardier sorts will succeed, if the evil arises from unfa- 
vourableness of climate ; but neither of these methods will be of permanent 
benefit, when the evil proceeds from soil or deep planting. In such cases, 
where the trees are very bad, the best method is to destroy them gradually, 
and plant young ones hi a proper manner, leaving some of the old trees until 
the young ones commence bearing. If the trees are not very old, nor yet 
too far gone, it will be advisable to take them up carefully, cut away all the 
cankered wood, plaster up all the wounds with a compound of clay and cow- 
dung, plant them in fresh soil on hillocks, and give no manure unless what 
is supplied for mulching. Such trees will generally become quite free of 
disease and bear splendid crops. A number of years ago, in a large kitchen- 
garden in the neighbourhood of London, a great number of fruit-trees were 
dispersed in the different quarters in a miserable state from canker. The 



CONSIDERED WITH REFERENCE TO HORTICULTURE. 325 

gardener appropriated a quarter in the garden for the reception of these 
trees ; had the ground thrown into wide and high ridges : on the top of these 
ridges the trees were planted, and last summer they presented a fine healthy 
appearance, and were well stocked with good fruit. The soil was a stiff 
clayey loam. 

378. The gum, by which is meant an extraordinary exudation of that 
secretion, takes place chiefly in stone-fruit trees, such as the Peach, Cherry, 
Plum, &c., from a cut, bruise, bend, or other violent disruption of the tissue, 
or by injudicious pruning; often, however, without any visible cause. The 
gum on the young shoots of Peach-trees is analogous to the canker on Apple- 
trees, and seems to be caused by a cold wet soil, or a cold wet climate. Trees 
subject to this disease will live many years, and bear abundantly, though 
sometimes they are destroyed by it. For the gum we know of no remedy. 

379. Mildew appears in the form of a whitish coating on the surface of 
leaves, chiefly on those of herbaceous plants and seedling trees. Deficiency of 
nutriment is favourable to the production of mildew ; it seems also to prefer 
glaucous-leaved plants, as the Swedish Turnip, Rape, and Peas, which are par- 
ticularly subject to it in dry weather. Some varieties of fruit-trees are more 
liable to mildew than others ; for instance, the Royal George and the Royal 
Charlotte Peaches are often attacked, when other sorts, growing contiguously, 
are free from the disease. The mildew is supposed to be produced by innu- 
merable plants of a minute fungus, the seeds of which, floating in the air, find 
a suitable nidus in the state of the surface of the leaf, and root into its 
stomata. This favourable state for the appearance of the disease seems to 
be promoted by various circumstances. It sometimes proceeds from a ten- 
derness in plants, produced from sowing or planting too thick. It exhibits 
itself in a season of dry weather, when the leaves become in a languid state, 
produced often by the roots being prevented from drawing moisture from below, 
by injudicious surface watering. It also shows itself after a season of wet 
weather, if the drainage is defective, and the leaves have become surcharged 
with crude juices. More especially does it present itself in either of these cir- 
cumstances, when the roots and branches of a plant are placed very differently 
relatively to moisture and temperature. For instance, it is very apt to 
make its appearance in a peach-house, if the border should be cold and wet, 
and the top of the tree in a warm arid atmosphere. The same effect will be 
produced when the atmosphere is genial and moist, and the border allowed 
to become too dry. Cucumbers grown in Pine stoves, will often become 
much infested with mildew in the winter months ; because unless the pines 
should be in fruit, they will neither enjoy the requisite temperature, nor 
a sufficiently moist atmosphere. In many cases, also, the disease proceeds 
from the soil being exhausted ; from containing too much inert carbonaceous 
matter, or becoming soured or sodden from want of drainage. In such cases 
trees are often completely cured by replanting properly in fresh soil. The best 
temporary specific for arresting the disease, is washing the affected parts 
with a composition of water and flower of sulphur. If the plants are tender, 
it will be advisable to shake the sulphur in a state of powder on the affected 
parts when dry. In both cases it will be necessary to guard against bright 
sunshine, by partial shading. In some cases the labour of sulphuring may 
be dispensed with, by at once cutting off the affected leaves and shoots. 
Where the mildew is liable to be produced by drought, it may frequently 
be prevented by copiously watering the soil, by which the late Mr. Knight 



126 ACCIDENTS AND DISEASES OF PLANTS CONSIDERED. 

prevented this disease from attacking his late crops of Peas. The rust 
in com crops is produced by a fungus in the same manner as the mildew ; 
but as it chiefly concerns the agriculturist, we refer the reader to Professor 
Henslow's Report of the Diseases of Wheat, Jour. Ag. Soc. Eng., vol. ii. p. 1. 

380. Honey dew is a sweet and clammy exudation from the surface of the 
leaves of plants during hot weather, and it is supposed to be occasioned by 
the thickening of the circulating fluids in the leaf, which being unable to 
flow back into the bark with their accustomed rapidity, the sugary parts find 
their way to the surface. The disease is common in the Oak, Beech, Thorn, 
and in many other plants. Hitherto no remedy has been applied to it in 
general cases, as though it weakens plants it seldom kills them. When, 
however, it appears on plants in a state of high cultivation, for instance, in a 
peach-house, or on a peach- wall, no time ought to be lost in applying the 
syringe or garden-engine, and even rubbing it off the leaves if necessary, 
otherwise the shoots or branches affected will be apt to be destroyed. Some 
persons suppose the honey dew to be occasioned by the aphides, as the 
exuviae of those insects are often found on leaves affected with this disease. 

381. Blight is a term which is very generally applied to plants when under 
the influence of disease, or when attacked by minute fungi or insects. In 
some cases the continued action of dried air, and cold frosty winds, preventing 
the flow of the sap, may bring on a disease which might be called blight, 
exclusive of either the action of insects or of fungi ; but by far the greater 
number of instances of what is called blight are produced by these two causes. 
In general the fungi may be destroyed by the application of powdered sulphur, 
and the insects by some of the different means that have been already pointed 
out (352 to 361). 

382. Flux of Juices. Under this term are comprehended the bleeding, or 
flow of the juices of the vine and other plants, when accidentally wounded, 
or pruned too early in autumn, or too late in spring ; and the discharge of the 
descending sap, or the cambium, in a putrid state between the bark and the 
wood, which frequently happens in elm- trees, and is incurable. The flux of 
the rising juices seldom does much injury, and may generally be prevented 
by pruning before the sap is in motion. 

383. The accidents to which plants are liable are chiefly confined to the 
plants being broken or bruised, and the general remedy is amputation of the 
parts. When the section of amputation is large, it is best to cover the 
wound with some adhesive composition, which will exclude the weather, 
and not impede the growth of the bark over the wound ; but this subject 
will bo noticed more in detail when we come to treat of pruning. 

384. A number of other plant diseases have been described and named by 
writers on Botany, but they are of very little interest to the practical gar- 
dener, because they rarely occur when plants are properly treated, or occur 
only in old age, or in a state of natural decay ; or because, when they do occur, 
they seldom admit of any remedy. Those diseases to which some plants 
are more liable than others, will be mentioned when these plants are treated 
of; for example, the rot in the Hyacinth, the dropsy in succulents, the blis- 
tering of the leaves in Peach-trees, &c. 






127 



PART II. 

IMPLEMENTS, STRUCTURES, AND OPERATIONS OF 
HORTICULTURE. 



CHAPTER I. 

IMPLEMENTS OF HORTICULTURE. 

385. WITH the progress of gardening a great many tools, instruments, 
utensils, machines, and other articles, have been invented and recommended ; 
and some of these are without doubt considerable improvements on those 
previously in use; while, on the other hand, many would be rather im- 
pediments than otherwise in the hands of an expert workman. The truth 
is, that for all gardening in the open air, and without the use of pots for 
growing plants, or walls or espaliers for training trees, the only essential 
instrument is the spade. There is no mode of stirring the soil, whether by 
picks, forks, or hoes, which may not be performed with this implement. 
It may be used as a substitute for the dibber, or trowel, or perforator (in 
planting or inserting stakes) ; instead of the rake and the roller in smoothing 
a surface and rendering it fit for the reception of the smallest seeds ; and 
after these are sown, the spade may be employed to sprinkle fine earth over 
them as a covering, by which indeed that operation may be performed more 
perfectly than by " raking in." The only garden operation on the soil which 
cannot be performed with the spade, is that of freeing a dug surface from 
stones, roots, and other smaller obstructions, which are commonly " raked 
off ; " but as the removal of small stones from the soil is of very doubtful 
utility, and as at all events these and other obstructions can be hand- 
picked, the rake cannot be considered an essential garden implement. The 
pruning-kmfe might in general be dispensed with in the training of young 
trees, by disbudding with the finger and thumb ; but as the branches of 
grown-up trees frequently die or become diseased, and require cutting off, 
the priming-knife may be considered the most essential implement next to 
the spade ; and with these two implements the settler in a new country 
might cultivate ground already cleared so as to produce in abundance every 
vegetable which was found suitable to the climate and soil. 

386. But though a garden of the simplest kind may be cultivated with 
no other implements than a spade and a knife, yet for a garden containing 
the improvements and refinements common to those of modern times, a 
considerable variety of implements are necessary or advantageous. Some 
of these are chiefly adapted for operating on the soil, and they may be 
designated as tools ; others are used chiefly in pruning and training plants, 
and may be called instruments ; some are for containing plants or other 
roots, or for conveying materials used in cultivation, and are properly uten- 
sils ; while some are machines calculated to abridge the labour of effecting one 
or more of these different purposes. We shall arrange the whole in groups 
according to their uses, previously submitting some general observations. 

K 2 



128 OBSERVATIONS ON THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE 

SECT. I. General Observations on the Construction and Uses of the Imple- 
ments used in Horticulture. 

Implements may be considered with reference to the mechanical prin- 
ciples on which they act, the materials of which they are constructed, their 
preservation and their repairs. 

387. All tools and instruments, considered with reference to the mechanical 
principles on which they act, may be reduced to the lever and the wedge ; 
the latter serving as the penetrating, separating or cutting, and sometimes 
the carrying part ; and the former, as the medium through which, by motion, 
force is communicated to the latter. All the different kinds of spades, 
shovels, and forks have their wedges in the same plane as the levers ; all 
the different kinds of picks, hoes, and rakes have their wedges fixed at 
right angles to the levers. The blades of knives and saws are no less 
wedges than the blades of spades or rakes, only their actions are somewhat 
more complex ; every tooth of the saw acting as a wedge, and the sharp 
edge of a knife consisting of a series of teeth so small as not to be visible 
to the naked eye, but in reality separating a branch by being drawn across 
it, on exactly the same principle as the saw. The series of combinations 
which constitute machines, when analysed, may be reduced to levers, 
fulcrums, and inclined planes ; and utensils depend partly on mechanical 
construction, and partly on chemical cohesion. It is only by understanding 
the principles on which an implement is constructed that that part can be 
discovered where it is most vulnerable when used, or most liable to decay 
from age. In all tools and instruments the vulnerable point is the fulcrum 
of the lever, or the point where the handle is connected with the blade or 
head. Another reason why failure generally takes place in that part is, that 
the handle is there generally pierced with a nail or rivet, which necessarily 
weakens the wood by breaking off or separating a number of the fibres. In 
general, the power or efficiency of any tool or instrument, supposing it to 
be properly constructed, is as its weight taken in connexion with the motion 
which is given to it by the operator. Hence strong-made implements of 
every kind are to be preferred to light ones ; and this preference will be found 
to be given by all good workmen. 

388. In the construction of implements, the levers or handles are for the 
most part made of wood, and the wedges or operating parts of iron or steel. 
The wood in most general use for handles in Britain is ash ; and next to the 
ash, oak : but for lighter tools, such as the hoe, rake, the scraper, besom, 
&c., pine or fir deal is sufficient. Handles to implements are of four kinds : 
first, cylindrical and smooth from one extremity to the other, as in the hoe, 
rake, &c. ; second, cylindrical, or nearly so, but dilated at one or at both 
extremities, as in the pick, hatchet, &c., such handles being called helves ; 
third, cylindrical and smooth, but with a grasping piece at one end, as in 
the spade, shovel, &c. ; and fourth, angular or rough throughout, as in the 
pruning-knife, hammer, hedgebill, &c. The reasons for these forms of 
handles are to be found in the manner of using the implements : one hand 
of the operator is run rapidly along cylindrical handles, as in the hoe and 
rake ; in the dilated handles, one hand slides along between two extremities 
till it reaches the dilated part of the head, which wedges firmly into the 
hand ; and, this dilated part being in the direction of the operating part of 
the tool, adds considerably to its strength. This is the case in the pick, and 



OF THE IMPLEMENTS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 129 

in the hatchet, in which implements, without the dilations at both extre- 
mities of the handle, as well as in some degree in the middle part, it would 
be difficult for the operator to bring down an oblique blow with sufficient 
accuracy. Without the cross-piece or perforated handle of the spade, the 
operator could not easily lift a spitful or turn it over ; and hence we find, 
that in using the Flemish and other Continental spades, that have no grasping 
piece at one end, the operator never attempts to turn over the spitful, but 
merely throws it from him in such a manner that the surface falls towards 
the bottom of the furrow. No pruning-knife or hedgebill could be grasped 
firmly in the hand if it were cylindrical ; and unless these instruments are 
held firmly, it is impossible to cut obliquely with sufficient precision. The 
iron of all instruments should be of the best quality, and the cutting edges 
of blades, and sharp perforating points, should be of steel for greater hard- 
ness and durability. 

389. Next to the importance of having implements properly constructed, 
is that of keeping them constantly in good repair. For this purpose the 
iron or steel parts require to be occasionally sharpened on a grindstone or by 
other means ; or to have additions of iron or steel welded to them by the 
blacksmith or cutler. All implements, when not in use, should be kept 
under cover in an open airy shed or tool-house ; some, as the spade, pick, 
&c., may rest on the ground; others, as the scythe, rake, &c., should be 
suspended on hooks or pins ; and smaller articles, such as trowels, dibbers, 
&c., placed in a holster rail. This is a rail or narrow board fixed to the 
wall in a horizontal direction, an inch 01* two apart from it at the lower 
edge, and somewhat farther apart at the upper edge. Other small articles 
may be laid on shelves, and pruning- knives kept in drawers. No imple- 
ment ought to be placed in the tool-house without being previously 
thoroughly cleaned ; and all sharp-edged implements, such as the scythe, 
hedgebill, &c., when laid by and not to be used for some time, should have 
the blades coated over with grease or bees'-wax, and powdered over with 
lime or chalk to prevent the grease from being eaten off by mice, as well 
as by combining with it to render it more tenacious, of a firmer consist- 
ence, and less easily rubbed off. In coating the blade of a scythe or hedge- 
bill, or the plate of a saw, with wax or grease, it should be first gently 
heated by holding it before a fire ; and afterwards the wax or grease should 
be rubbed equally over every part of it, and the powdered chalk or lime 
dusted on before the grease cools. When the instruments are again to be 
brought into use, the blades should be held before the fire, and afterwards 
wiped clean with a dry cloth. The same operation of greasing should also 
be applied to watering-pots laid by for the whiter, when these have not been 
kept thoroughly painted. Every implement ought to have its proper place 
in the tool-house, to which it should be returned every day when work 
is left off. In well-ordered establishments, fines are agreed on between the 
master and his men, to be imposed on all who do not return the tools to their 
proper places in due time, and properly cleaned. 

SECT. 2. Tools used in Horticulture. 

By tools are to be understood implements for performing the commoner 
manual operations of horticulture, and they may be included under levers, 
picks, hoes, spades, forks, rakes, and a few others of less consequence. 

390. The common lever, fig. 12, is a straight bar of wood shod with iron, or 



130 



TOOLS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 




Fig. 12. The common lever. 



of iron only, and is used for the removal of stones or large roots, which rest 
on, or are embedded in the soil. The advantage gained is as the distance 
from the power, applied at o, to the fulcrum 
6; and the force of the power is greatest 
when it is applied at right angles to the di- 
rection of the lever. The handspoke, or 
carrying lever, belongs to this species of tool, 
and is simply a pole, tapering from the two extremities to the middle, by means 
of one or two of which, tubs or boxes, or other objects, furnished with bear- 
ing hooks, can be removed from one place to another. Two of these poles, 
joined in the middle by cross-bars or boards, form what is called the hand- 
barrow a carrying implement occasionally useful in gardening. Sometimes, 
to render a detached fulcrum unnecessary, the operating end of the lever is 

bent up, so that the elbow or angle, fig. 13, 
e, serves as a fulcrum. When the ope- 
rating end terminates in claws, like those 
f a common hammer, it is termed a crow- 
bar, d, and is extremely useful for forcing 
Fig. is. Kneed lever and crowbar. U p stakes or props which have been firmly 
fixed in the ground. Sometimes the upper extremity of the bent lever and 
crowbar are made pointed and sharp, so as to serve at the same time as per- 
forators, as shown in both the kneed lever and crowbar. Every garden 
ought to have one of these tools ; and perhaps the most generally useful is 
the kneed lever, forked at the extremity, fig. 13, c. 

391. Perforators, fig. 14, are straight rods of iron, or of wood pointed with 
iron, for making holes in the ground, in which to insert stakes for supporting- 
tall or climbing herbaceous plants, standard roses, climb- 
ing roses, or other shrubs, and young trees. The 
pointed iron rod, with a solid ball at top, e, i, is most in 
use for inserting pea-sticks, and the smaller props in dug 
gardens, as well as for inserting branches in lawns to 
shelter tender shrubs hi the winter time, or 
to prevent small plants from being trodden 
upon. The wooden stake, pointed with 
iron, f, is used for making holes for larger 
posts for protecting or supporting trees in 
parks and pleasure-grounds. It is driven 
in with a wooden mallet, and afterwards 
Fig. u. Perforators. p u u e d out by passing an iron bar through 
the ring at g, one man taking hold of each end of the bar. The 
other bars are inserted by alternately lifting them up and letting 
them drop down, and they are pulled up either by hand or, in 
the case of fig. 14, ft, by passing a stick or handle through the 
eye at the top. The solid ball ?', is for the purpose of adding 




F . 



p ^ 



to the weight of the rod, and which, of course, when lifted to ra t or / or 
considerable height, adds greatly to its power in falling. The amateurs. 
perforator, fig. 15, having a handle i, and a hilt for the foot, A 1 , is chiefly 
adapted for amateurs and ladies. 

392. The dibber, fig. 16, is a perforator for inserting plants, and sometimes 
also for depositing seeds or tubers in the soil. It is most suitable for plant- 
ing seedlings, because these have a tap root, and few lateral fibres. Dibbers 



TOOLS USED IN I10KTJUULTUUE. 



131 



I n m 
Fig. 16. Dibbers. 




Fig. 18. Cast-iron 
sheaths for dibbers. 



are very commonly formed of the upper part of the handle of a spade, as /, 

? after the lower part has been broken, be- 

lt ^^1 come decayed, or is no longer fit for use. 
I I Tiiis is sometimes shod with iron, which 
f f renders it more durable when it is to be 
used in stiff or gravelly soils. Sometimes 
a piece of a kneed branch is formed into a 
dibber, as shown at m. For planting cuttings of the shoots 
of shrubs or herbaceous plants, either in the open ground 
or under glass, small dibbers, n, are used, some for inserting pj g . ^ Potato- 
cuttings of heaths, not thicker than a quill; but these the dilber. 

gardener forms for himself. The potato-dibber, fig. 17, 
has a hilt for the foot, and a handle and shank as long as 
that of the spade. For the potato and other larger 
dibbers, cast-iron sheaths, fig. 18, are sometimes fitted 
to the lower extremities, to render them more durable. 

393. Picks^ fig. 19, combine the operation of perforating with that of 
separating, breaking, loosening, and turning over ; and the pickaxe adds that 
of cutting. As the blow given by the pick on the soil, or on a root, is 
almost always given in a vertical direction, the helve is made cylindrical, 
excepting where it joins the head, and here it is dilated, so as to wedge into 
the hand of the operator, and serve to guide the direction of the stroke. The 
common pick is shown at a, the pickaxe at &, and the mattock at c. The 
narrow pointed end of the common 

pick is used for penetrating into the 
hardest soils; and the broad or chisel 
end for separating and turning over 
softer soils. The pickaxe b is for 
separating and turning over soft 
soils containing numerous roots of 
trees; those roots lying in a direction 
at right angles to the operator, being 
cut off with the chisel at one end 
of the prongs, and those roots lying 
in the opposite direction, by the chisel at the opposite end. The pick c, fre- 
quently called a mattock, and a grubber, or grubbing-axe, is principally used 
for grubbing up small trees or bushes. The pick a is essential to the toolhouse 
of the commonest garden, being frequently required for loosening gravel walks, 
where repairs or alterations are to be made, or more gravel to be added. 

394. Draw Hoes, figs. 20 and 21. The common draw hoe, and all its 

varieties, are merely picks of a 
lighter kind, with the prongs 
dilated into blades. They are 
used for penetrating, moving, 
and drawing, the soil, for the 
purpose of disrooting weeds, 
forming furrows in which to sow 
seeds, or drawing the earth up 
to plants. For light, easily- 
worked soils, the blade may be 
broad and narrow in depth ; for 




Fig. 19. Picks. 




Fig. 20. Draw hoes. 



132 



TOOLS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 





stronger soils, it should be less broad, and the iron should be thicker ; and 
for thinning seedlings, such as onions, lettuce, or turnips, the blade need not 
be more than two inches broad. The triangular hoe, fig. 20, a, is useful in 
light soils, and for separating, by its acute angles, weeds which grow close to 
the plants, to be left, and also for thinning out seedlings ; but for loosening 
the soil among seedling- trees, or other plants growing close together on strong 
soil, the pointed or Spanish hoe or pick, fig. 21, deserves the preference. 
One of these tools has a short handle, and is used for 
stirring the soil in narrow intervals among the plants 
sown broadcast hi beds ; the other is worked with a long 
handle, like a common draw- hoe ; and it has a cross- 
piece on the neck of the blade, which serves as a guide 
to the operator in directing the blade perpendicularly 
downwards, instead of to one side, when it might ma- 
terially injure tap roots. In France and other parts of 
the Continent, there is an almost endless variety of hoes 
and hoe-picks, a number of which will be found figured 

Fig 21. Spanish hoes. and described m the Gard , Mag ^ and in the Emyc. of 

Gard., 3d ed., 1832. Sometimes a draw hoe and a rake, or a draw hoe and 
a hoe pick, are fixed back to back, as shown in fig. 20 ; but these instru- 
ments are not much used. The common draw hoe, also shown in fig. 20, 
will suffice for most garden purposes. 

395. Scrapers, fig. 22, are narrow pieces of board, 
or of sheet-iron, fixed to a long handle in the same 
manner as a draw hoe, and used to scrape the worm 
casts from lawns or walks. Where worms are kept- 
Fig. 22. Lawn-scraper. under by the use of lime-water, these tools are 
scarcely necessary. 

396. Thrust hoes, fig. 23, may be considered as intermediate between 
the draw hoe and the spade. The 

common form is shown at o, and a 
modification of it at e; but 6, the 
blade of which is of steel, and sharp 
on every side, so as to cut either 
backwards or forwards, or on either 
side, is a more efficient implement ; 
though in the hands of a careless ope- 
rator it is liable to wound the plants, 
among which it is used for loosening 
the soil, or cutting up the weeds. 
Booker's hoe, c, is a very powerful im- 
plement, but liable to the same objec- 
tion ; as is Knight's hoe, d. Thrust 
hoes are best adapted for light soils, and for cutting over annual weeds; they 
are also most suitable for hoeing between plants in rows, where the branches 
reach across the intervals ; because no vertical stroke being ever given by the 
thrust hoe, as with the draw hoe, the branches are less likely to be injured. 
The hoes a and e are, perhaps, the strongest and safest for general use. 

397. Spades, fig. 24. The spade consists of the grasping-piece or handle, 
or upper extremity, a ; the shaft, which joins the handle to the blade b ; 
the hose, or pail of the blade into which the handle is inserted, c ; the hilts, 





Fig. 23. Thrust-hoes. 




TOOLS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 133 

which arc two pieces of iron which crown the upper edge of the blade for the 
purpose of receiving the foot of the operator, d, d ; and 
the blade, e. As the hilt or tread projects over the 
blade, however useful it may be in saving the soles of 
the shoes of the operator, it is found in many soils to 
impede the operation of digging, by preventing the 
blade from freeing itself from the soil which adheres 
to it. Hence, in some parts of the country, instead 
of a hilt being put on the spade to save the shoes of 
the operator, a plate of iron about two inches broad, 
Fig. 24. Spades. with leather straps, called a tread, is tied to his shoe, 
arid effects the same purpose, while the spade requires much less cleaning. 
The spade e is for free easily worked soil, and is that most frequently 
used in gardens ; /, having the lower edge of the blade curved, enters 
more easily into stiff soil, while the upper part of the blade on each 
side of the hose being perforated, no soil can adhere there, and there- 
fore spades of this form clean themselves, and in working are always 
quite free from soil. The spade, </, has a semicylindrical blade, and 
is without hilts ; it is chiefly used in executing new works, such as canals, 
drains, ponds, &c., in strong clayey soil. In consequence of the cylindrical 
form of the blade, and the lower extremity of it being applied to the soil 
obliquely, it enters the ground as easily as the blade of the spade /, while 
the sides separate the edges of the slice of earth from the firm soil ; and, 
after it is lifted up, serve as a guide in throwing it to a distance. There is 
a variety of this spade in which the blade, instead of being semi-cylindrical, 
is a segment of a cylinder, and rather broader at the bottom or cutting edge 
than at the tread. This breadth at the entering edge diminishes friction on 
the sides of the upper part of the blade, by preventing them from pressing 
hard against the earth while passing through ; in the same manner as the 
oblique setting of the teeth of a saw prevents friction on the sides of the 
blade. This spade also, from the greater breadth of the lower part of its 
blade, lifts more completely the loose soil at the bottom of the furrow. It is 
chiefly used in engineering works, and in digging or trenching stiff soil. The 
handles of spades are almost always formed of sound root- cut ash, and their 
blades of good iron pointed with steel. The blade is not set exactly in the 
same plane as the handle, but at a small angle to it, in consequence of which, 
when the blade is inserted in the soil, the elbow formed between the blade and 
the handle serves as a falcrum ; and the handle being thus applied to the 
lever at a larger angle, has considerably more power in raising up the spitful. 
Were the blade fixed to the handle in the same plane, and the blade in- 
serted in the soil perpendicularly, the first exertion of the operator would 
be employed in gaining that angle, which, in the former, is produced for 
him by the manner in which the handle is joined to the blade. In the 
Flemish and other continental spades, the blade is always fixed on in the 
same plane as the handle ; but in these cases the blade is longer than it is 
with us, and it is always entered at a considerable bevel ; and besides, the 
soil is generally lighter than in Britain, and requires less exertion to pene- 
trate and separate it. 

Shovels are seldom required for garden purposes, the broad blade of the 
spade, fig. 24, e, serving as a substitute. 

398. Turf-spades, fig. 25, are used for the purpose of paring very thin 



134 



TOOLS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 





layers of turf from old pastures, for forming or repairing lawns or pleasure- 
grounds, laying grass edgings, collecting turf' for forming composts for plants, 
and for other purposes. One form, s-. <\ 

ft, frequently called a breast-plough, 
from the handle being pressed on by 
the breast, has the edge of the blade 
turned up so as to separate the strip 
of turf to be raised, from the firm 

turf : another form, i, is used after Fig. 25. Turf-spades. 

the turf has been cut or lined off into ribbons or bands, by the tool called 
a turf-racer. 

399. Turf-racers, or verge -cutters, fig. 26, are tools used either for 
cutting grassy surfaces into narrow strips to be afterwards raised up by the 
turf spade, or for cutting the grass edgings or verges of walks. The com- 
mon verge-cutter, /r, 
has a sharp reniform, 
or crescent - shaped 
blade; and the wheel 
verge-cutter, /, is a 
thin circular plate of 
steel, with a sharp- 
Fig. 26. Verge-cutters or turf-racers. edged circumference, 

fixed to a handle by an axle, and operating by being pushed along before 
the operator. It is well adapted for cutting off the spreading shoots or 
leaves of grass edgings which extend over the gravel, without paring away 
any part of the soil. As the edges of these tools are very easily blunted, 
they require to be made of steel, and frequently sharpened. M'Intosh's 
wheel verge-cutter, fig. 27, is designed for cutting grass verges on the sides 

of walks. With this instrument a man 
may cut as much in one day as he would cut 
in four or five days with the common verge- 
cutter without wheels. Bell's verge-cutter, 
instead of a wheel, has a broad bent plate of 
iron, through the middle of which the 
cutting coulters are inserted, and fixed and 

Fig. 27. M'Intosh's wheel verge-cutter, adjusted by screws. It is described and 
figured in Gard. Mag. vol. xiv. p. 177. In cutting turves from a piece of 
grass land, the line is first stretched in order that the cutting may be per- 
formed in a perfectly straight direction. This is also the case in cutting the 
verges of straight walks, but in cutting those of curved walks the eye alone 
serves as a guide. In gardens and pleasure-grounds of moderate extent, a 
sharp-edged common spade may be used as a substitute for the turf-spade, 
and also for the turf-racer and verge-cutter. 

400. The trowel and the spud, the latter of which is also used 
as a spade cleaner, belong to this group of tools. Though the 
spud, fig. 28, can hardly be considered as a fit tool for a pro- 
fessional gardener, yet, with a suitable handle, it forms a most 
convenient walking-stick for the amateur gardener ; because by 

it he may root out a weed, or thin out a plant, wherever he sees Fig> 2 s. 
it necessary. The transplanting trowel, fig. 29, o, is a very Garden spud. 
useful tool wherever careful and neat gardening is practised; because 




TOOLS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



13f> 





by two of these, one in each hand, growing- plants can be 
taken up with balls, put temporarily into pots, and carried 
from the reserve ground to the flower beds and borders, where 
they can be turned out into the free soil, without sustaining any 
injury. The trowel 6 is used for taking up plants and to lift soil 
as a substitute for the hand, in potting plants. A trowel with 
flat blade and a forked point is sometimes used for raising up 
weeds from gravel or grass, and is called a weeding-trowel. The 
weeding-hook, which is a narrow strap of iron forked at the 

lower extremity, and a wooden handle at the other, is 

also used for raising weeds. There is a variety of this, 

with a fulcrum, for rooting daisies and other broad-leaved 

weeds out of lawns, fig. SO. The use of the fulcrum is 

to admit of a long handle which renders it unnecessary p . 

for the operator to stoop. Some of these tools have short 

handles, to adapt them for infirm persons and children. 

401. Transplanters, figs. 31 and 32. These 
tools are used as improved substitutes for the 
transplanting trowel. In Saul's implement, fig. 
31, the blades are opened by pressure on the lever 
a ; and in the spade transplanter, fig. 32, the blades 
are pressed together by moving the sliding-piece, 
6, downwards ; and when the plant is carried to its 
place of destination, they are opened by moving it 
upwards. Both these transplanters are more 
adapted for amateurs than for professional garden- 
ers, and the manner in which they are to be used 
is sufficiently obvious from the figures. Trans- 
planters of this kind are generally supposed to be 
of French origin, but we are informed that the 
instrument of which fig. 31 is an improvement 
was an invention of the Rev. Mr. Thornhill, 
sT Saul's vicar of Staindrop, in the county of Durham, about 

transplanter. 1820 ; who used it extensively on his farm for 

transplanting turnips. 

402. Forks, figs. 33 and 34. The forks used in gardening are of two 
kinds; broad -pronged forks, fig. 34, for 
stirring the soil among growing plants, and 
as a substitute for the spade in all cases 
where that implement would be liable to 
cut or injure roots ; and round -pronged 
forks, fig. 33, for working with littery dung, 
a, or for turning over tan, b. There are 
hand- forks of both kinds, fig. 33, c, and 
fig. 34, d, for working in glass-frames, 
hotbeds, or pits. The digging-fork is al- Figt 34. 
most as essential to every garden as the forks. 

spade ; and, wherever there are hotbeds, dung linings, or 
Fig.33. Dung and tan- tan, the dung-fork with three prongs, fig. 33, a, and the 
tan-fork with five prongs, &, cannot be dispensed with. 
The three -pronged digging- fork, see fig. 34, is used for shallow digging, 
or pointing fruit-tree borders, and also for taking up potatoes ; and the 





136 



TOOLS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 





Garden rakes - 



two-pronged fork is for stirring the soil in narrow intervals between rows, 
and also for digging up carrots, parsnips, horse-radish, &c. 

403. Rakes, figs. 35 and 36, are used for freeing the surface soil from 

stones and other ob- 
stacles, for raking off 
weeds or mown grass 
or fallen leaves, and 
for covering in seeds. 
The common garden 
rakes, used for rak- 
ing soil and gravel, 
differ chiefly in size. 
See fig. 36 . The F5 *' 
daisy-rake, fig. 35, a, has broad teeth, 
lancet-pointed, sharp at the edges, and 
set close together; and it is used for 
Fig. 35. Daisy and grass rakes. tearing off the heads or flowers of daisies, 

plantains, dandelions, and other broad-leaved plants, which appear in grass 
lawns, in the early part of the season ; and thus it renders the necessity of 
mowing less frequent. The short grass rake, fig, 35, 6, is formed of a thin 
piece of sheet-iron, cut along the edge so as to form a sort of comb, and 
riveted between two strips of wood, as shown in the figure. It serves for 
raking off cut grass, and also, to a certain extent, as a daisy-rake. 

404. Besoms are used in horticulture for sweeping up mown grass, fallen 
leaves, and for a variety of purposes. The head or sweeping part is formed 
of a bundle of the spray of birch, broom, or heath, and lately the suckers of 
the snow-berry have come into use for this purpose. The handle is formed 
of any light wood, such as willow, poplar, or deal. One or more besoms are 
essential to every garden, and they require to be frequently renewed. For 
lifting matters collected together by the broom or grass rake, two pieces of 
board are used by the operator, one in each hand, by which the smallest 
heap of leaves or grass can be quickly and neatly lifted up, and dropped into 
a basket or wheel-barrow. The pieces of board may be about 18 in. long, 
from 6 in. to 9 in. broad, and J in. thick. 

405. Beetles and Rammers^ fig. 37, are useful tools even in small gardens, 
for beating down newly-laid turf edgings ; for ramming and consolidating the 

soil about posts and foundations, and for a va- 
riety of other purposes. For example, where 
part of a gravel walk is taken up and relaid, 
unless the newly moved soil and gravel are 
consolidated, or rammed down, to the same 
degree as the old part, there will be a depres- 
d sion in that part of the walk, which will in- 
crease after the sinking in of rain, and thus 
require continual additions. In fig. 37, a is 
the common turf beater or beetle, the head or beating part of which is 
commonly made of a block of wood, though it would be much better 
of a plate of cast iron, because that would be heavier ; b is the common 
wooden beater, which is also used as a rammer, the whole of which is 
formed of wood ; c und d are two rammers, in which the heads are formed 
of cast iron, and which are very superior tools, invented by Anthony 




Fig. 37. Beetles and rammers. 




INSTRUMENTS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 137 

Strutt, Esq. To retain the handle in the socket, a slit is made in the han- 
dle, and a small wedge entered in it, and afterwards it is driven home till it 
assumes the appearance shown in the section at e. The great art in conso- 
lidating turf or gravel with the beetle or rammer, is to bring down the tool in 
such a manner as that the face of the head may be perfectly parallel to the 
surface to be acted upon. When the operator does not succeed in this, he 
will be warned of it by the jar which the tool will transmit through his hands. 

406. The mallet, fig. 38, a, is formed of a piece of any tough wood, such as 
elm or oak, or of fir, though in the latter case it should have a ring at each 

end to prevent its splitting. It is used for driving 
posts, and there is a smaller or hand mallet for 
using with the pruning chisel, and as a substitute 
for a hammer in driving in short stakes. In using 
Wooden mallet and a mallet, as in using the beetles, the centre of the 
garden hammer. striking part of the head should always be brought 

down on the centre of the stake or other object to be struck ; otherwise 
the full power of the tool will not be obtained, and a jar on the hands of 
the operator will be produced. 

407. The garden hammer, fig. 38, b, is used for nailing wall-trees, and for a 
great variety of purposes, and it differs from the common carpenter's hammer 
in having a projecting knob, c, in the head, to serve as a fulcrum in drawing 
out nails from walls, without injuring the young shoots. Considered by itself, 
the common hammer may seem an insignificant tool ; but viewing it as in- 
cluding all the different kinds of hammers used in rendering metals malleable, 
and in joining constructions and machines of various kinds together, by means 
of nails and pins, it appears one of the most important of all implements. 
See Moseley's Illustrations of Mechanics, p. 238. 

** ====!s=1 ^&^ 408 - The garden pincers, fig. 39, besides the pincing part, 

<* *^^ have a clawed handle for wrenching out nails, and are useful 

F ' g ' 39 incerT deH in g ardens for tnis and a variety of other purposes. Some 

have a knob, which enables them to be used also as a hammer. 

SECT. III. Instruments used in Horticulture. 

Instruments are distinguished from tools by having sharp cutting edges, 
and being adapted for operating on plants rather than on the soil ; and they 
are also generally smaller than tools, and have for the most part handles 
adapted for grasping. Those used in horticulture are chiefly knives, bills, 
shears, and scythes. 

409. Garden Knives. Three kinds of knives are required in every garden, 
the cabbage-knife, a large rough handled instrument, with a hooked blade, 
for cutting and trimming Cabbages, Cauliflowers, Turnips, and other large 
succulent vegetables, when gathered for the kitchen ; the pruning -knife, 
fig. 40, a, for cutting the branches and twigs off trees and 
shrubs, forming cuttings, &c. ; the budding-knife, 6, and 
the grafting-knife, c, used in performing the operations 

Fig 40 Ga"n knives. of buddin ? and g raftin g> and also in ma king smaller 
' cuttings. Where heaths and other small-leaved plants 
are propagated by cuttings of the points of the shoots, a common pen-knife 
is requisite, as well as a pair of small scissors for clipping off the leaves ; but 
these instruments are so familiar to every one that it is unnecessary to describe 




138 INSTRUMENTS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 

them. Formerly garden-knives were distinguished from those in common use 
by having blades hooked at the points, for more conveniently hooking or tear- 
ing off shoots or leaves ; but this mode of separating shoots or branches being 
found to crush that part of the shoot which was left on the living plant, and 
by that means render it liable to be injured by drought or by the absorption 
of water, a clean draw-cut has been resorted to as not liable to these objec- 
tions ; and this requires a blade with a straight edge like those of the prun- 
ing-knives now in general use. All knives which are used by the practical 
gardener should be without moveable joints, and they should be carried in a 
sheath in the side-pocket, that no time may be lost in searching for them in 
other pockets, or hi unfolding of the blade from its case. At the same time 
the master gardener and the amateur ought to carry a folding pruning-knife 
in his pocket for occasional use, in correcting the faults or supplying the 
omissions of his workmen. There are folding pruning-knives combining in 
the same handle a saw, a chisel, a file, a screw driver, &c., but these are for 
the most part more curious than useful. The 
asparagus-knife, fig. 41, has a blade about 
eighteen inches long, hooked and serrated, and Fi - 41 - Asparagus-knife. 
is used for cutting the young shoots of Asparagus when in a fit state for the 
table. It is thrust into the soil so as, when drawing it out, to cut the shoot 
from two to five inches under the surface, according to the looseness of the 
soil, and the taste of the consumer for asparagus more or less coloured at the 
points. Where green Asparagus is preferred to what is thoroughly blanched, 
such a knife is hardly requisite, as the buds may be cut off by the surface 
with a common cabbage-knife. 

410. Sill-knives or Hedge-bills are large blades fixed to ends of long 
handles for cutting off branches from young trees, and for cutting up the sides 
of hedges instead of shears. The advantages in using them in preference to 
shears is, that they have a clean smooth section instead of a rough one, 
which, as already observed, admits drought and moisture, and also stimulates 
the extremities of the branches to throw out numerous small shoots, and 
these, by thickening the surface of the hedge, exclude the air from the inte- 
rior, in which, ultimately, the smaller shoots die, and the hedge becomes 
thin and naked. The most complete set of instruments of the bill kind is 
that used in Northumberland, and described by Blaikie in his Essay on 
Hedge-row Timber. One of these instruments, fig. 42, ought to be hi eveiy 



Fig. 42. The scimitar bill-knife. 

garden-tool house. The handle of this bill-knife, or scimitar, as it is called, 
is four feet in length, and the blade eighteen inches in length, the former 
deviating from the direction of the latter to the extent of six inches, as 

shown by the dotted line in the figure ; 

this deviation is made in order to admit 

the free action of the operator's arm, while 
Fig. 43. Dress bill-knife. he ig standing by the gide of a hedge? and 

cutting it upwards. Fig. 43 is what is called a dress-bill for cutting the sides 
of very small hedges, or such as are quite young. 

411. Pruning Saws are of different kinds, but they may be all reduced to 
draw saws, fig. 44, a, and thrust or common saws, such as those in common 



INSTRUMENTS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 139 

use by carpenters. Draw -saws have the teeth formed so as to point to the 

operator, fig. 44, &, and only to cut when 
the blade is drawn towards him. Thrust- 
saws have the teeth or serratures formed at 

. right angles to the edge of the blade, so as 

JVyuy//^*// * cut cn i e fly when pushed or thrust from 
i d c tn e operator, but partly also when drawn 

Fig. 44. Garden-saws. towards him. The draw-saw is always used 

with a long handle, and is very convenient for sawing off branches which are 
at a distance from the operator. In both these saws the line of the teeth is 
inclined about half the thickness of the blade to each side, as shown at d; 
the advantage of which is, that the blade passes readily through the branch 
without the friction which would otherwise be produced by the two sides of 
the section. Draw-saws being subjected to only a pulling strain, do not 
require so thick a blade as thrust-saws; and, for that reason, they are also 
much less liable to have the blades broken or twisted, and are less expensive. 

412. Pruning chisels are chisels differing little in some cases, fig. 45, e, 

from those of the common carpenter, fixed to the end of a long 
handle, for the purpose of cutting off small branches from the 
stems of trees at a considerable height above the operator. The 
branch should not be larger than \\ in. in diameter at the part 
to be amputated, otherwise it cannot be so readily struck off 
at one blow. In performing the operation two persons are 
requisite : one places the chisel in the proper position and holds 
it there, while the other, with a hand-mallet, gives the end of 
the handle a smart blow, sufficient to produce the separation 
of the branch. If properly performed, the section does not 

Fig 45. Pruning- re( l u i re any dressing ; but sometimes there are lacerations of 
chisels, the bark, which require to be trimmed off with the hooked 

part, g, of the chisel, /. 

413. Shears, in regard to their mode of cutting, are of two kinds : those 
which separate by a crushing cut, as in the common hedge-shears, fig. 46, 

the grass- shears, and verge- 
shears ; and those which se- 
parate by a draw or saw 
cut, as in the pruning-shears, 
fig. 47. The common hedge- 
Fig. 46. Shean for clipping hedges and box edgings. shears IS used in gardens for 

topiary work, cutting hedges of privet, and other small-leaved slender- twigged 
hedge-plants, which do not cut so readily with the hedge-bill ; and it is 
more especially used for clipping box edgings. The pruning- 
shears, fig. 47, have one blade, which, by means of a rivet, 
moves in a groove, by which means this blade is drawn across 
the branch in the manner of a saw, and produces a clean or 
draw-cut ; that is, a cut which leaves the section on the tree 
as smooth as if it had been cut off by a knife. There are in- 
struments of this kind of various sizes, from that of a pair of 
common scissors, for pruning roses or gooseberry bushes, to 
such as have blades as large as those of common hedge- 
shears, with handles four feet long, which will cut off branches 
from two to three inches in diameter. All of them may be Fig. 47. Pruning- 
economically used in gardens, on account of their great power, theart. 





1 



140 



INSTRUMENTS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 




Fig. 48. Garden axe. 



and the rapidity and accuracy with which operations are performed by them. 
Fig. 47 shows two instruments commonly known as Wilkinson's shears, 
which are well adapted for pruning shrubs, and for the use of amateurs. 
Roses are better pruned by instruments of this kind than by knives, as unless 
the latter are kept very sharp, the softness of the wood, and the large 
quantity of pith it contains, yield to the knife, and occasion too oblique a 
section, in consequence of which the shoot dies back much farther than if 
the section were made directly across. 

414. The Axe, fig. 48, can scarcely be dispensed 
with in gardens, for the purpose of sharpening props 
or other sticks for peas, &c. ; and a larger axe, as 
well as a common carpenter's saw, may be required 
where branches are to be broken up for fuel for the 
hot-house furnace, or other fires. 

415. Verge-shears, fig. 49, a, are shears of the crushing kind used for 
clipping the edges of grass- verges, which they do without cutting the soil, as 
is commonly the case when any of the different descriptions of verge-cutters 
already described (399) are used. The blades of these shears operate in a 
vertical plane, or what is called held edgewise. 

416. Grass-shears, fig. 49, &, are used instead instead of the scythe for 

clipping the grass round the roots of 
shrubs or other flowering plants on 
lawns ; but as they are very apt to 
go out of order, the common hedge- 
shears is generally used in prefer- 
ence; the stooping necessary in using 
the hedge-shears being found by the 
operator less laborious than that of 
keeping the blades of the long- 
handled shears in a cutting position. 
The blades of these shears work in 
a plane parallel to the surface of the 
ground, from which they are sup- 
ported behind by two castor wheels, 

or in other words, they work flat- 
Fig. 49. Verge and Grass-shears. ,/> 

\\ LSC . 

417. The Short- grass Scythe, fig. 50, c, is essential wherever there are 
grass- verges on lawns, because though in many cases the mowing machine 
may be used on broad surfaces, it is not so convenient for verges and small 
irregular places as the scythe. 
The blade of the scythe cuts ex- 
actly on the same principle as 
that of the saw, and it requires 
to be frequently sharpened by a 
hand-stone or whet-stone, as well 

as occasionally ground. The ^s^r- ~^ <i 

blade of the garden-scythe re- 
quires to be fixed to the handle 
in such a manner as that when 

the handle is held by the operator standing upright, the plane of the 
blade shall be parallel to the plane of the ground. In the case of field- 





INSTRUMENTS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 141 

scythes, where the ground is rough, the plane of the blade may be very 
nearly in the same plane as that of the handle ; by which means the inequa- 
lities of the ground's surface will chiefly be struck by the back of the blade, 
and never by its edge. The daisy -knife or daisy-scythe, fig. 50, d, is a two- 
edged blade, lancet-pointed, and is used for mo whig off the heads of 
daisies, clover, and other exogenous plants in lawns, which renders less fre- 
quent the necessity of mowing with the scythe. In using this instrument, 
the handle, which ought to be angular, is held firmly with both hands, and 
the blade, which ought to be at least four feet from the operator, is moved 
rapidly to the right and left parallel to the plane of the surface, the operator 
advancing as in mowing. 

418. Other Instruments. There are several other instruments which are 
occasionally used by amateurs ; such as the averruncator, which may be 
described as a cutting-shears fixed to the extremity of a long handle, and 
operated on by means of a cord and pulley. Its use is to enable a person 
standing on the ground to thin out branches in standard fruit trees, which it 
readily does, though frequently with a considerable loss of time. An amateur 
however, who prunes his own orchard, will find this a useful instrument ; 
though, if he has an attendant, the hooked pruning- chisel, fig. 45, /, is prefer- 
able. The grape-gatherer, or flower-gatherer, consists of a shears fixed at 
the extremity of a long handle, and which clips and holds fast at the same 
time. It is occasionally useful for gathering flowers from the upper parts of 
stages in green-houses, or from plants against walls, or on poles, that cannot 
be conveniently reached by hand ; it is also used for gathering grapes which 
cannot be otherwise conveniently reached. There is also an instrument of 
this kind without a long handle, called a flower-gatherer, which clips off a 
flower and holds it at the same time, and is used by ladies in gathering 
roses. Scissars with long handles, for thinning grapes, are required where that 
fruit is cultivated to the highest degree of perfection. The fruit-gatherer is 
an amateur's instrument, of which there are several varieties ; but they are 
very little used. Instruments for scraping the moss or bark off trees, gouges 
for hollowing out wounds in their trunk or branches, climbing-spurs, and 
some other instruments belonging to this section, and perhaps more fanciful 
than useful, will be found described in the Encyclopaedia of Gardening, 
edition 1831. 

419. Chests of Tools and Instruments, for amateurs, are made up by the 
ironmongers ; and one sold by Messrs. Cottam and Hallen, Winsley-street, 
Oxford-street, for three guineas, contains the following articles : Tools, 1 
draw-hoe (fig. 20), 1 triangular draw-hoe (fig. 20, a), 1 thrust-hoe (fig. 23, 
a), 1 rake (fig. 3G), 1 trowel (fig. 20, 6), 1 hammer, (fig. 38, &), 1 pruning- 
chisel (fig. 45), 1 priming-shears, 20 inches long, 1 ditto, a foot long (fig. 
47), 1 clipping-shears for hedges and box-edgings (fig. 46), 1 shears for 
clipping and holding flowers, 1 shears for thinning grapes, 1 pruning-knife 
(fig. 40, a), 1 budding-knife (fig. 40, c), 1 draw-saw (fig. 44, a), and 1 han- 
dle in two parts, which, when joined, form a length of four feet, for screwing 
into those tools and instruments which require a handle of that length. The 
box which contains these articles is 1 ft. 10 in. long, 1 in. wide, and 6 in. 
deep. Among the disadvantages attending the use of these implements are : 
the loss of time that is incurred in screwing on and unscrewing the han- 
dle, the liability of the screws to become rusty and unfit for use, and the 
lightness of the implements, with the exception of the shears, by which they 



142 



UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



are not so effective as they ought to be. To a working gardener or 
amateur, therefore, they are altogether out of the question ; but for ladies 
emigrating to other countries, they may serve as an inducement to gardening 
recreations. 

SECT. IV. Utensils used in Horticulture. 

Garden utensils are vessels for containing growing plants ; for carrying 
different articles used hi culture, such as soils, water, &c. ; for preparing soil 
or other matters, such as the sieve ; and for protecting plants. The principal 
are the plant pot or box, the watering-pot, the basket, the sieve, and the 
bell glass. 

420. Earthenware pots for plants are made by the potter in what are 
called casts, each cast containing about the same quantity of clay, and costing 
about the same price, but differing in the sizes of the pots so much, that 
while in the first size there are only two pots to a cast, in the tenth size there 
are sixty, as in the following table : 









Inches 


Inches 








diam. 


daep. 


1st 


size has 2 to the cast, called 


twos, being 


18 


12 


2d 


4 


fours 


12 


10 


3d 


6 


sixes 


9 


8 


4th 


8 


eights 


8 


7 


5th 


12 


twelves 


7 


6 


6th 


16 


sixteens 


6 


7 


7th 


24 


twenty-fours, 


5 


6 


8th 


32 


thirty-twos 


4 


5 


9th 


48 


forty-eighths 


3 


4 


10th 


60 


sixties 


2 


2* 


llth 


80 


thumbs or eighties, 


H 


2 



These are the sizes of the London potters ; but at Liverpool the sizes and 
the proportions are somewhat different. The sizes are from No. 1, which is 
20 in. in height and diameter, to No. 37, which is 2 in. in height and 
diameter, as shown in fig. 51. About London the sizes of pots in most 




Fig. 51. Sizes of garden pots in Liverpool. 

general use are, twenty-fours, which are 5 in. in diameter and 6 in. deep ; 
thirty -twos, which are 4 in. in diameter and 5 in. deep ; and forty-eights, 
which are 3 in. in diameter and 4 in. deep. When pots in which plants 
have been grown are to be laid aside for future use, they should be thoroughly 
cleaned within, because the smallest particles of earth adhering to the inner 
surface of the pot, when the pot is again filled with fresh soil, will, by the 
rough surface produced, cause that soil so to adhere to the sides of the pot, 
that the ball of earth, when the plant is to be shifted, cannot be turned out 
of the pot without being broken in pieces. The garden pots in common use 



UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 143 

about London are generally made between a fifth or a sixth part narrower 




52 53 54 

Fig. 52. Propagating-pot. * 

Fig. 53. Pot with raised bottom, to prevent the entrance of worms. 
Fig. 54. Pot with raised bottom, to prevent the entrance of worms. 
Fig. 55. Pot with channelled bottom, to facilitate the escape of water. 
Fig. 56. Ornamental pot, with the base serving as a receptacle for drainage-water. 

at bottom than at top ; but for particular purposes, such 
as that of growing hyacinths, pots are made almost 
equally wide throughout, and deeper than usual in pro- 
portion to their width. For striking cuttings, or grow- 
ing seeds, there are pots made broad and shallow, some- 
times called pans or store pots. There are also pots for 
aquatics, made without holes in the bottom to permit 
the escape of water ; others for marsh plants, without 
holes in the bottoms, but with holes in the sides half way 
between the bottom and the top, so as to retain the 
lower half of the soil in a marshy state. There are 
pots made with a slit on one side (fig. 52), for the pur- 
pose of introducing the shoot of a plant to be ringed in 
order to cause it to produce roots (a small wooden 
box is much better, as being less porous) ; others with 
a large hole in the side for the same purpose ; some 
with concave bottoms, with the intention of putting the 
water hole out of the reach of worms (figs. 53 and 54) ; 
others (fig. 55) with grooves in the bottom to prevent 
the retention of water by the attraction of cohesion, 
when the pot stands on a flat surface ; and there are 
pots fixed within pots, so that the space within the outer 
and the inner pot shall be water-tight, in order to con- 
tain water or moist moss, so as to keep the soil hi the 
inner pot of comparatively uniform moisture and tem- 
perature. There are pots made in two parts (fig. 56), 
the lower serving as an ornamen- 
tal base so as to give the pot a 
somewhat classical character and 

Fig. 57. Pot with pierced . .-, . . , -, 

rims and bands for in- at the same time as a receptacle 

troducing wirework. for the water that drains through 
the pot. Pots are also made with rims pierced with 
holes, so as to construct on them a frame of wirework 
for training climbers, as in fig. 57. There is also what 
is called a blanching-pot (fig. 58), which is placed over 
plants of sea-cale, rhubarb, c., for blanching them, Fi - 58 - 

L2 




144 



UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



having a moveable top, which can be taken off at pleasure, to admit light or 
to gather the produce. Boxes of boards, however, are found more econo- 
mical. There are also square-made pots, which, it is alleged, by filling up 
the angles left by round pots, allow of a greater quantity of soil being obtained 
in a given space in beds or shelves under glass ; and pots with one side 
flattened, and with a pierced ear or handle, to admit of hanging the pot against 
a wall or a trunk of a tree. Many other fanciful pots might have been figured 
and described ; but in the general practice of gardening all these peculiar pots 
(figs. 62 to 58) may be dispensed with ; and, in truth, with the exception of 
the last forms (figs. 57 and 58), they are only found in the gardens of some 
amateurs. It, is useful, however, to know what has been done or attempted in 
this way, in order to prevent a waste of time in repeating similar contrivances. 

421. From the porosity of the material of which common earthenware 
plant-pots are made, it is evident that when the soil within the pot is moist, 
and the pot placed in a warm dry atmosphere, the evaporation and transpi- 
ration through the sides must be considerable ; and as evaporation always 
takes place at the expense of heat, this must tend greatly to cool the mass 
of soil and fibrous roots within (252 and 257.) This may be prevented by 
glazing the exterior surface of the pot ; but as this would add to the ex- 
pense, and be chiefly useful in the case of plants in pots kept in rooms, it is 
seldom incurred. To prevent evaporation in rooms the double-pot is sometimes 
used, or single pots are surrounded by moss, or cased in woollen cloth or bark of 
trees : in plant-houses, the atmosphere is, or ought to be, so nearly saturated 
with moisture by other means, as to reduce the evaporation from the pots to 
a degree that cannot prove injurious. From the bad effects of this evaporation 
in warm countries may be traced the practice in these countries of growing 
plants in wooden boxes, which was probably instinctively hit upon, without 
any reference to principles. The advantage which earthenware pots have 
over boxes is, that they can be made round, by which means shifting is 
effected with much greater ease than it can be with any rectangular utensil. 

422. Earthenware saucers for pots are made and sold on the same prin- 
ciple as pots, viz. : in casts ; a cast of saucers for sixties or thumbs costing 

as much as a cast for thirty-two, or 
sixes. Saucers are chiefly used in 
living rooms, or in other situations 
where the water which escapes from 
the hole in the bottom of the pot 
would prove injurious; and to pre- 
vent this water from 
oozing through the 
porous material of 
the saucer, it is 
sometimes glazed on 
the inside. There 
are also saucers, or Fig. 59. isolating- 
flats, as they are Sauc r - 

Fig. 60. Annular water-saucer. called, made with raised platforms in 

the centre, for the pots containing the plants to stand in ; in some cases, in 
order that they may stand dry and not be liable to be entered by earth- 
worms ; and in others, in order to surround them with water, and thus isolate 
them from the attacks of creeping insects, such as wood-lice, ants, &c. 
Utensils of this kind are also used for supporting boards in the open garden, 






UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 145 

so as to isolate them, and of course the pots which stand on them, from 
wingless insects, snails, worms, &c. Fig. 59 shows one of these utensils, 
which might easily be substituted by a common saucer and whelmed pot. 
An annular saucer, fig. 60, for containing water, is used either for protecting 
plants in pots or plants hi the open ground ; and if lime-water or salt-water 
is used, they will prove a very effectual protection from snails, slugs, 
wood-lice, ants, and other creeping wingless insects. A very ingenious 
substitute for this utensil has lately been invented by Mr. Walker, of 
Hull. It is founded on the galvanic principle of alternate plates of zinc 
and copper producing a galvanic shock, and is therefore called the 
Galvanic Protector. Take slips of zinc four or five inches in breadth, in 
order to inclose the plant or bed to be protected, as with a hoop ; but in 
addition to the mere rim or frame of zinc, rivet to it, near the upper edge, 
a strip of sheet-copper one inch broad, turning down the zinc over this so 
as to form a rim, composed of zinc, copper, and zinc. The deterring effect is 
produced by the galvanic action of the two metals ; and thus, when the snail 
or slug creeps up the rim of zinc, it receives a galvanic shock as soon as its 
horns or head touch the part where the copper is inclosed, causing it to recoil 
or turn back. A more beautiful application of science in the case of deter- 
ring insects is rarely to be met with, and it will not cost more than Qd. a lineal 
foot. (Gard. Chron. vol. i. p. 115, and 165; and Gard. Mag. 1841.) 

423. Rectangular boxes for growing plants are commonly formed of wood, 
but sometimes slate is substituted. Wood, however, as a better non-con- 
ductor both of heat and moisture, deserves the preference. A neat and 
most convenient plant-box was invented by Mr. M'Intosh, fig. 61, and 

used by him for growing orange-trees. 
It differs from the orange-boxes used 
in the gardens about Paris in having 
the sides tapered a little, and also in 
having all the sides moveable. Two 
of the sides are attached to the bottom 
of the box by hinges, and are kept in 
their places by iron bars hooked at each 
end, which slip into hasps fixed in the 
sides, as shown in the figure ; the other 
sides, which are not hinged, lift out at 
leisure, being kept in their places at 
Fig. 61. Plant-box. bottom by two iron studs, which drop 

into holes in the bottom. These boxes afford greater facilities than the French 
orange-boxes for the gardener to take them to pieces, without disturbing the 
trees, whenever he wishes to examine or prune their roots, to see whether 
they are in a proper state, as regards moisture, or to remove the old, and put 
hi fresh soil. The inside of these boxes can also be painted, or covered with 
pitch, as often as may be judged necessary ; which will of course make them 
much more durable, and the trees may be removed from one box to another 
with the greater facility. 

424. Wooden tubs are very commonly made use of on the Continent to grow 
orange-trees, and they are made of different heights and diameters from one 
to two or three feet. When the roots of the trees are to be examined, or 
old soil to be removed and fresh soil added, the cooper is sent for, who sepa- 
rates the staves, and after the gardener has finished his operations, replaces 




146 



UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



them again and fixes the hoops. In the warm summers of France and Italy, 
as already observed, it is found much better to grow plants in wooden boxes 
or tubs, than in any description of earthenware vessel. 

425. Watering-pots are made of tinned iron, zinc, and sometimes of 
copper. There are a variety of sizes and shapes in use in British gar- 
dens : for plants under glass, which are placed at a distance from the 
spectator, pots with long spouts are required; and for pots in shelves 
over the head of the operator and close under the glass, flat pots with 
spouts proceeding from the bottom, and in the same plane with it, are 
found necessary. Watering-pots have been contrived with close covers, 
containing valves to regulate the escape of the water through the spout, by 
the admission or exclusion of the atmosphere at pleasure ; but these are 
only required for particular situations and circumstances. The watering-pot 
very generally fails at the point where the spout joins the body of the pot, 
and the two parts ought therefore to be firmly attached together, either by 
separate tie-pieces, or by one continuous body, which may be so contrived 
as to hold the roses of the pot when not in use, as exemplified in 
Money's pot, to be hereafter described. The rose is generally mo veable ; 
but as, after much use, it becomes leaky, it is better, in many cases, 
to have it fixed, with a pierced grating in the inside of the pot over 
the orifice of the spout, as in metal tea-pots. This grating, Mr. Beaton 
suggests, should be moveable, by being made to slide into a groove like 
a sluice, in order that it may be taken out and cleaned occasionally. 
Fig. 62, a, represents a watering-pot with a kneed spout, for watering plants, 

without spilling any 
water between pot and 
pot ; because, by means 
of the knee or right 
angle made at the extre- 
mity of the spout, the 
running of the water is 
instantly stopped by 
quickly elevating it, 
which is by no means 
the case when the spout 
is straight throughout 
its whole length : b 
shows the face, and c the 
Fig. 62. Sucker, kneed-spoiited, and overhead, watering-pots. * edge of a Very fine rose 
of copper for screwing on the end of the kneed spout, for watering seedlings. 
Fig. 62, d, shows a sucker watering-pot, by which the objects effected by the 
kneed pot are attained more completely. There is a sucker or valve in the 
lid, by which the air is perfectly excluded ; and when this valve is shut, not 
a particle of water can escape ; but when it is slightly raised by the pressure of 
the thumb of the hand by which the operator holds the pot, the water instantly 
escapes, and can be stopped in a moment : f, an overhead watering-pot, for 
watering plants close under a glass roof, and above the head of the spectator. 
426. Moneys Inverted Rose Watering-pot, fig. 63, has the spout 
made of copper, and in three distinct parts; so that it serves instead 
of three different pots ; and when furnished with common roses as well 
as with inverted ones, no other pot need be required for a small garden. 





UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 147 

The first and largest spout, a, is fixed to the body of the pot in such 

a manner as not to get easily out of repair : this is effected by filling up 

the angle between the spout and the pot by a hollow compartment, with 

iron sides, &, in the top of which are two openings, c, and d; the larger, c, for 

holding the middle Jfl 

piece of the spout 

when not in use, or the 

larger rose; and the 

other, d, for holding 

the smaller rose. The 

larger rose, e, is used 

without the middle 

piece of the spout, and 

it delivers the water 

upwards ; and the 

smaller rose,/, which 

can only be used with 

the middle tube of the Fi S- ^ &<>*&* inverted-rose watering-pot. 

spout, delivers the water downwards, exactly over the object or space to be 
watered. The screw-joints by which the roses are attached to the spouts 
are perfectly water-tight, and being made of copper are not liable to rust 
and get out of repair. The advantage of using the roses in inverted positions 
is, that the action of the water is more definite ; and of using them with the 
face of the rose upwards, that the shower produced comes down more gently. 
For watering small seeds in pots, the holes in the roses ought not to exceed 
the fiftieth part of an inch in diameter. One watering-pot of this descrip- 
tion may be kept for select purposes, and for the use of amateurs or ladies; but 
for open air gardening the common zinc watering-pot, with a fixed rose, 
is quite sufficient; adding, for more refined purposes, the pot fig. 62, a. 

427. Sieves for sifting soil, and screens of wire for separating the larger 
stones and roots from soil to be used in potting, are required in most gardens. 
The screen, fig. 64, is not only used for mould, but also for gravel, and some- 
times for tan. It consists of a wooden frame 
filled in with parallel wires half an inch apart, 
surrounded by a rim of three or four inches in 
breadth, and supported by hinged props, which 
admit of placing the screen at any required 
angle. The soil to be screened must be dry and 
well broken by the spade before it is thrown on 
Fig. 64. Wire screen, for toil, old the screen. For gravel two screens are some- 
tan, or gravel. times required ; one with the wires half an inch 

apart, to separate the sand and small gravel from the stones ; and another, 
with the wires one inch apart, to separate the larger stones from the smaller 
ones; those which pass through the screen being of the fittest size for approach- 
roads and carriage- drives ; while the largest stones which do not pass through 
are adapted for common cart roads. In small gardens sieves may be substi- 
tuted for screens. The smallest may have the meshes a fourth of an inch in 
diameter, and the larger half an inch. The wire of the smaller sieves should 
always be of copper, but of the larger sieves and of screens it may be of iron. 
428. Carrying utensils are sometimes wanted in gardens, though flower- 
pots, baskets, and wheelbarrows, form very good substitutes. The mould- 
scuttle is a box of any convenient shape of wood or iron, with a hoop-formed 





148 UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 

handle, for carrying it ; sometimes it is formed like the common coal-scuttle, 
but rectangular. The pot-carrier, fig. 65, is a flat 
board about eighteen inches wide and two feet long, 
with a hooped handle, by means of which, with 
one in each hand, a man may carry three or four 
dozen of small pots at once, which is very convenient 
in private gardens where there are many alpines 
Fig. 65. Pot-carrier. i n pots, and in nurseries where there are many seed- 
lings or small cuttings. 

429. Baskets. Several different kinds of baskets are used in gardens. 
They are woven or worked of the young shoots of willow, hazel, or other 
plants, or of split deal or willow, or of spray ; but by far the greater number 
of baskets are made of the one year's shoots or wands of the common willow, 
alix viminalis. They are for the most part used for carry ing articles from 
one point to another, though some are employed as a substitute for a garden 
wallet, others are used for growing plants; some for protecting plants 
from the sun or the weather, and others as utensils for measuring by bulk. 
As every gardener and country labourer ought to understand the art of basket- 
making for ordinary purposes, in order to fill up his working time during 
inclement weather, we shall first shortly describe that operation. 

430. Basket-making. One year's shoots of the common willow, or of 
some other species of that family, are most generally used. The shoots are 
cut the preceding autumn, and tied in bundles, and if they are intended to 
be peeled, then- thick ends are placed in standing water to the depth of three 
or four inches ; and when the shoots begin to sprout in spring they are drawn 
through a split stick stuck in the ground, or an apparatus consisting of two 
round rods of iron, nearly half an inch thick, one foot four inches long, and 
tapering a little upwards, welded together at the one end, which is sharpened 
so that the instrument may be readily thrust through a hole hi a stool or^small 
bench, on which the operator sits. In using it, the operator takes the wand 
in his right hand by the small end, and puts a foot or more of the thick end 
into the instrument, the prongs of which he presses together with his left 
hand, while with his right he draws the willow towards him, by which the 
bark is at once separated from the wood : the small end is then treated in 
the same manner, and the peeling is completed. Every basket consists of 
two parts : the framework of the structure, and the filling in or wattled 
part. The principal ribs in common baskets are two : a vertical rib or 
hoop, the upper part of which is destined to form the handle ; and a hori- 
zontal hoop or rim, which is destined to support all the subordinate ribs on 
which the wands are wattled. The two main ribs are first bent to the 
required form, and made fast at their extremities by nails or wire. They 
are then joined together in their proper position, the one intersecting the 
other ; and they are afterwards nailed together, or tied by wire at the points 
of intersection. The operation of wattling is next commenced, by taking 
the small end of a wand, and passing it once or twice round the cross formed 
by the points of intersection ; after which one, or perhaps two secondary- 
ribs, are introduced on eack side of the vertical main rib. The wattling is 
then proceeded with a little further, when two or more secondary ribs are 
introduced ; and the process is continued till a sufficient number of subordi- 
nate ribs are put in to support the wattling of the entire structure. The 
whole art, as far as concerns the gardener, will be understood from the fol- 
lowing figures: 



UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 149 

Fig. 06 shows the handle and rim of what is called the Scotch basket, 
made fast at the points of intersection. 



Fig. 67. Handle, rim, and ribs of a Scotch basket. 




I ?ig. 66. Handle and rim of a Scotch basket. 



Fig. 67 shows the same skeleton, with the ribs of one side added, and the 
wattling or woven work commenced. 

Fig. 68 represents the commencement of what is called the English mode of 
basket-making ; in which three parallel rods of two or three feet in length, 
according to the intended diameter of the bottom of the basket, are laid flat 
on the ground, and three other rods of the same length laid across them at 
right angles, as at a ; and next the weaving process is commenced, as at 6. 




Fig. 68. Commencement of basket 
making in the English manner. 



Figs. 69 and 70 show the progress of weaving the bottom ; the latter being 
what ultimately becomes the under side, and the former the upper side. 






Fig. 69. Upper side. 



Fig. 7ft- Underside. 



150 UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 

Fig. 71 shows the bottom complete, the under side of it being uppermost. 




Fig. 71. Bottom of the English basket complete. 

Fig. 72 shows the bottom turned upside down, the points of some of the 
radiating ribs cut off; some of the rods which are to form the side ribs in- 
serted ; and the side weaving commenced. 




Fig. 72. Side weaving commenced on the English batket. 



UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 151 

Fig. 73 shows the basket nearly completed, with part of the rim finished, 
and the rod on which the handle is to be formed inserted. 




Fig. 73. The English basket nearly complete. Fig. 74. Working the sides of the English basket. 

Fig. 74 shows the rim completed and part of the handle plaited. 

Further details will be found in the Arboretum Britannicum, vol. iii. p. 
1471, but those above given will be sufficient to enable any person of ordinary 
ingenuity to construct every kind of wickerwork, whether baskets or hur- 
dles, that can be required for a garden. 

431. Carrying -baskets of different sizes are required in gardens for carrying 
plants for being transplanted, seeds, sets or roots for planting, vegetables or 
fruits from the garden to the kitchen, and for a variety of other purposes. A 
basket for hanging before the operator when pruning or nailing wall trees, 
is sometimes made of wands, and occasionally of split wood ; but a leathern 
wallet, to be hereafter described, is greatly preferable. Larger and coarser 
baskets than any of these are used for carrying soil, manures, tanner's bark, 
weeds, &c., and are commonly called scuttles, creels, &c. 

432. Measuring-baskets are formed of particular dimensions, the largest 
seldom containing more than a bushel, and others half-bushels, pecks, and 
half-pecks. There are also pint baskets, punnets, pottles, and thumbs, 
which are utensils in use in the London fruit and vegetable markets for con- 
taining the more valuable vegetables, such as mushrooms, early potatoes, 
forced kidney beans, and the more choice fruits. The bushel basket is gene- 
rally made of peeled wands, but the others of split willow wood, or split 



152 



UTENSILS USED IN HORTICULTURE. 




deal. Fig. 75 represents a punnet 
manufactured in the latter manner, 
the construction of which will be un- 
derstood by any person who under- 
stands the English mode of basket- 
making. 

433. Baskets for growing plants 
were a long time hi use in the open 
Fig. 75. Punnet basket. garden, being plunged in spring, and 

taken up in the following autumn ; the object being to take up fruit-trees or 
other tender shrubs with a ball, and with most of the fibres. At present 
baskets for growing plants are chiefly used in orchidaceous houses, the basket 
being filled with moss ; but as they are found to be of very short duration, 
wire baskets are substituted, earthenware pots with perforated sides, or a sort 
of open box formed of short rods, laid over one another, at the angles, some- 
what in the manner of a log-house. 

434. Portable Glass Utensils for plants are chiefly of two kinds : the bell- 
glass, fig. 76, and the hand-glass, fig. 77. Bell-glasses 
vary in dimensions from the large green bell-glass, 
eighteen inches in diameter and twenty inches in height, 
used in the open garden for protecting cauliflowers in 
winter and cucumbers in summer, to the small crystal 
bell, three inches in diameter, and 
two inches high, for covering new- 
ly-planted cuttings. Whenever 
the propagation of tender plants by 
cuttings, or by the greffe touffe, is attempted, bell- 
Fig. 77. Cast-iron hand- S lasses are essential. The common hand-glass is formed 
glass in two parts, the either square, or of five or more sides on the plan, and 
roof and tides. with the sides commonly eight or twelve inches high. 

The framework is of lead, cast-iron, tinned wrought-iron, copper, or zinc ; 
the last is much the cheapest, and also the lightest, and when kept well 
painted, it will last as long as cast-iron, which with the moisture of the soil 
soon becomes rusty at the lower edge. Cast-iron hand-glasses being very 
heavy, are commonly formed in two pieces ; and when the form is square, as 
in fig. 77, air is very conveniently given by changing the position of the cover- 
ing part, as shown in the figure. 

435. The folio whig substitute for bell-glasses may be readily adopted by 
any gardener who can get pieces of broken window-glass from his frames or 
hothouses, and who has a glazier's patent diamond, which differs from the 





Fig. 76. Bell-glasses. 





Fig. 78- Substitutes for bell-glasses. 



MACHINES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 

common diamond in this, that any person can cut with it. Having procured 
the diamond and several pieces of broken window-glass, cut the latter into- 
figures appropriate in size and form for the sides of four or six-sided prisms, 
as shown in fig. 78. When the pieces of glass are properly cut out by a 
wooden or card pattern, join them together with strips of tape, about three- 
eighths of an inch wide, made to adhere to the glass with India-rubber 
varnish. After the glass is formed, varnish over the tape, and the whole will 
be found firm and durable. A loop may be formed at top either of the tape 
or of wire, so as to lift them by. Glasses of this sort may be made from 
six inches to a foot in diameter, and will at all events be found useful for 
striking cuttings or protecting rising seeds. An excellent substitute for 
hand-glasses will be described under the section on structures. 

436. Powdering-boxes for plants are required for dusting them with 
powdered lime, sulphur, coarse snuff, powdered charcoal, fine sand, &e. 
One of the most convenient forms is that of the common dredge-box, but 
for the light powders an appendage to be hereafter described may be added 
to the common bellows. All powders intended to rest on the leaves of 
plants should be dusted over them when they are moist with dew, or by 
having been previously watered. 

437. Other Utensils. We have omitted to mention some used in very 
extensive gardens, botanic gardens, and nurseries; such as the glazed 
packing-box ; the earthenware shelter, which may be described as an inverted 
flower-pot, with the sides perforated with holes, or with a large opening on- 
one side ; plant-shades of various kinds ; utensils for entrapping or destroying, 
vermin ; bulb-glasses ; cast-iron pots for burning tobacco ; and a few other 
articles not in general use, or readily substituted by others of a more simple 
and economical kind. 

SECT. V. Machines used in Horticulture. 

Machines differ from other horticultural implements in being less simple 
in their construction, and in their action, enabling the operator to abridge 
labour. The principal gardening machines are the wheelbarrow, roller,, 
watering engines, garden-bellows, and transporting or transplanting machines.. 

438. Wheelbarrows for gardens are of two kinds : one of large dimensions 
for wheeling littery dung, tan, short grass, leaves, haulm, or weeds ; and 
another of moderate size (fig. 79), for wheeling soil and gravel. They are 

generally constructed of wood,, 
with the wheel also of wood 
and shod with iron ; but some 
wheelbarrows are formed en- 
tirely of cast and wrought 
iron ; they are, however, too 
heavy for wheeling anything, 
Fig. 79. Garden wheelbarrow. excepting littery dung or other 

light matters, and they are far from being so durable as a wooden barrow, 
when the latter is kept well painted. Some dung and tan barrows have the 
body or box attached to the handles or levers, commonly called trams, by 
moveable iron bolts, so that it can be readily taken off and carried by two 
men into places where the entire barrow with its wheel could not be 
admitted; for example, in filling the bark pit of a stove with tan or 
leaves. There is a third kind of barrow used by engineers, in deep cuttings, 
which has shallow sides of an equal height on every side of the bottom of 




154 



MACHINES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



the barrow ; it is well suited for carrying heavy subsoil, or stony materials, 
but is not required in gardens. For general purposes, a middle-sized bar- 
row, between the dung barrow and the mould barrow, like that of which 
we have given a figure, is sufficient. 

439. Rollers are essential in even the smallest garden, for compressing and 
smoothing gravel walks and lawns. They are formed of solid cylinders of 
stone, or hollow cylinders of cast iron, and a very convenient width is four 
feet. Cast iron rollers are always easiest to draw, from the greater diameter 
of the cylinder. The operation of rolling is most effective after the soil or 




Fig. 80. Read's garden syringe. ' 

gravel has been softened by recent rains, but is at the same time 
sufficiently dry on the surface not to adhere to the roller. 

440. The watering engines used in gardens are the syringe, 
the hand- engine, and the barrow-engine. There are several 
kinds of syringe, but the best at present in use is decidedly 
that of Read (fig. 80). Its two points of superiority are, 
a ball-valve, d, which can never go out of repair, and an 
air-tube, e, which allows the air above the piston to escape 
during the operation of drawing in water, by which means 
the labour of syringing is greatly diminished. There is a cap, 
a, for washing away insects from wall- trees, and throwing lime- 
water on gooseberry bushes and other standards in the open 
garden, and for water-pines overhead ; a cap, &, for sprinkling 
plants in forcing-houses, which throws the fluid in a light and 
gentle moisture almost like dew, and which is also used for 
washing the leaves of trees and plants when frost-nipped in the 
cold nights that often prevail during the spring, and which 
operation should, of course, be performed before sun-rise. There 
is also a cap, c, <, which is used when great force is required, 
more particularly in washing trees against walls ; and this cap 
is also used in dwelling-houses for extinguishing fires. Trees 
against walls are frequently covered with netting, and when it 
becomes necessary to syringe these, the netting, when the cap, 
6, is used, requires to be removed, but with the cap, c, d, it may 
be kept on. For all small gardens this syringe will serve as a 
substitute for every other description of watering engine. Read's 
pneumatic engine (figs. 81 and 82), the former to a scale of 1 J 
in. to 1 ft., differs from Read's hand-syringe in effect, by forcing 
out the water in one continuous stream, and thus at once com- 
bining the character of a syringe and of an engine. By this 
engine, a volume of air is compressed to an indefinite extent, by 
the working of the piston for forcing out the water, and without 
any sensible increase of labour to the operator. The manner in Fig. si. Read's 
which this is effected will be understood by the section, fig. 82, 
in which a is the piston and cylinder, as in Read's syringe ; &, 



MACHINES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



155 




a case in which this syringe, and also the discharge-tube (c), are in- 
closed ; d, a small hole in the side of the discharge tube ; and e, a valve 
at the bottom of the discharge tube :/is a ball-valve to the suction tube, by 
which the water is drawn up from a watering-pot, pail, or any other vessel. 
On the motion of drawing up the piston (a), the water 
enters by/; while, by pushing down the piston, the 
valve at / is closed, and the water is forced up the 
valve at e, into the discharge tube ; but as some more 
water is forced into this tube than can pass through 
it, it escapes by the small opening at d into the vessel 
of air in which the working barrel and the discharge 
tube are encased. As the air cannot escape from this 
vessel, it is necessarily compressed by the water which 
enters through the small opening at d ; and, conse- 
quently, when the piston, a, is drawn up, and no longer 
forces up the water in the discharge tube, c, the action 
on that tube is kept up by the expansion of the com- 
pressed air which shuts the valve at e, and, conse- 
quently, forces the water along c. The great beauty 
Fig. 82. section of Read's of this arrangement is, that no exertion of the operator 
pneumatic hand-engine. j s J 08 t - nor can he exert himself without producing 
a corresponding result ; for if, by rapid and powerful action, he drives much 
water into the air vessel, the greater degree in which the air is compressed will 
force the water with the more rapidity through the discharge tube, c. This 
engine is 3 ft. long, and 2^- in. in diameter ; it weighs only between 51b. and 
Gib. ; works with remarkable ease, and is so little liable to go out of repair, 
that Mr. Read warrants it to last a lifetime. Read's barrow engine, fig, 83, 
is an oval copper vessel, containing twenty-six 
gallons, particularly adapted for large conser- 
vatories and forcing houses. It will pass 
through a door- way two feet wide, and is so 
portable that it may be carried up or down 
stairs by two men. The great power of this 
engine depends on the air vessel, indicated by 
a dotted circular line, in the body of the en- 
gine, in which all superfluous force is em- 
ployed in condensing air, as in Read's pneu- 
matic engine, so as to form a reservoir of 
power ; and in the proximity of the bent ful- 
crum, a, to the handle or lever, &, by which 
the weight c, being brought near to the ful- Fig. 83. Read's barrow engine. 
crum, the power applied at b is proportionably increased. In most engines 
of this kind there is no pneumatic reservoir, and the distance between the 
weight, c, and the fulcrum, a, is much greater. The construction of the pis- 
ton, valves, &c., is similar to that of Read's hand-engine, so that this barrow- 
engine is not only a machine of great power, but not liable to go out of 
repair. Mr. Read, who has been attending to this subject the greater part 
of his life, considers this engine as his masterpiece. 

441. Garden-bellows. Bellows are used hi gardening for dusting plants 
with powdery substances, such as quicklime, powdered tobacco leaves, sul- 
phur, &c., and for fumigating them with tobacco-smoke. Read's fumigating- 
bellows (figs. 84 and 85) answers both purposes. It consists of a pair of 




]56 



MACHINES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



bellows, fig. 84, a, to which is attached a canister, 6, with a moveable 
nozzle, through which the smoke escapes, c. The details of the canister are 





Fig. 84. Read's fumigating bellows. 

shown in the section, fig. 85, which is one third of the natural size. In 
this section d is the bottom socket or cap ; e, the plunger, which keeps down 
the tobacco ; /, the nozzle of the bellows ; and g, the tube by which the 
smoke escapes, unscrewed to show the ball-valve. 
In using this machine, unscrew the bottom socket 
of the canister, and turn up the canister, so that 
the perforated plunger may fall to what becomes, 
when in use, the upper end h; put in the to- 
bacco, or tobacco-paper, replace the socket, hold 
the apparatus in the position shown by fig. 84, 
hold the bottom of the canister over a piece of 
lighted paper, expand the bellows, and the flame 
will rush in and ignite the tobacco. Then by 
continuing to use the bellows in the ordinary way, 
the tobacco will be consumed in smoke, which 
may be directed by means of the issue pipe c at 
pleasure. Immediately after using the machine, 
immerse the canister, which will now be very hot, 
in water ; unscrew the top and bottom, and wash 
and wipe the valves and pipe, so as to leave the 
whole perfectly clean. If this is not attended to, 
the oil of the tobacco will soon form a thick 
glutinous coating, which will prevent the valve 
jk from acting properly. When a large house is to 
be filled with tobacco smoke, a fumigating pot, 





Fig. 85 Section of the canister of 
Read's fumigating bellows. 

such as fig. 86, may be i sed. It is 

made of sheet-iron, holds about 

three pounds of tobacco, and is 

placed on the outside of the house, 

with the smoke-tube entering it Fi s . SG. iron fumiyating-pot. 

through a hole made on purpose in the front wall or front glass. In tin's 

figure a is the handle by which the pot is carried, b the pipe by which the 




MACHINES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 157 

smoke is introduced to the house, and which is attached to a moveable lid, 
and, c, a tube to which the bellows is applied, and which enters the pot im- 
mediately under a perforated moveable bottom. A substitute for a pot of 
this kind is often formed by two flower-pots, a smaller one being placed upside 
down within a larger, and the tobacco placed in the former. In fumigating 
plants in houses, it will be found advantageous to fill the house at the same 
time with steam, by watering the pipes or flues, or by other means. The 
steam condenses the oil of the smoke, and leaves it on the leaves and points 
of the young shoots in the form of globules of oil, on the surface of the glo- 
bules of water. A pair of common bellows may be rendered fit either for 

powdering plants or fumigat- 
ing them, by substituting a 
piece of tinned iron, fig. 87, a, 
resembling in shape those tin 
scales used in the retail of 

Fig. 87- Powdering. bellows. '.! ,, A i / i - i 

meal, in the flat end of which, 

6, are two small valves l of an inch in diameter, with a hole between them, 
to which a screw cap is fitted for introducing the dust or the tobacco to be 
burnt. It is evident that the air which enters through the valves by the up- 
stroke of the bellows, raises the dust or smoke in the interior, which is ejected 
by the down-stroke ; and, by repetition, the whole powder introduced, or the 
whole smoke produced by the ignition of the tobacco-leaves, will be thrown 
out. (Gard. Mag. vol. iii. p. 30.) We consider this to be much the best 
description of garden-bellows for dusting plants with sulphur. 

442. The mowing-machine is used for shearing lawns, where the surface 
is smooth and even, and kept free from worm-casts and all matters that 
would interfere with the cutting part of the machine, which is formed 
exactly on the model of the engine for shearing the surface of woollen-cloth 
described in Ure's Dictionary of Manufactures, p. 1324. The machine crops 
and collects at the same time in a box the grass cut by it, and is altogether 
very complete in its action where the lawn to be cropped is suitable ; but 
for ordinary garden purposes most gardeners seem to prefer the short grass- 
scythe, and leave the mowing-machine to the amateur, for whom it forms an 
excellent exercise. 

443. Other machines. In the Encyc. of Gard. will be found described 
various machines for transporting large boxes or tubs containing plants, such 
as Orange-trees ; machines for transporting and for transplanting large trees, 
for regulating temperature, for entrapping or detecting the enemies of gar- 
dens, and for some other purposes ; but few of these are adapted for the 
present work. It may be stated here, that the principle on which all the 
best machines for transporting plants in large boxes or tubs, or transplanting 
large trees with balls to their roots, is the same : viz. two windlass axles are 
supported on four props, which rise out of two horizontal beams, and the 
box or tree being raised by means of the windlasses, is retained in that posi- 
tion till it is conveyed to its destination, either by means of two horizontal 
beams, by manual labour, as if they were the levers of a hand-barrow ; or 
by placing wheels under them, in the manner of a cart or waggon. The 
best machine of this kind for removing Orange- trees in boxes, is that used at 
St. Margaret's, near London, and described in the Gardener's Magazine, vol. 
x. p. 136. From the description of this machine it is obvious that it will 
answer either for transporting trees in boxes, or trees or shrubs with large 

M 



158 MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 

balls; though, to convey the latter to any distance over rough roads, larger 
wheels would be requisite than those which belong to the machine referred 
to. See our Appendix. 

SECT. VI. Miscellaneous Articles used in Horticulture. 

In complete gardens, containing all the varieties of plant-structures, a 
number of articles are required for the purposes of cultivation and high 
keeping which can neither be classed as implements nor structures. Even 
in the smallest gardens, mats for protection, props for support, nails and ties 
for fastenings, and tallies for naming and numbering plants, are essential. 

444. Articles for protection. Bass mats, woven from ribands or strands of 
the inner bark of the lime-tree, and imported from the Baltic, are in general 
use, both to protect from the cold by counteracting radiation, and to shade 
from the sun. Canvas, bunting, and netting of different kinds, and oiled 
paper frames, are used for the same purposes. Netting of straw ropes, 
formed by first stretching ropes as weft at regular distances, and then crossing 
them by others as woof, are sometimes used to protect wall-trees. Another 
mode of protecting trees by straw ropes, is by placing poles against the wall, 

1 in front of the trees, at from four feet to six feet asunder ; 

j thrusting their lower ends into the earth about eighteen inches 
or t\vo feet from the wall, and making them fast at top to the 
coping, or to the wall immediately under it ; straw or hay ropes 
are then passed from pole to pole, taking a turn round each, 
and leaving a distance of about eighteen inches between each 
horizontal line of ropes. Straw ropes may also be used to pro- 
tect early rows of peas or other plants, by first hooping over 
each row, and afterwards passing three or four ropes from hoop 
to hoop. Of course they act by checking radiation, and their 
influence will be greatest when they are placed between a foot 
and eighteen inches from the wall, the amount of heat reflected 
back diminishing in a geometrical ratio according to the distance 
Fig. 88. wup* of of the covering from the body to be protected. Wisps of straw 
straw for being tied to a string, fig. 88, and hung in lines one above another in 

used at protect. ^ Q ^ Q f ft Wft ^ are ^ Q ^^ ^ ^ game p U1 .p oge as stmw 

ropes, and in sheltered places are perhaps better. 

445. Mats of straw or reeds are used for protecting plants in the open 
garden, and also for covering glazed sashes, whether of pits, frames, or 
hothouses. Every gardener ought to know how to construct these, in order 
to be able to employ his men within-doors in severe weather. The following 
directions are given by P. Lindegaard, late gardener to the king of Denmark, 
who used them extensively, and who states, that they produce a considerable 
saving of fuel, afford a great security from accidents, such as breaking glass, 
and not only retain heat much better than bass mats, but, from their greater 
porosity, allow the steam of moist hotbeds to pass off more readily. When 
a heavy fall of snow takes place during the night, bass mats are not so easy 
to get cleaned and dried the next morning as straw mats, because they 
retain the moisture, and get frozen and stiff by the frost penetrating through 
them ; and hence the next evening they cannot be put on again without the 
risk of breaking the glass. Mr. Lindegaard found four hundred straw mats 
sufficient to cover four hundred lights, for which if he had used bass mats, 
about twelve hundred would have been required. These mats are made of 




MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



159 



rye or wheat straw, or of reeds, and only in the winter time, when the 
weather is unfit for working out of doors. They are made in frames in the 
following manner : An oblong square (fig. 89) is formed of four laths, along 




Fig. 89. Mode of making stratc mats. 



the two ends of which, a, a, are driven as many nails as you wish to have 
binding cords, 6, 6, of which the usual number is six to a width of four feet, 
as the strength of the mat depends chiefly on the number of these cords. 
The cords are of tarred rope-yarn ; on these the straw, or reeds, is laid in 
handfuls, and bound to each longitudinal cord by other cords, which, for 
greater convenience, are made up in little balls, c, c. These cords are also of 
tarred rope-yarn. When a mat is finished, the cords are tied together at 
the top or finishing end, the mat is then detached from the frame, and its 
sides chopped straight with an axe. These mats are more conveniently 
made by two men than by one man ; and by placing the frame upon a raised 
plank or bench, than by placing it on the ground, and obliging the men to 
stoop. When straw is used, that of rye is the best, and will last, even in 
Denmark, three years : reeds last longer. In the most severe weather these 
mats are rolled on the glass lengthways of the mat ; that is, from top to 
bottom, by which the direction of the straw is at right angles to that of the 
sash bar, which prevents the glass from being broken; and over this covering, 
in very severe weather, reed mats may be laid with the reeds in the same 
direction as the sash bar, so that the water may run off them as it 
does off the thatch of a house, and keep the mats below quite dry. Where 
reeds cannot be got, mats of rye or wheat straw may be substituted ; 
because it is evident, that having the straws or reeds laid in the direction 
of the slope of the glass, must be attended with great advantages by 
throwing off the rain instead of absorbing it. (Gardener's Magazine, vol. 
v. p. 416.) The usual dimensions of these mats are six feet by four 
feet, because that size answers for covering frames and pits of the ordinary 
dimensions ; but when they are to be used for covering the sloping glass 
of hothouses, they should be made of sufficient length to reach from the 
coping to the ground, covering the front glass or front parapet. A ring of 
twisted wire should be placed exactly in the centre of the upper end of each 
mat, and to this ring a cord should be attached, for the purpose of being 
passed over a pulley to be fixed on the coping-board, or on the back wall 

M2 



160 MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 

immediately under it, or on the top rail of the uppermost sash 61' the roof. 
This cord must be at least twice the length of the mat, in order that, when 
the mat is drawn down and rolled up, the end of the cord may be within 
reach of the operator on the ground at the front of the house. Another 
ring ought to be fixed to the centre of the lower end of the mat, for the 
purpose of fastening it to the front sill when it is drawn over the roof. When 
the mats are removed from the roof, and rolled up during the day, the 
cord is loosened from the ring, and lies on the roof, ready to be refastencd to 
it, to draw the mats up the next evening. A second layer of mats might be 
drawn up over the former, hi a direction across the sashes, so as to throw off 
the rain in the manner of thatch, by attaching a cord to one corner of each 
end of the mat, passing these cords over two pulleys, and laying on the mats 
like tiles on a roof. Drawing up two mats, however, the one immediately 
over the other, would be much less trouble, and would, excepting in the 
cases of heavy rains or thawing snows, keep out the cold sufficiently well. 
Where the roof is divided by wooden rafters, the mats should be exactly the 
width of the sash, so as to fit in between them : but where it is not so divided, 
the mats should overlap one another in the manner of slates that is, one 
half the number of mats should first be drawn up, leaving half the width of 
a mat between each, and afterwards the remaining half should be drawn up 
so as to cover the intervening spaces, and overlap a foot over the mat at each 
side. It is much to be regretted that mats of this kind are so little used in 
England, especially in country places, where straw is abundant and cheap ; 
for being made at a time when little other work can be done, and of a mate- 
rial of very little value, and retaining heat much better than any other 
covering, they would prove a great saving of fuel and of the labour of 
attending on fires, as well as insure the safety of plants. Mr. Shennan, a 
gardener of great experience, who used these mats extensively, observes, in 
the Gardener's Magazine for 1827, that he considers the revival of the old 
system of covering with straw or reeds, and the system of heating by water, 
as the greatest improvements that have been introduced into the forcing 
department in his time. 

446. Wooden fihutters form an excellent covering for the sashes of pits and 
frames ; and though they are more expensive at first, yet from their great 
durability when kept well painted, they are found by market-gardeners to 
be the cheapest of all coverings in the end. Boards do not retain heat so 
effectively as reeds or straw, but they exclude rain and wind better than 
that material ; and by being kept an inch or two above the glass by the 
cross-bars which bind the boards together, a space is left sufficient to check 
radiation, and to prevent the escape of heat by conduction. If boarded shut- 
ters could be kept about six inches from the glass, and air excluded from 
entering at top and bottom and at the sides, radiation would be effectually 
returned, and less risk of the escape of heat by conduction incurred than 
when the boards touch the sash-bar ; but this would require great care in 
excluding the air from the sides and ends. All the frames and pits in the 
gardens at Syon are covered by boarded shutters, and all those in the exten- 
sive forcing-ground of Mr. Wilmot of Isleworth. Narrow shutters of this 
kind might be contrived for hothouse roofs, so as to produce a great saving 
of heat. Canvas would, in many instances, repel wet and check radiation 
as well as deal boards, and might be put on much quicker ; but the great 
objection to it is its liability to be disturbed by high winds, unless, indeed, 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 161 

it is attached to wooden frames, which occupy as much time in taking off 
and putting on as wooden shutters, and are much less durable. 

447. Asphalte covers have lately been used for protecting glass roofs, and 
promise to be a very suitable, and, at the same time, cheap and durable 
material. The following account of a trial of this article at Dalkeith, near 
Edinburgh, by Mr. M'Intosh, is abridged from the Gardeners Chronicle of 
Feb. 13th, 1841. Pocock's patent asphalte roofing is sold in pieces 16 in. 
by 32 in., at 4^d. each, or about if d. the square foot. Its weight is only 
sixty pounds to the hundred feet square. It has been exposed to severe 
frost and to a heat of 220 without injury : being a non-conductor of heat, 
it is alike useful for protecting from cold and for shading from the sun. In 
texture the material resembles the improved patent felt, and appears to be a 
combination of hair and long fibrous substances, intimately united by exces- 
sive pressure, which gives it strength, durability, and an even surface ; and 
being saturated with an asphaltic composition, it is completely waterproof. 
Mr. M'Intosh has used it to cover 300 feet in length of cold pits; and he has 
also a number of shutters made of the same material for covering the lights 
of forcing pits. Frames are formed of a top and bottom rail, and two side- 
rails, 1^ inches thick by 2^ inches broad : to the top and bottom rails two 
pieces of wood, 1^ inches by 11 inches, are fastened, and another of like size 
at the middle of the frame across it, attached to the side- rails. To these the 
asphalte covering is secured by copper tacks, but iron or tin tacks, made 
warm and cooled in oil, will answer as well ; thus forming shutters 6 feet by 
4 feet, weighing 241bs., and costing 6s. each, that is, 2s. 3d. for asphalte 
covering, 2d. for tacks, and 3s. 7d. for timber and labour. These water- 
proof shutters Mr. M'Intosh finds vastly preferable to Russia mats, and has 
no doubt they will last for ten or twelve years, if not longer ; for while not 
in use, they can, after being well dried, be stored in a dry, airy loft or shed. 
From the nature of the material they will not take oil paint with advantage ; 
but may, perhaps, be improved if thinly coated with tar and strewed over 
with white sand every three or four years. It is evident that temporary 
coverings to plants against walls, or in the open garden, might as readily be 
formed of these asphalte covers as of boarded shutters. 

448. Oiled-paper frames were formerly much used, both as protection 
from cold, and as shades from the sun. They are made by gluing paper 
to a wooden frame, divided into panes in the manner of a window by narrow 
thin laths. The paper used is what is called fine cartridge, but unsized : 
printers' demy will do. A ream of this consists of 480 sheets, each 1 ft. 10 in. 
by 1 ft. 5 in. ; so that the panes of the frame should be made of the latter 
dimensions. They are oiled with common linseed oil boiled, and mixed 
with a little white lead, being previously pasted on with a paste made of 
starch boiled up with a little glue. Frames of this kind may be used with 
advantage as a substitute for glazed frames in covering newly-sown seeds, or 
in striking cuttings ; for though oiled paper excludes light, it is a powerful 
conductor of heat. Oiled-paper sashes have been also extensively used for 
growing cucumbers and melons, and, above all, for protecting fruit-trees 
while in blossom. For the latter purpose the length of the frames may be 
made in lengths equal to nearly the height of the wall, and each frame 
hinged on one side to a temporary rafter, and kept fast at the other by a 
turn button of wood. When the frames are to be kept open, they can be 
tied to stakes in a simple and expeditious manner, such as will readily occur 
o every gardener. 



162 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



449. Oiled-paper caps are also constructed for protecting or shading her- 
baceous plants in the open garden, and more especially for protecting the 
young shoots of Dahlias when newly planted out in spring, and their flowers, 
from the frost of autumn. In low situations, near water, Dahlias are gene- 
rally blackened by frost five or six weeks before this takes place in high 
grounds ; but by the use of such caps as we are about to describe, the plants 
may be protected from perpendicular frosts until the roots are ripe. A cap 
or head for this purpose is shown in figs. 90 to 93. Fig. 90 represents the 

' .91 



!).) c 




Figs. 00 to 93. Oiled paper cap for protecting Dahlias and other flowers. 

stake which supports the cap, in which a, d, represents a hooked wire 
attached to the stake, and adapted to an eye in the stem of the cap, to make 
sure of holding the latter fast ; 6, shows the four side branches to which the 
Dahlia-shoots are tied ; c, a wooden peg for fastening the tenon of the cap 
into the mortice of the stake ; and e, the surface of the ground. Fig. 91 is 
a geometrical elevation of one side of the frame of the cap, in which is 
shown, /, the summit where the two ribs that form the four angles of the 
cap cross each other, into which the stem, </, is inserted ; A, shows the edge 
of the mortise ; i, the lower wire fr, the upper wire ; and /, one of the ribs. 
Fig. 92 is a perspective view of the skeleton of the cap, in which m repre- 
sents the point where the two ribs cross, and the hole in the tenon for the 
peg, c, in fig. 90 ; and o, the eye for the hook, d. Fig. 93 is a perspective 
view of the stake and cap represented inserted in the ground, in which p 
represents the side branches, to which ought to be attached the stems of the 
dahlias ; and c, the surface of the ground. The size of the caps is about 
eighteen inches on the side, and the length of the stake is four feet ; but in 
constructing them the workman will, of course, adjust the length of the 
stake and the diameter of the cap to the height and breadth of the plant to 
be protected. These caps are the invention of Mr. John Turnbull (Gard. 
Mag. xiii. p. 212), who says they will endure for many years with but 
little repair. A cap of wickerwork, for the same purpose, is described in 
the Gardeners' Chronicle, vol. i. p. 181. It consists of an inverted shallow 
basket, to which is attached a tube made of the same material, through which 
the Dahlia stick is passed ; and a peg being inserted between the stick and 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



163 



the tube, it is thus firmly fixed at any height required. It measures twelve 
inches in diameter in the widest part, and is three inches and a half in 
depth. 

450. Wicker-work hurdles are useful in gardens for sheltering low plants 
from high winds, for placing horizontally over seedlings to protect them from 
birds, and, in various positions, for shading plants. They are constructed 
of upright stakes fixed in the ground, or in holes in a board, at regular dis- 
tances of from four inches to eight inches, according to the size of the mate- 
rials and the dimension of the hurdle, and these stakes are filled in or wattled 
with small rods, wands, or spray. When kept dry, they will last three or 
four years, if the stakes are made of willow, or of any of the soft woods ; and 
from four to six or seven years, if they are made of hazel, oak, ash, or any of 
the hard woods. 

451. Props for plants vary in form, dimension, and material, from the 
small wires used for supporting hyacinths in water-glasses, and the sticks of 
six inches in length, used for supporting plants in pots, to cast-iron rods of 
six or eight feet in length, and pillars for roses and other climbers, formed 
of the stems of young fir-trees, of from ten to twenty feet in length, as in 
fig. 94. All the varieties of wooden props may be 

reduced to four kinds : 1. Straight rods with the 
bark on, but with all the side branches cut off, 
varying in size from the shoot of one year to the 
stem of a fir of twenty years' growth. These 
are used for every purpose, from the tying up of 
plants in pots to the support of lofty climbers, in- 
cluding between these extremes tying up dahlias 
and standard roses. 2. Branches or stems, with 
all the side branches and branchlets retained, used 
for the support of climbing annual stems, such 
as peas, kidney-beans, tropaeolums, &c., but only 
suitable when these plants will grow in the open 
ground ; when grown in pots, wire frames, or a 
regular framework of laths, are more in accord- 
ance with the artificial state in which the plants 
are placed. 3. Wooden rods, formed out of laths 
or deal by the gardener or carpenter, regularly 
tapered and pointed, and in some cases painted. 

These are chiefly used for choice plants in pots, but partly also in the 
open garden. 4. Iron rods, from short pieces of wire to rods of cast or 
wrought iron, for supporting dahlias, standard roses, and other plants, and 
with or without spreading heads for climbers. Fig. 95 shows a variety of 
these rods, which may be had of the principal London ironmongers. All 
iron work, before being used in the open air in gardens, would be rendered 
more durable if thoroughly heated and painted over with oil, the effect of 
which is, to prevent the action of the atmosphere on the surface of the iron, 
by carbonising it. After this operation painting may be dispensed with, 
excepting for ornament. It is in general, however, better to paint them, 
and the colour should be black, blue -black, or some very dark shade of green. 
A light green, and white, are of all colours the most to be avoided in an 
artistical point of view ; because the first is too like nature, and the second 
is too glaring and conspicuous. 







164 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



V 




Fig. 95. Cast and wrought iron props for sttpporting climbers. 



452. The durability of wooden props may, perhaps, be increased by soaking 
them in Burnett's anti-dry-rot composition ; or if they are made of deal, by 
first kiln-drying them, and afterwards soaking them in linseed oil. After 
the oil is thoroughly dried, which will require two or three weeks, the sticks 
may be painted. Sticks of red deal, treated in this manner, will remain 
good for upwards of twenty-five years. (Hort. Reg., i. p. 301.) Mr. Mas- 
ters is of opinion (Gard. Mag., xv. p. 321) that the duration of hop-poles 
may be doubled by kyanising ; but little benefit has been yet derived from 
it in the case of props for garden plants. Mr. W. H. Baxter (Gard. Mag., 
xv. p. 542) found kyanising of little or no use. 

453. Garden tallies and labels are articles by which names or numbers are 
attached to plants, and they are of many different kinds. The materials 
are wood, iron, zinc, lead, or earthenware, and the forms are still more 
various than the materials. The most durable are those of lead, with the 
name or number stamped with a steel punch or type, and rendered con- 
spicuous by having the letters filled in with white lead paint. The most 
common are made of wood, with the numbers, in imitation of the Roman 
numerals, cut with a knife. To form tallies to receive numbers of this 
description, take firm ash rods, about an inch or an inch and a half in dia- 
meter ; saw them into lengths of ten or twelve inches ; point the lower end 
rather abruptly, and either plane or cut with a knife a surface sufficient to 
receive the number required on the upper half. This kind of tally may be 
made during winter and wet weather, when little else can be done, and a 
stock kept on hand for use, if required. They are found to last eight or 
ten years, according to the situation in which they are placed. Some- 
times the number is written or painted, and the writing is in ordinary 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



165 




cases done with a black-lead pencil on a smooth surface, on which a little 
white lead has been previously rubbed in with the finger, which, when 
written on hi a moist state, is found greatly to increase the 
durability of the impression. Sometimes Indian ink is used, 
on a white painted ground, which, being a body colour, pre- 
sents a more conspicuous and durable impression than common 
ink, which is only a stain. The most durable letters, next to 
impressions stamped in lead, are those in black oil-paint on a 
white ground. For plants in pots, a tally, formed of wood, cut 
with a common knife from thin laths, rubbed with white lead, 
and written on with a black-lead pencil, is one of the most 
convenient and economical forms and materials. Fig. 96, which 
consists of a shank of wire with the head of wood, is a form 
for pots, as the wire does not injure the roots : the plate is 2 
inches long and 1^ inches broad, and about a quarter of an 
inch thick ; the piece of iron wire is about three-sixteenths of 
an inch thick, and is painted black, while the wooden plate is Fig 95 wooden 
painted white. These tallies are very conspicuous and very label, with a shank 
durable. For herbaceous plants, or low shrubs, or trees in S iron wire - 
the open air, the tally, fig. 97, is very neat and durable, and much more 

economical than would at first sight 
appear. It is formed of cast-iron, with 
a head of the same metal, in which is 
a sunk panel, into which the label 
with the name is placed, and after- 
wards covered with a piece of glass 
neatly fitted in, and puttied like the 
pane of a window. The label should 
be a slip of wood, lead, pewter, or 
earthenware, as not being liable to 
rust, shrink, or warp, from drought 
or moisture. Previously to putting 
in the labels, the tally should be car- 
bonised by heating it nearly red-hot 
and immersing it in oil, as is practised 
with gun-barrels to render them im- 
pervious to the action of the atmo- 
sphere. This being done, a coat of paint 
may be dispensed with, or the iron- 
work may be painted black, and the 
paint on which the name is written 
white; or the label may be simply 
rubbed over with a little white lead, 
and the name written with a black- 
lead pencil. In the Glasgow Botanic 
Garden these tallies have been used 
extensively for the last fifteen years. 
The label is there formed of wood, 
and the writing by a black-lead pen- 
ip. 97. Cast-iron tally, with the label of wood cil, after previously rubbing in a little 

Placed in a sunk panel, and covered with a piece white lead. For plants in greenhoUSCS 
oj glass secured by putty. , . ... 

or stoves, very neat porcelain tallies 




Vaccinium 
myrWliis 



8 





166 MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 

are made at the potteries, and they are perhaps the handsomest of all. 
They cost from 2d. to 3d. each, and readily receive black paint, China ink, 

or common ink, without any 

previous preparation : in the 

open air, however, they are 

very liable to be broken. For 

alpine or other herbaceous 

plants in pots in the open air, 

no tally is better than strips of 

sheet lead, about an eighth of 

an inch thick, with the name 

at length stamped in with steel 

type, an operation which the 

gardener may perform in incle- 
ment weather. For large tal- 
lies for trees, bricks, moulded 

with a sloping face and a sunk 

panel to contain a label of lead, 

zinc, or wood, may be used ; or 

tallies of heart -of-oak, previ- 
ously steamed to draw out the 

sap, and afterwards boiled in 

linseed oil, painted black, with 

the name in white ; or a tally 

formed of a cast-iron shank, 

riveted to a plate of lead, on 

which the name is stamped, 

the shank and plate being 

painted black, and the letters 

filled in with white lead. This 

Fig. 1)8. Cast-iron shank . ,, , . ,, -,, 

and disk of a tally for ^y was USecl ty Mr - Glen- 

trees and shrubs dinning in the Bicton Arbore- Fig 9a Tally ofcast . iront U . M n 

tum ; the Cast-iron Shank is label of lead, for naming trees 

shown in fig. 98, and the tally m ^ rm e r <*- 

complete, with the label of lead riveted on, is shown in fig. 99. In 
the Goldsworth Arboretum, instead of a plate of lead, a plate of por- 
celain is used, on which the name is painted in black in oil. An 
improvement on this kind of tally consists in having a disk or circular 
plate cast on the shank, about a foot below the name-plate, as in figs. 
98 and 99, which prevents the tally from sinking into the ground, and 
always keeps it upright. Perhaps the most economical and durable tally 
for plants in pots is a small strip of zinc, about three quarters of an inch 
broad and six inches long, on which the name may be written with a 
black-lead pencil, after rubbing' on a little white-lead paint, or with 
Indian ink on dried white paint, or on the naked metal with prepared 
ink, which is sold on purpose. The neatest, least obtrusive, and most 
durable tally for this description of plants is undoubtedly strips of sheet 
lead, with the names stamped in, and the letters distinguished by being 
filled with white lead. Temporary labels to plants are written on strips 
of parchment, or narrow slips of Ydj and tied to them with I wine, or 
sometimes, when the plants are to be sent to a distance, with copper or 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



167 



metallic wire. In all cases of writing or painting names or numbers 
on permanent tallies, the words or figures may be rendered more con- 
spicuous and durable by painting them over when dry with mastic var- 
nish, or with boiled oil. Instead of painting tallies black, Mr. Nesfield 
prefers a very dark lead colour, composed of ivory black (not lamp black) 
and flake white, mixed with boiled linseed oil. His reason for disapproving 
of a pure black ground is founded on the fact, that certain colours, having a 
greater affinity for water than for oil (such as blacks, umbers, and ochres), 
are liable to be affected by damp, unless they are held together by a power- 
fully oleaginous vehicle, with a small portion of white lead. The lettering 
Mr. Nesfield recommends to be done with Paris white, mixed with nearly 
equal parts of copal varnish and nut oil, avoiding turpentine, because it soon 
evaporates, and causes the colour to look dead and chalky. The white 
should be used as thick as it will flow from the pencil, oecause the letters in 
that case will be so much more opaque ; and the varnish should be mixed with 
only a small quantity at a time, on account of its setting very rapidly. Tur- 
pentine must be entirely avoided, except for cleansing pencils, as it soon 
evaporates, while the varnish remains and hardens as it becomes older. 
( "olours of the best quality requisite for painting and lettering labels are to 
be had of Messrs. Robertson & Miller, 51, Long Acre, London, whose prices 
are, for flake white, per bladder, weighing ^lb., Is.; ivory black, per^lb., 1*.; 
oil, per pint, 2s. ; copal varnish, per pint, 6*. Two Is. bottles of copal var- 
nish will be sufficient for an immense quantity of lettering. (Gard. Mag. 
vol. xiii. p. 58.) 

454. Nails, lists, and ties, are wanted in every garden. Cast-iron nails, 
about an inch and a half in length, and the lists from the selvages of woollen 
cloth, are in general use for fastening the branches of trees to walls, and no 
materials have hitherto been devised which have been found better or 
cheaper. The nails, previously to being used, are heated nearly to redness, 
and thrown into oil, for the reason before mentioned (453) ; and old lists, 
before they are used a second time, are boiled in water, to destroy any eggs 
of insects that may be deposited on them. The most common material in 
use for ties are strands of bast matting, and these are rendered much more 
durable when previously steeped in soft soap and water. For large branches, 
ties of the smaller shoots of willows or of clematis are sometimes used ; and 
on the Continent, the smaller branches are tied with rushes or the twigs of 
broom collected in the winter season, and preserved 
in bundles so as to retain a certain degree of mois- 
ture to prevent them from becoming brittle, and at 
the same time not to rot them. In this country 
tarred twine of different degrees of thickness, and 
bast matting procured by unravelling a mat, are 
almost the only ties in use. Metallic wire and small 
copper wire have been recommended, but they are 
only fit for tying labels to trees sent out of nurseries 
to a distance. A leathern wallet, fig. 100, is found 
of great use in pruning and nailing wall-trees, when 
Fig. 100. Wallet for pitting on the operator is standing on a ladder. It is suspended 
^ h t e a ^ Ung walt - trees /rom from his shoulder by straps, and contains a large 
pocket for the shreds, nails, and hammer, and two 
small pockets over it for a knife and sharpening-stone. 




168 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



455. The garden-line^ fig. 101, consisting of an iron reel, a y 
knob for winding it up, 6, iron pin, c, and a hempen cord of 
any convenient length, is an essential article ; as is a measur- 
ing-rod, marked with feet and inches, for laying off dimen- 
sions ; and aGunter's measuring chain, for use on a large scale. 
A pocket foot-rule and a measuring-tape are also useful. 

456. Ladders of different kinds and lengths are required 
for use in the open garden and in hothouses. Figs. 102 
and 103 represent a light folding ladder, the sides of which 
Fig. 101. iron reel Mid may be constructed of yellow deal, and the rounds or treads 
pin for* garden-line. of oak It is uged in hothouses and also in the open garden, 
and may he of any length, fromfifteen to thirty feet. When the ladder is open, 
for use, it has the appearance shown in fig. 103, d ; when half shut, of e ; and 





a 


o 


j 


I 


1 


i 


1 






j 


I 




1 









i 




1 


b 


a 


I 




; 



Fig. 102. Portable ladder shut. 



Fig. 103. Portable ladder open. 



when entirely shut, of fig. 102. The section of each of the sides, or styles, 
is a semi-oval ; their junction, when the ladder is shut up, forms an entire 
oval in the section, as shown in fig. 102. The rounds, or treads, are cylin- 
drical ; and, when the ladder is shut up, they fall into grooves, hollowed out, 
of the same form ; half of the groove of each round being hi one style, and 
half in the other, as indicated by the dotted lines, , 6, hi fig. 1 02. The 
ends of each of the rounds turn on iron pins ; one end rests on a shoulder, as 
at a, while the other end is suspended from below the shoulder, and turns on 
an iron or brass phi, as indicated by b. The ends of the iron pins which pass 
through the styles are slightly riveted. In every description of plant-houses, 
vineries, verandas, conservatories, aviaries, &c., a folding-ladder of this kind 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 



169 




is a most convenient article ; because, when shut up, it may be carried 
through a house much easier than a common ladder. For working among 
climbing plants under glass, it is found to be particularly useful, as it may 
be introduced in places where there is not room for a common ladder. For 
pruning standard trees out of doors, it is particularly convenient, because it 
can be thrust through the branches like a round pole, so as not to injure 
them ; and when once it has got 
to the desired place or position, it 
can be opened, when the styles 
will press the branches on one side 
without injuring them. Orchard 
ladders for pruning standard fruit- 
trees, or gathering their fruit, are 
of various kinds, some with two 
legs to give them stability, and 
others forming a triangle, with 
horizontal pegs in each leg for 
supporting plants, which cross 
from one leg to the other, and on 
which the operators stand. Fig. 
104 is what is called a rule-joint ladder, for painting and repairing curvi- 
linear glass roofs. The ladder fig. 105 is in common use in the south of 
France and Switzerland, for gathering cherries. 

457. A Levelling Instrument of some kind is occasionally required in 
gardens ; for example, when box edgings are to be taken up and replanted, 
it is necessary to have the ground of exactly the same level on both sides 
of the walk, and this can only be done by levelling across. The use of the 
level implies also the use of poles, borning pieces, and 
other articles belonging to surveying, which, as every 
one who can take levels must necessarily be familiar 
with, we do not stop to describe. Fig. 106 is a more 
convenient form for a garden level than that used 
by bricklayers ; because, by the curvature on the un- 
derside, the operator can more readily level across 
raised gravel walks. 

458. Thermometers are requisite, more especially where there are plant 
structures of any description ; and it will be very desirable to have terrestrial 
thermometers for ascertaining the temperature of the soil in the open garden, 
as well as of the soil, and of tan or dung beds, under glass. It is true that 
a knowledge of the temperature of the soil in the open garden will not often 
enable us to increase that temperature, but it will assist us in accounting 
for particular effects ; and sometimes, as in the case of coldness produced 
from the want of drainage, or from a non-conducting covering repelling the 
rays of the sun, we have it in our power, by removing the cause, to remedy 
the evil. To ascertain the temperature of the soil with reference to plants 
growing in it, the bulb of the thermometer should be sunk to such a depth 
as may correspond with the great mass of the roots, or between eight inches 
and a foot. For plant-houses, a registering thermometer is a very desirable 
instrument, as a check upon the attendants in the absence of the master, and 
more especially in the night-time. That of Six is considered the best, and 
requires no explanation. 




Fig. 106. Garden level. 



170 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 




459- An Hygrometer of some kind is almost as necessary as a thermometer, 
more especially now, when, as we have seen (251), the importance of keeping 
the atmosphere of plant structures saturated with moisture is beginning to 
be understood. 

460. Other articles of various kinds are required in gardens, of which it 
will be sufficient to enumerate those which are most important. A grind- 
stone is essential in every garden ; because, unless tools and instruments are 
kept at all times sharp, it is impossible that operations can either be properly 
performed, or a sufficiency of work done. Whetstones are also necessary for 
scythes and knives. Portable shoe-scrapers of cast-iron, for using when 
coming off dug ground in wet weather on the gravel walks. One or more 
bridge planks, fig. 107, for wheeling across box 
edgings. Common planks for wheeling on 
when the soil is soft, or when injury would be 
Fig. 107. Bridge plank for wheeling done by the sinking of the wheels ; and trestles 
acrot* box or other edgings. f or ra i s i n g them as scaffolding. Some hundreds 
of bricks and flat tiles for forming traps for birds or mice, and for a variety 
of purposes. A pair of leather bearing-straps for relieving the arms in 
wheeling or in carrying hand-barrows, fig. 108. Old fisher- 
men's-netting, for protecting rising seeds from birds, and for 
covering currant or cherry trees for the same purpose, or 
for protecting wall trees, or for shelter. Live moss, com- 
monly sphagnum, for packing plants and for other purposes. 
Lime unburned, but broken into small pieces, in order to 
be burnt in the hothouse fires, to supply quicklime as 
wanted for making lime-water : quicklime will answer, if 
kept compressed in a cask or box, so as to exclude the air. 
Potash, for using as a substitute for quicklime, in preparing 
a caustic fluid for destroying worms, snails, &c. Refuse 
tobacco, tobacco paper, or tobacco liquor, from the tobacco- 
nist's, or tobacco of home growth, for destroying insects. 
Sulphur in a state of powder, for destroying the mildew, 
and for sublimation to destroy the red spider. Soft soap, 
tar, gum, glue, &c., for suffocating the scale, and for coating 
over the eggs of insects to prevent their hatching. Gun- 
powder, for bruising and mixing with tar to deter insects 
by smell. Bird-lime, for entrapping birds. Baskets, ham- 
pers, boxes, and cases of various kinds, for packing vege- 
tables and fruits, and sending them to a distance. A cabinet 
or case for the office, or for the seed-room, for containing seeds ; another 
for bulbs, if collections of tulips, &c. are grown. Canvas for bags, which 
may be used as a suhstitute for boxes for containing seeds. Paper of different 
kinds, twine and cord, cotton, wool, hay, fern-leaves, the male catkins of 
the beech, or sweet chesnut, to aid in packing fruit. Straw, reeds, tan, 
common sand, pure white or silver sand, oyster-shells as coverings to the 
holes in bottoms of pots ; pieces of freestone, for mixing with peat soil used 
in growing heaths ; leaves and leaf mould, grafting-wax, grafting-clay, com- 
mon paint, and probably various other articles which we cannot recall to 
mind, might be enumerated under this head. But it is scarcely necessary 
to observe, that no gardener ought to confine himself to those implements 
of his art, which have hitherto been in use, whether as regards the con- 




Fig. 108. Leather 
bearing-straps. 



PORTABLE, TEMPORARY, AND MOVE ABLE STRUCTURES. 171 

struction of particular instruments or utensils, or their number and kinds, 
for particular operations. Let him at all times think for himself; and 
if he can devise any tool, instrument, or utensil, for performing any 
operation better than those hitherto in use, let him not fail to do so. Such 
are the variety of operations required in extensive gardens, where a great 
many different kinds of culture are carried on, that this power of invention 
in the gardener becomes essentially requisite, and is, in fact, called forth by 
the circumstances in which he is placed. 



CHAPTER II. 

STRUCTURES AND EDIFICES OF HORTICULTURE. 

STRUCTURES and edifices are required in horticulture for the more perfect 
cultivation of hardy plants, or for bringing them earlier to perfection ; for 
the protection of exotics that will not endure our winters in the open air ; 
for preserving and keeping horticultural articles ; for the enclosure and 
defence of gardens, and for gardeners' dwellings. 

SECT. I. Portable, Temporary, and Moveable Structures. 
Portable structures are such as can be readily moved about by hand, such 
as the common hand-glass, or substitutes for it, wicker-work protectors, &c. ; 
temporary structures are such as are taken to pieces every time they are 
removed from place to place, such as temporary copings, canvas screens, 
&c. ; and moveable structures are those which can be removed entire, such 
as the common hotbed frame. 

461. Wicker-work structures for protecting plants may be of any conve- 
nient form. Fig. 109 consists of a rim about two feet high and a semicir- 
cular cover for taking off during fine days : it 
has been used at Britton Hall to protect half- 
hardy Rhododendrons. Fig. 110 shows vari- 
ous forms which have been used for protecting 
tender plants during winter, at Abbotsbury, 
in Dorsetshire : a is a semicircular hurdle, to 
protect plants trained against a wall, especially 
if newly planted and exposed to a sunny or 
Fig. 109. w terwrk P rotector for windy quarter . b is a double semicircular 

hurdle, or split cylinder, with loops on each 
side forming hinges or clasps. This is useful to put round the stems of 
young trees whose branches are too spreading to allow of a circular hurdle 
being passed over them from above. It is used as a protection against hares 
and rabbits in a shrubbery ; c is a large cylindrical basket to cover tall 
shrubs, with a vizor, or window, to be turned towards the sun or away from 
the wind, but to admit air. These three forms are chiefly adapted for 
permanent defences in the winter season; the following are for use in 
spring : d is the simple form of basket or circular hurdle, close on every side 
and at top, intended to protect low bushes, or growing herbaceous plants 







172 PORTABLE, TEMPORARY, AND MOVEABLE STRUCTURES. 

coming into flower ; e is a bell-shaped wicker case with a handle, for covering 

during the night plants that shoot early 
in spring. All these forms are con- 
structed of stakes of hazle, oak, or other 
wood, strong and pointed so as to be 
firmly fixed in the ground, and the 
wattled work is of willow wands or 
young shoots of hazel, sno wherry, or 
whatever can be most conveniently got 
from the woods. Those structures used 
for the more tender plants may be filled 
with straw or hay, provided the plants 
are on a lawn where grass-seeds drop- 
ping from the hay will not prove in- 
jurious ; or they may be covered with 
mats or canvas. Besides these forms, 
which may be made of any size, accord- 
ing to that of the plants to be pro- 
tected, small semiglobular, close- wove 
chip baskets, not above a foot high, are 
used at Abbotsbury as shades for deli- 
cate Alpine plants in sunny or windy 
weather. Where baskets of this kind 




\ 



Fig. no. Wickerwork protectors of various cannot be conveniently procured, very 
**<** good substitutes may be found in bass 

mate, canvas, or oil-cloth, supported by rods forming skeletons of suitable 
sizes and shapes. 

462. Portable substitutes for hand-glasses. Hand-glasses, from their 
great liability to breakage and the quantity of glass they contain compared 
with the ground they cover, become very expensive articles. A common 
square hand-glass, it has been shown by Mr. Forsyth, Gard. Mag. 184], 
contains seven square feet of glass to light or shelter two and a quarter square 
feet of ground, being a little more than three times as much as is really 
necessary for the plants usually cultivated under them : hence he proposes 
to substitute boards well painted, pitched or tarred, to increase their dura- 
bility, in place of upright glazed sides to the hand-glass ; and instead of a 
conical or pyramidal roof, to employ a square cast-iron sash, twenty-four 
inches on the side. Fig. Ill shows the sash glazed with small panes, say 




Side view of hand-box. 
Hand-box, as a substitute for a hand glass. 

four inches and a half wide, on account of their cheapness, and greater 



Sasli, as a substitute fur 
a hand-glass. 



PORTABLE, TEMPORARY, AND MOVEABLE STRUCTURES. 173 

strength than larger-sized panes. The frame, fig. 112, may be six to nine 
inches high in front, and from fifteen to eighteen inches high at back. 
These small sashes, when not wanted for hand-glasses, or rather hand-frame 
coverings, Mr. Forsyth proposes to use as roofing to peach-houses, vineries, 
&c., and for various other purposes ; and he anticipates, and we think with 
reason, great economy from their adoption in gardens. Fig. 113 is an end 
view of the box, showing the uprights at the angles for supporting the sash, 
either close over the box, or raised to different heights to admit more or 
less air. By means of the notched uprights, the sash may either be raised 
six inches above the box at top and bottom, or it may be raised three or 
six inches at the back, and not raised, or raised only three inches in front, so 
as to admit more or less air at pleasure, and yet throw off the rain ; the sash 
being in any of these cases held firm in its place, so as not to be liable to be 
disturbed by wind. The pivots which fit into the notches are square, in 
order to admit of their being mounted on rafters of different kinds, so as 
to form coverings to frames, pits, or even forcing- houses. Supposing, says 
Mr. Forsyth, a bed of violets, running east and west, in the open air, twelve 
feet long and three feet six inches wide : drive seven notched pegs two feet 
apart down the centre of the bed to stand one foot above ground, and seven 
down each side at the same distance apart, but only four inches out of the 
ground : then, to make the sides and gable ends, take a piece of turf four 
feet by four feet, shaped out with the edging-iron, and taken up with the 
turfing or floating spade, an inch and a half thick, of the proper shape, so 
that it may be set on edge and kept so by a peg on each side, and having the 
green side out ; when the lights are put on with every alternate one higher 
than and embracing the iron edges of the two under it, you will have a very 
elegant little flower-house, which a labourer might erect in an hour with 
sixpennyworth of building materials, and the finished structure would have 
thus every other light hinged and ready to admit air or allow of watering 
and gathering flowers like a complete forcing-house. We regard this as 
promising to be one of the most useful and economical inventions that have 
been introduced in horticulture for some time. This box may be used in 
the open ground for forcing sea-kale, rhubarb, and for a variety of other 
purposes. See Gard. Mag. 1841. 

463. Canvass coverings for glazed structures or detached plants require 
for the most part to be in framed panels, as well to keep them tight as to 
throw off the rain, and to prevent them from being blown and beat about 
by the wind. To render the canvass more durable, it maybe oiled, tanned, 
or soaked in Kyan's or in Burnett's anti-dryrot composition. When applied 
to cover the glass sashes of frames or pits, it should be in panels in wooden 
frames of the size of the sashes ; and this is also a convenient and safe mode 
of forming temporary structures for protecting standard plants or trees ; but 
by suitable arrangements, to be hereafter described, canvass or netting for 
protecting walls may be hooked on and fastened without wooden frames. 
This is done in a very efficient manner in the garden of the Horticultural 
Society of London, to protect a peach- wall. The stone coping of this wall 
projects over it about an inch and a half, with a groove or throating under- 
neath. Coping-boards nine inches broad, fitted to join at their ends by 
means of plates of iron, are supported on iron brackets built into the wall. 
Fig. 114 shows one of these brackets, in which a is an iron which is built 
into the wall, the thickness of a board below the stone coping ; and I, the 




174 PORTABLE, TEMPORARY, AND MOVEABLE STRUCTURES. 

hole for the iron pin which secures the wooden coping. To these brackets 
the coping-boards are secured by broad-headed 
iron pins, passing through corresponding holes, 
ft, in the board and bracket, a slip of iron, or 
" spare-nail," being then introduced through an 
eye in the lower end of the pin. The upper edge 
Fig. lu. iron bmcket for support- of the board is slightly bevelled, so as to fit as 
ing a temporary wooden coping, closely as possible to the under side of the coping 
of the wall, in order effectually to obstruct the radiation of heat, 
and the ascent of warm air. From this coping, woollen netting of various 
kinds, common netting, such as fishermen use, bunting, and thin can- 
vass, have been let down, and tried experimentally, in the course of 
the last fifteen years ; and we are informed by Mr. Thompson, that after 
repeated trials, the thin canvass was found the preferable article for utility, 
appearance, and duration. This description of fabric costs about 4d. per 
yard, procured from Dundee. It requires to be joined into convenient 
lengths, or into the whole length of the wall to be covered, and bound with 
tape at top and bottom, and to have loops or rings sewed to it at top, by 
which it is secured to small hoops screwed to the upper side of the coping- 
boards. These hooks serve also for attaching the ends of pieces of twine, 
which are stretched down to pegs driven in a line four feet from the bottom 
of the wall. These twine-rafters are stretched at intervals of twelve feet, 
and support the canvass at a uniform slope, the appearance being that of an 
elegant light roof, reaching to within three feet of the ground. The coping- 
boards are put up before the blossom-buds of the peach-trees have swelled so 
much as to exhibit the tips of the petals ; and before the most forward buds 
open, the thin canvass (or netting, if that should be preferred) should be at- 
tached to the hooks. The covering is generally put up about the beginning 
of March, and it remains on without being opened or altered, till all danger 
from frost is over, which is generally, in the climate of London, about the 
middle of May. The coping is entirely removed at the same time as the 
canvass, because the trees are found to thrive much better when exposed to 
perpendicular rains and dews. The canvass is found to be of great utility in 
bright sunny weather, when the trees are in full blossom ; for the peach and 
other stone fruit, which in their native country blossom at an early period 
of the season, whilst the air is yet cool, do not succeed so well in setting 
when the blossoms are exposed to as much as 100, which they frequently 
are, against a south wall. The thin canvass admits also plenty of air ; while 
woollen netting, which it might be thought would admit still more air, was 
found to render the leaves too tender, in which case they suffer from the in- 
tensity of the light when the netting is removed. Common thread netting 
is not liable to produce this effect, being much more airy ; and this netting 
has the ad vantage, when not placed farther than a foot from the wall, of ad- 
mitting of the trees being syringed through it. Very little syringing, how- 
ever, is required till the trees are out of blossom, and none while they are 
in blossom ; and when the space between the canvass and the wall is nine 
inches wide at top, and four feet wide at the bottom, as in the Horticultural 
Society's garden, the syringing can be very well performed in the space 
within. Perhaps it would be an improvement in the case of the Horticul- 
tural Society's wall to have the coping as much as eighteen inches wide, as 
no frost, unless very severe indeed, would injure the blossoms of fruit-trees 



PORTABLE, TEMPORARY, AND MOVEABLE STRUCTURES. 175 

trained against a wall with such a projection ; but the iron fastenings for 
such a coping would require to be much stronger than for nine-inch copings, 
on account of the greater power which the wind would have over them. 

464. Canvass Shades to Hothouses. A very complete mode of rolling up 
and letting down canvass over the roofs of hothouses was put in practice in 
the kitchen-garden at Syon by Mr. Forrest ; and as it is equally well adapted 
for covering awnings for tulip-beds or other florist's flowers, and for a va- 
riety of other garden purposes, we shall here give such details as will enable 
any intelligent blacksmith or carpenter to construct the apparatus. The 
canvass is fixed to a roller of wood, fifty or sixty feet in length, the length 
depending on the diameter of the pole or rod, fig. 115, a, and the toughness 




Fig. 115. Apparatus for rolling up and letting down canvass shades. 

of the timber employed, as well as the dimensions and strength of all the 
other parts. On one end of this rod, and not on both, as is usual, a ratchet- 
wheel, &, is fixed, with a plate against it, c, so as to form a pulley- groove, d, 
between, to which a cord is fastened ; and about three inches further on the 
rod is fixed a third iron wheel, about six inches in diameter and half an 
inch thick, e. This last wheel runs in an iron groove, /, which extends 
along the end rafter or end wall of the roof to be covered. The canvass or 
netting being sewed together of a sufficient size to cover the roof, one side of 
it is nailed to a slip of wood placed against the back wall that is, along the 
upper ends of the sashes ; the other side is nailed to the rod, a. When the 
canvass is rolled up, it is held in its place under a coping, g, by a ratchet, 
h ; and when it is to be let down, the cord, , of the roll is loosened with 
one hand, and the ratchet cord, k, pulled with the other, when the canvass 
unrolls with its own weight. The process of pulling it up again need not be 
described. The most valuable part of the plan is, that the roll of canvass, 
throughout its whole length, winds up and lets down without a single wrinkle, 
notwithstanding the pulley-wheel is only on one end. This is owing to the 
weight of the rod, and its equal diameter throughout. 



176 WALLS, ESPALIER-RAILS, AND TRELLIS -WORK. 

465. The common hotbed frame is a bottomless box, commonly six feet 
wide, and three, six, or eighteen feet in length, formed of boards from one 
to two inches in thickness. The height at the back may be two feet, and 
in front one foot. The bottom should be level, so that the sides and the 
sashes laid on the frame may slope from back to front. A three-light or 
three-sashed frame is divided by two cross bars or rafters, so as to leave a 
space between them from two feet nine inches to three feet for the width 
of the sash. It is placed either on the open ground, or on a mass of 
heating material, according to the purpose for which it is wanted, and, ex- 
cepting for particular purposes, facing the sun. As the great object of frames 
is to increase temperature without excluding light, the soil on which they 
are placed, or the dungbed or other means of heating which they cover, 
ought to be as dry as possible, either naturally or by artificial drainage ; and 
the glass ought to be clear, and so glazed as to permit as little air as possible 
to escape between the laps. When common crown glass is used, small panes 
are found to be less liable to breakage than large ones of this kind of glass ; 
but when the sheet window-glass is used, from its greater thickness, the 
panes may be two or three feet in length, without much danger of breakage. 
The boards used for the frame should be of the best red deal ; and if, after 
being prepared for fitting together, they are thoroughly dried on a kiln, and 
afterwards soaked with train-oil in the manner which we have described (452 ) 
for preparing wooden props, the duration of the frame will be greatly in- 
creased. All frames and sashes, when not in use, should be kept in an open 
B\vy shed, and there raised from the ground a few inches by supports of bricks 
or other suitable materials. In gardens where cucumbers and melons are 
grown extensively, there are commonly one or more small frames with single 
lights for raising seedlings, and others of two or three lights for winter or early 
spring crops; the smallness of the frame allowing a greater command of the 
heating material beneath it, by the application of outside casings of warm 
dung. The back, front, and ends of frames are generally permanently 
fixed together by tenons and mortices, and by being nailed to posts in the 
four inner angles ; but in some cases the back and sides are fastened together 
by keyed iron bolts, which readily admit of separating the frame into pieces, 
and laying these away under cover, and in little space, when not required 
for use. From the short duration of frames, and from the great quantity 
of dung required to heat them, as well as from the waste of heat incurred 
in preparing that dung, frames are now, in most British gardens, being re- 
placed by pits, which may be called fixed frames, with brickwork substi- 
tuted for wood. 

SECT. III. Fixed Structures used in Horticulture. 

The fixed structures required in gardens are chiefly walls, espalier rails, 
trellis and lattice-work, and structures for containing growing plants. 

Subsect. 1. Walls, Espalier-rails, and Trellis-work. 

466. Walls are used for the protection of gardens, and also as furnishing 
surfaces on which fruit-trees and ornamental plants may be trained, with a 
view to producing increase of temperature and protection from high winds : 
they may be considered in regard to direction, material, height, foundation, 
coping, and general construction. 



WAI/LS, ESPALIER-RAILS, AND TRELLIS-WORK. ] 77 

467. Direction and material. Boundary walls take the direction indi- 
cated by the form of the ground to be enclosed ; but \valls built purposely 
for training trees, in the interior of a garden, are varied in direction according 
to the aspects which are considered most desirable. A wall in the direction 
of east and west, gives one side of the wall fully exposed to the sun for the 
finer fruits, or for fixing against it glass structures : while the north side of 
the wall may be employed for inferior fruits, for retarding crops, as well of 
fruit against the wall, as, in some cases, of vegetables oh the border. A wall 
in the direction of north and south furnishes two good aspects for the second- 
ary fruits, such as apricots, plums, and the finer pears. Walls have been 
built in a curvilinear direction, but no advantage has been found from them 
excepting a saving of material, in proportion to the length of the wall, the 
curves having the same effect in resisting lateral pressure as buttresses ; but 
walls in situations exposed to high winds, built with projections at right 
angles, of the height of the wall and the width of the border, but somewhat 
sloped down from back to front, have been found beneficial in checking the 
course of the wind when in a direction parallel to the wall. Screen walls of 
this kind are frequently built at the exterior angles of the walls of kitchen- 
gardens; and sometimes they occur at distances of from 100 to 200 feet along 
walls having a south aspect ; and in the case of east and west winds they 
are found very beneficial. Walls with piers at regular distances, allowing 
room for one trained tree between every two piers, have also been found 
beneficial from the shelter afforded by the piers, which at the same time 
greatly strengthen the wall, and admit of its being built thinner. In general, 
however, a straight wall, without projections of any kind, is most conve- 
nient, most suitable for training, and for protecting by temporary copings, 
and most agreeable to the eye. 

468. The materials of walls are brick, stone, mud, and wood ; but the first 
is by far the best. Brick retains warmth, in consequence of its much 
greater porosity than stone ; forms a very strong wall with comparatively 
little substance, from the rectangular shapes of the bricks, and the firmness 
with which mortar adheres to them ; and it is the best of all walls for training 
on, from the small size of the bricks and the numerous joints between them. 
Add also, that from the porosity of the bricks, nails may even be driven 
sufficiently far into them to hold branches, as securely as nails driven into the 
joints. Stone walls are good in proportion as they approach to brick walls. 
For this reason, if the stone is not naturally porous and a bad conductor of 
heat, the walls should be built of extra thickness, and the stones should not 
be large, nor so rough as to make coarse joints. The warmest walls of this 
kind are such as are of sufficient thickness to allow of the interior of the 
wall being built without mortar, in consequence of which much air is re- 
tained, and heat is not readily conducted from the warm side of the wall 
to the cold side. A stone wall, with a facing of bricks on the warm side, 
forms the next best wall to one entirely of brick ; and next to this, a stone 
wall stuccoed, plastered over with a mixture of stone lime and sharp sand, 
or coated over with Roman cement of good quality. Walls formed of earth 
or mud are still better non-conductors than brick walls; but though they are 
warm, yet as surfaces for training trees on they are attended with several 
disadvantages. They cannot conveniently be built high, and whatever may 
be their height, they require the coping to project farther than is beneficial 
to the plants trained on them at any other season than in early spring ; and 



178 WALLS, ESPALIER-RAILS, AND TRELLIS- WORK. 

they require a trellis on which to fasten the plants. Nevertheless the vine 
and the peach have been successfully grown against such walls at various 
places in the neighbourhood of Paris, though they are now rapidly giving 
way to stone walls. These walls are commonly built without mortar, ex- 
cepting to close the outside joints, or to plaster over the surface of the wall 
as a substitute for a trellis, which is always used when this is not done. 
The grapes at Thomery, near Fontainebleau, are chiefly grown on trellised 
walls of this kind ; and the peaches at Montreuil, near Paris, are chiefly on 
stone walls stuccoed. Walls formed of boards are frequent in the north of 
Europe, where timber is abundant ; but, except when the boards are five or 
six inches in thickness, they are very cold. In Holland, and more particu- 
larly in Sweden, when such walls form the backs to hothouses, they are 
thatched from top to bottom. In Britain, were it not for the expense of 
the material, boarded walls might in many cases be adopted instead of brick ; 
more especially in the case of walls built in the direction of north and south, 
because in them the air is of nearly the same temperature on both sides : 
whereas in an east and west wall, the heat produced by the sun on the south 
side is being continually given out to the much colder north side. Boarded 
walls two or three centuries ago afforded the only means, in the neighbour- 
hood of London, of forcing the cherry, the only fruit which at that time was 
attempted to be produced out of season. The boarded wall or fence was 
placed in the direction of east and west, the cherries planted against it on 
the south side, and casings of hot dung on the north, close to the boards. To 
derive the full advantage from the south side of an east and west wall, it 
ought to be of greater thickness than a south and north wall under the same 
circumstances ; because, from the much greater cold of the north side, the 
south side is continually liable to have the heat abstracted from it in that 
direction. A south and north wall, on the other hand, can never become 
so hot on either side as an east and west wall does on the south side ; and as 
it receives its heat equally on both sides, so it loses it equally. Where a 
south and north wall is thin, and consequently cold, it might become worth 
while, when it was desirable to retain as much heat on the south side as 
possible, to thatch it on the north side during the winter and spring months. 
The great advantage of coverirfg with some protecting material the north 
sides of walls in spring, when trees are in blossom, may be inferred from the 
case of trees trained against dwelling-houses, which invariably set their 
blossoms better than trees against unprotected garden-walls. 

469. The height of garden-walls may vary according to the object in view, 
but it is rarely necessary to be more than twelve or fifteen feet, or less than 
six feet. In kitchen-gardens the highest wall is generally placed on the 
north side, as well to protect the garden from north winds as to admit of a 
greater surface for training on exposed to the full sun, and to form, if ne- 
cessary, a back sufficiently high for forcing-houses. The east and west 
boundary walls are commonly made two or three feet lower than the north 
wall, and the south wall somewhat lower still. The usual proportions in a 
garden of three acres are 17, 14, and 12 ; for gardens of one acre, 14, 12, and 
10 ; that part of the north wall against which the forcing-houses are placed 
being in small gardens raised somewhat higher than the rest. Twelve 
feet is found to be a sufficient height for peach and apricot trees ; but for 
pears and vines it may be one half more ; and indeed for vines there is 
scarcelv anv limit. 



WALLS, ESPALTER-RAILS, AND TRELLIS-WORK. 



179 




470. The foundations of garden- walls should be at least as deep as the 
ground is originally dug or trenched. The wall is sometimes supported on 
arches ; but this is not in general desirable, more especially in walls built 
in the direction of east and west, because the roots of the trees planted on 
the one side of the wall are liable to extend themselves to the border on the 
opposite side, which not being exposed to the same temperature as that on 
the other side, the excitement which they receive from atmospheric tempera- 
ture must necessarily be different, and consequently unfavourable to growth 
and the ripening of fruit and wood. 

471. The copings ofwalls, for ordinary purposes, should not project more 
than two or three inches, because a greater projection would deprive the 
leaves of the trees of perpendicular rains in the summer season ; and in 
spring the trees can be protected from the frost by temporary wooden 
copings, as already mentioned (463). In order to admit of fixing these 
wooden copings securely, iron brackets should be built mto the wall imme- 
diately under the coping : or, where temporary rafters are to be fixed to the 
wall for supporting sashes, stones, such as fig. 116, may be built in, to which 

the rafters may be fitted and fixed by a 
tenon and pin, as indicated in fig. 117. 
Along the front border, or row of stone 
or iron posts, not rising higher than the 
surface, may be permanently fixed, on 
which a temporary front wall or plate, 
for the lower ends of the rafters, may 
be placed. The garden-walls for ar- 
rangements of this kind should be flued. 
>.for fixing temporary rafters, stones for fixing rafters can only be 
wanted on the south sides of east and west walls, because glass is seldom 
placed before walls with any but 

a south aspect. Iron brackets, ~"1 

to support temporary copings, r^r " 
may be placed on all aspects ex- 
cept that of the north. The per- 
manent coping is generally form- 
ed of flagstone, slate, artificial 
stone, tiles or bricks, and raised 
in the middle so as to throw the 
rain-water equally to each side ; 
and in the case of stone, a groove 
or throating is formed under- 
neath, an inch within the edge, 
to prevent the water from run- 
ning down and rotting the mor- 
tar. Where the coping is very 
broad, and formed of flagstone, 





Fig 117- Mode of fixing temporary rafters. 



it is sometimes hollowed out along the middle, so as to collect the rain-water, 
from which it is conveyed to a drain along the foundation of the wall by 
pipes ; but this mode is only necessary in the case of conservatory walls. 
Where no trees are planted on the north side of an east and west wall, the 
coping is sometimes bevelled, so as to throw the rain-water to the north side 
as in fig. 117; but this can never be advisable where trees are trained there. 



180 



WALLS, ESPALIER-RAILS, AND TRELLIS-WORK. 




Fig. 118. Plan of a hollow brick wall 14 inches wide 
and 12 feet high. 



472. In the construction of walls they are generally built solid ; but 
when the wall is formed entirely of brick, a saving of material is obtained, 
as well as a warmer wall produced, by building them hollow. There are 
various modes of effecting this, but one of the simplest is that shown by the 
plan fig. 118, in which a wall fourteen inches wide, with a vacuity of five 

~ inches and a half, may be built 
ten or twelve feet high with 
little more than the materials 
requisite for a solid wall nine 
inches wide. Such walls may 
be carried to the height of ten 
or twelve feet without any piers, 
and one advantage attending them is that they can be built with a smooth face 
on both sides, whereas a solid nine-inch wall can only be worked fair on one 
side. A still more economical wall may be formed by placing the bricks on 
edge, which will give a width of twelve inches that may be carried to the 
height of ten feet without piers. Walls of both kinds have been employed 
in the construction of cottage buildings, as well as in gardens. (See Encyc. 
of Cottage Architecture, p. 168 .to 172, where several kinds of hollow walls 
are described.) A very strong wall, only seven and a half inches in thick- 
ness, ma}' be formed of bricks of the common size, and of bricks of the 
same length and thickness, but of only half the width of the common 
bricks, by which means the wall can be worked fair on both sides. The 
bricks are laid side by side, as in fig. 119, in which a represents the first 
course, and b the second course. 
The bond, or tying together of 
both sides of the wall, is not 
obtained by laying bricks 
across (technically, headers), Fi - 119 - Plan f a brick wal1 inches thick - 
but by the full breadth bricks covering half the breadth of the broad bricks, 
when laid over the narrow ones, as shown in the dissected horizontal section, 
fig. 119, at &, and in the vertical section, fig. 120. Besides the advantage of 

j p-j being built fair on both sides, there being no headers, or through 

[ t I and through bricks, in these walls, when they are used as out- 
side walls the rain is never conducted through the wall, and 
the inside of the wall is consequently drier than the inside of a 
wall nine inches in thickness. These walls are adapted for a 
variety of purposes in house-building and gardening, in the 
latter art more especially. The only drawback that we know 
against them is, that the narrower half- breadth bricks must be 
made on purpose. For the division walls of a large garden, or 
for the boundary wall of a small one, such walls with piers 
projecting eighteen inches or two feet, to enable the walls to 
be carried to the height of ten or twelve feet, might be econo- 



X 


1 


! 




a 





1 




1 


1 




I 




^view of a 7J- mically adopted : the space between the piers ought not to be 
in. thick brick greater than can be covered by a single tree. It must be 
acknowledged, however, that piers are not desirable iii fruit- 
walls, because when the wall is newly built it cannot so soon be covered 
with trees, the piers standing in the places where temporary trees 
would be planted. Piers, however, on conservatory walls may be turned 
to good account, both as assisting in supporting the temporary copings or 



WALLS, ESPALIER-RAILS, AND TRELLIS-WORK. 181 

glass, and as heightening architectural effect. Walls are almost always 
built perpendicularly to the horizon, but they have been tried at different 
degrees of inclination to it, in order to receive the sun's rays at right angles 
when he is highest in the firmament during summer ; but though some 
advantage may probably have been obtained from such walls at that season, 
yet the great loss of heat by radiation during spring and autumn would 
probably be found greatly to overbalance the gain during summer. Nicol 
informs us that he constructed many hundred feet of boarded walls which 
reclined considerably towards the north, in order to present a better angle to 
the sun, but he does not inform us of the result ; a German gardener, how- 
ever, has found advantage from them. (See Nicol's Kal p. 149, and Hort. 
Trans, vol. iv. p. 140.) 

473. Trellised walls. Where the surface of a garden wall is too rough, 
or is formed of too large stones to admit of conveniently attaching the 
branches of trees to it, by nails and shreds, it becomes necessary to fix to the 
wall trellis-work of wood or of wire. The laths or wires are generally placed 
perpendicularly six or eight inches apart, because the branches are generally 
trained horizontally, or at some angle between horizontal and perpendicular. 
Wires stretched horizontally, however, and screwed tight, form the most 
economical description of trellis; and if occasionally painted, they will last 
a number of years. Trellis-work of wood is more architectural, and the 
branches are more readily fixed to them by ties, which are apt to slide along 
the small wire unless the double operation is performed of first attaching the 
tie to the wire, and then tying it to the shoot of the tree. The colour both 
of the wire and the woodwork should not differ much from that of the stone 
of the wall, otherwise it will become too conspicuous. 

474. Colouring the surface of walls black, with a view to the absorption 
of heat, has been tried by a number of persons, and by some it has been con- 
sidered beneficial ; but as the radiation during night and in cloudy weather 
is necessarily in proportion to the absorption during sunshine, the one ope- 
ration neutralizes the other. If, indeed, we could insure a powerful absorp- 
tion from a bright sun during the day, and retain the radiation by a canvass 
or other screen during the night, a considerable increase of temperature 
might probably be the result ; but the number of cloudy days in our climate 
in proportion to those of bright sunshine is not favourable to such an ex- 
periment. 

475. Fined walls are either built entirely of brick, or with one side of 
brick and the other of stone ; the latter being the north side of east and 
west walls. In the case of north and south walls which are to be flued, the 
thickness is equal on both sides, and the wall is built entirely of brick. The 
flues, which are generally from six to eight inches wide, commence about one 
foot above the surface of the border ; the first course is from two to three 
feet high, and each successive course is a few inches lower, till the last flue, 
within a foot of the coping, is about eighteen inches high. The thickness 
of that side of the flue next the south should, for the first course, be four 
inches, or the width of a brick laid flatways ; and for the other courses it is 
desirable to have the bricks somewhat narrower, on account of the heat being 
less powerful as the smoke ascends. All the bricks, however, whatever may 
be their width, must be of the same thickness, in order to preserve uniformity 
in the external appearance of the wall. As where garden walls are to be 
built a large supply of bricks is requisite, no difficulty need occur in getting 



182 



WALLS, ESPALIER-BAILS, AND TRELLIS-WORK. 



< 



uch a quantity as might be requisite for the flued walls made of any con- 
venient width. To prevent the risk of overheating the trees by the flues, 
trellises are sometimes applied .against them for training on ; but where the 
wall is properly constructed, and only moderate fires kept, they are unneces- 
sary. A great improvement in flued walls has been made by Mr. Shiells, 
gardener at Erskine House, Renfresvshire, who, though the garden is in one 
of the worst climates of Scotland, has been singularly successful in ripening 
grapes, figs, peaches, &c., on these walls without the aid of glass. Mr. 
Shiells places the furnace, as usual, at the back of the wall, about eighteen 
inches from it, and two feet below the surface of the ground. To prevent 
the roots of the trees on the south side of the wall from being injured by the 
heat, a wall of four-inch brickwork is carried up opposite the furnace with 
a two-inch cavity between them. From the furnace the smoke and heated 
air enter the wall at c, in fig. 121, over which, at a, there is a damper, by 




Fig. 121. Longitudinal section of a fined wall. 

means of which the heat throughout the whole wall is regulated. When 
this damper is dra^Yn about four inches, a sufficient portion of the smoke 
and heated air pass through the two under flues to produce the necessary 
degree of heat in them ; while another portion of the smoke and heat rises 
directly to the third flue, by which it, and the fourth or upper flue, are 
heated a little more than the two lower ones. This Mr. Shiells considers 
a great advantage, because the upper part of the wall is more exposed to the 
cold air, and less benefited by the reflection of heat from the ground than the 
lower part; besides, the shoots there are generally more luxuriant and 
spongy, and would be later in ripening than those on the lower part of the 
wall, if they did not acquire an extra degree of artificial heat. Sometimes, 
therefore, it is desirable to warm only the upper part of the wall, and this is 
readily done by withdrawing the damper, when the whole of the smoke and 
heated air will rise direct to the third flue ; and thus, more especially if only 
a small fire is made, the desired result will be obtained without warming the 
lower part of the wall at all. By reducing the communication between the 
first and the second flue at a, to about thirty square inches, the damper may 
be dispensed with ; because in that case a sufficient portion of the heat would 
rise direct through this opening to the third flue, and so heat as effectually 
the upper part of the wall as the lower part ; but by retaining the damper, 
the heat can be regulated more effectually. The depth of the first or lowest 
flue is two feet six inches ; of the second, two feet ; of the third, two feet 
three inches ; and of the fourth, one foot six inches : the width of all of 
them is seven inches and a half. The bottom of the lowest flue is about one 
foot above the surface of the ground, and the top of the upper flue within 
seven inches of the coping : the total thickness of the wall is about one 
foot nine inches ; viz., the width of a brick in front, the length of a brick 
behind, and the remainder for the width of the flue. About two yards of 
the front of the wall at the warm end of the flues is built rather thicker on 



WALLS, ESPALIER-RAILS, AND TRELLIS-WORK. 183 

the front side, to prevent any risk of the heat injuring the trees, which 
thickness is taken partly off the width of the flue and partly off the back 
part of the wall. The flues are not plastered, and in each there are four 
places for cleaning it out, 9 in. wide and 1 ft. deep ; each of these is filled in 
with four bricks lengthways, not laid in mortar, but only pointed on the 
outside, so as to be readily taken out to free the flues from soot. There are 
twelve divisions of flued wall at Erskine House ; four planted with peach 
and nectarine trees, three with the finer pears, two with apricots, one with 
cherries, one with figs, and one with vines. Fires are applied both in spring 
and autumn, and the trees are covered by double or single netting at both 
seasons, according to circumstances. See Mr. Shiells, in Card. Mag. 1841. 

47G. Conservatory Walls. Flued walls for growing half-hardy or green- 
house shrubs require a somewhat different arrangement from those intended 
for fruit-trees ; chiefly because in the former case it is necessary, in order to 
preserve the plants through the autumn and winter, to keep the border from 
perpendicular rains, at least to the width of three or four feet. For this 
purpose a temporary roofing is made to project over the border, immediately 
from under the fixed coping. This temporary roofing may be formed of 
hurdles thatched with straw, or reeds fixed by hooks close below the coping 
of the wall, and resting on a front rail, supported by posts at regular dis- 
tances. The posts may either be poles with the bark on let into the ground, 
or prepared from sawn timber and let into fixed stone bases. The straw on 
the hurdles should be disposed lengthways in the direction of the slope, in 
order to throw off the rain ; and the eaves ought to drop on a broad gutter of 
boards or tiles, or on a firm path from which the water may be carried off 
in drains, so as not to moisten that part of the border which is under the 
hurdles. The border should be thoroughly drained, and an under-ground 
four-inch wall may be built at the same distance from the wall as the bases 
to the posts, on which wall these bases may be placed. In order to enjoy the 
full advantage of flues to a conservatory wall, instead of thatched hurdles, 
glass frames should be used during the autumn, so as to admit the light at 
the same time that rain was excluded, and afterwards the glass might be 
covered so as to retain heat ; or it might be substituted by thatched hurdles. 
The glazed box-covers of Mr. Forsyth (462) may be used for this purpose 
in a variety of ways which it is unnecessary to describe. 

477. A substitute for a wall of brick or stone, much used in Holland, may 
be formed by reeds inclesed in a double trellis. One erected at Hylands, in 
Essex, the plan of which is shown in fig. 122, and the section in fig. 123, may 




Fig 122. Plan of a reed wall. 

be described as ten feet high, and consisting of a double trellis, a, b, com- 
posed of horizontal laths about eight inches apart ; a coping-board, c, nine 
inches broad ; the reeds placed endwise within the trellis, d, and supported 
about a foot from the ground to keep them from rotting ; this interval of a 
foot being filled up with slates, placed on edge, e. The trellis rods are 
nailed to posts, fig. 123, /, and by taking off a few of these rods on one side, 
the reed mats can be taken out and removed. Russian mats would no doubt 
answer very well, and last a long time, and they might be taken out with 



184 



WALLS, ESPALIER-RAILS, AND TRELLIS-WORK. 




still less trouble. Straw mats (445) would also do, where reeds could not 
be got ; and heath, as being of a dark colour and 
very durable, would make the best of all struc- 
tures of this kind. Peaches, grapes, and other 
fruits, ripen just as well on these structures as 
on brick wall*, both in Holland and England. 
Where a wall of this kind is in the direction of 
east and west, it might consist of only a single 
trellis on the south side, and be thatched from 
top to bottom on the north side. Possibly, also, 
the asphalte roofing might be used as a protection 
to the thatch, on the north side. 

478. Espalier-rails are substitutes for walls, 
commonly placed in borders parallel to walks. 
The commonest form is nothing more than a row 
of perpendicular stakes driven into the soil, about 
eight inches apart, centre from centre, about five 
feet high, and connected by a rail at top. When 
the stakes are of larch with the bark on, or when 
they are of oak with their lower ends charred, 
they last five or six years ; but in general they 
are of shorter duration, and continually requiring 
repair. Framework of prepared timber well 
painted, supported from the ground by sockets 
of stone, ar*. much more durable, and still more 
so espalier rails formed entirely of cast-iron. In 
every case, however, when either wooden or cast- 
iron framework is used, the stones which support 
it ought to be raised two or three inches above 
the surface of the ground, not only because this is 
more architectural, but because it contributes to 
the preservation of the iron or the wood. When 
the stone bases are to support timber, the posts 
should not be let into the stone, because in that 
case water is apt to lodge and rot them ; but the 
stone should be bevelled from the centre, and a 
dowel of iron or wood inserted in it, so as to pass 
into the lower end of the post. If the post is let 
Section of a reedwaii. in to the stone, it should be set in lead, pitch, or 
asphalte. In the Suburban Landscape Gardener, pp. 231 and 232, we have 
shown two very economical espalier rails formed of hoop iron and iron wire, 
which we have had in use upwards of fifteen years, without requiring any other 
repairs than that of being once coated over with gas liquor. A very light and 
elegant espalier rail, and perhaps the most economical of any, consists of iron 
standards let into blocks of stone, strong wires being stretched through 
standards ; and at the extremities of each straight length the standards are 
braced by stay bars, and a connecting bar, holding the two together; the 
upper end of the stay bar being screwed to the main post. The triangle thus 
formed at each end of a straight line of trellis admits of straining the wires 
perfectly tight. A structure of this kind was first used as an espalier for 
trees at Carclew, in Cornwall ; but it has been frequently put up in various 




WALLS, ESPALIER-RAILS, AND TRELLIS-WORK. 185 

parts of the country in pleasure-grounds, to separate the lawn from the 
park, hy Mr. Porter, of Thames-street, London, and others, at a charge 
of from 2*. to 6s. a yard, according to circumstances. The chief difficulty 
in erecting this fence is to strain the wires perfectly tight ; but this is effected 
by screws and a peculiar apparatus which it is unnecessary here to describe. 
Those who wish to study the details will find them in the Gard. Mag. 
vol. xvi. p. 16. Fences or espalier rails of this description are most easily 
erected when in a straight line; but by means of under-ground braces, either 
of iron, wood, or stone, they may be erected on any curve whatever. Where 
effect is any consideration, the braces should in every case be concealed 
under ground. When trellis- work is placed against walls, or against any 
object which it is desired to conceal, it may be wholly covered by the 
plants trained on it ; but where it is placed in any position by which it will 
be seen on both sides (such as when it forms the supports to a verandah, or 
a summer-house, or a trellised arcade over a walk), the surface must not be 
entirely covered by the plants ; because it is desirable that leaves and blos- 
soms should be seen on both sides, and this can only be done effectively by 
the partial admission of direct light through the interstices or meshes of the 
trellis-work. A trellised walk closely covered with the most ornamental 
roses will show no more beauty to a person walking within, than if it were 
covered with the most ordinary plants ; but let partial openings be made 
in the covering of roses, and their leaves and blossoms will be seen hanging 
down over the head of the spectator, forming a perspective of flowers and 
foliage, instead of one presenting only the branches and the footstalks, and 
backs of the leaves. 

479. Trellises and lattice-work are constructed either of wood or iron, or of 
both materials combined ; and though lattice- work, by which we mean 
trellis-work with the meshes or spaces between the intersections smaller 
than is usual for the purposes of training, is chiefly required in ornamental 
structures, yet it is occasionally used for supporting fruit-trees, and for culi- 
nary plants, such as Cucumbers. In order to render trellis-work durable 
and architectural, it ought never to rise directly out of the soil, but always 
be supported either by the wall or frame against which it is placed, or when 
it is independent, by bases of stone. This is almost always neglected both in 
kitchen and ornamental gardens, in consequence of which the construction is 
unsatisfactory to the artistical eye, and the posts, or other parts which rise 
out of the soil, decay long before the superstructure. Where espalier-rails 
of this, or of any other kind, are put up in flower-gardens for supporting 
shrubs which come early into flower, such as the Pyrus japonica, Wistarm 
sinensis, China roses, &c., they may be easily protected by a moveable 
coping of boards, like an inverted gutter, which can be dropped on or taken 
off in a very few minutes. Trellis- work in kitchen-gardens is commonly 
employed against walls, to which it is attached by iron bolts through the 
wall, or by holdfasts driven into it; and the laths are about an inch 
square, and placed vertically, and let into horizontal bars of larger 
dimensions, placed three or four feet apart, and fixed to the wall in the 
manner just mentioned. The distance of the laths from the wall need 
not be above half an inch, as that is sufficient to allow the ties to be passed 
behind them and the wall. In order to economise space in small gardens, 
Mr. Alexander Forsyth proposes to cover the walks with trellis-work for 
the support of fruit-trees. " Every species of hardy fruit-bearing tree and 



186 WALLS, ESPALIER-BAILS, AND TRELLIS- WORK. 

shrub," he says, " may be trained on curvilinear trellises, as'in'figs. 124 and 
125, over the walks and thoroughfares of the garden; which walks, when 




Fig. 124. Trellised arcade for Fruit-trees. 



Fig. 125. Tiellisfer Climbers. 



once properly drained, paved, and trellised with cast-iron arches and wire 
rods, will remain cost-free, painting excepted, for twenty years; at the end 
of which term, independently of the increase of fruit, and of the grateful 
shade and pleasing promenade that they will afford, they will be found 
cheaper than the walks made of gravel, in the same way that a' slated roof is 
far cheaper in the long-run than one thatched. Besides the difference in daily 
comfort and annual expenditure in walks paved with slate, slabs, or flag- 
stone, at all seasons clean, and ready to be traversed by the foot or the wheel- 
barrow alike in frost and in thaw, there will be no more danger of dessert 
strawberries or garnishing parsley, when grown as edgings, being mingled 
with the coal-ashes in the walks ; no more cleaning and rolling of gravel ; 
and no planting and clipping of box." Fig. 126 shows the plan of the paving 

and pillars at the intersections of the 
walks, with the small foot-paths outside, 
for conducting the culture of the com- 
partments. In open, airy situations 
where hedges for shelter are desirable, 
trellises of this sort might frequently be 
adopted as substitutes both in kitchen 
and flower gardens. Single lines of 
trellis-work, or even of frames to be 
filled in with wire network, might also 
be adopted as sources of shelter in spring; 
and in summer they might be covered 
with kidney-beans, peas, gourds, toma- 
tas, nasturtiums, &c. The wire netting 



Fig. 12C. Plan showing the intersection of 
trcUised walkt. 



FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 187 

to fit into such framework can be made by common country workmen and 
their families, as is the case in various parts of Norfolk, both with hempen 
and wire netting, for hare and rabbit fences, and for folding sheep. (See 
Gard* Mag. vol. xv. page 222.) 

Subsect. 2. Fixed Structures for growing plants with glass roofs. 

480. Plant-houses are required in gardens for forcing the productions of the 
open air into maturity earlier than would otherwise be the case ; for retard- 
ing these productions, as in ripening grapes late and preserving them through 
the winter hanging on the tree ; and for the growth of plants of warm 
climates. Hence it follows that all the requisites for growing plants in the 
open air in their natural climate must be imitated in plant-houses. As the 
grand difference between one climate and another lies in difference of 
temperature (135), hence one principal desideratum in hothouses is to 
supply Keat, without which nothing can be done either in forcing hardy 
plants, or in preserving those of warm climates. Next to heat, moisture is 
the most important agent in growth (140, 144), and that element is readily 
supplied both to the soil and the atmosphere ; but though heat and water 
are sufficient to induce growth, it cannot be continued or perfected without 
the influence of light, and unfortunately this is only in a very limited degree 
at the command of art. All that can be done in plant-houses with reference 
to light is, so to construct them as to admit the degree of light which is pro- 
duced in the atmosphere of the particular climate and locality ; and this, as 
every one knows, is effected by roofing plant-houses with glass. For grow- 
ing certain fungi, and for forcing some roots, very little light is necessary ; 
and where ripened crops of fruit are to be retained on the trees and 
retarded, light, at least direct solar light, may be in a great measure dis- 
pensed with. The retention or production of heat therefore, and the admis- 
sion of light, are the great objects to be kept in view, in deciding on the 
situation, form, and construction of hothouses. 

481. Situation. In choosing a situation with reference to the surrounding 
country, the north side of a sheltered basin, on the south side of a hill and 
open to the south, with a dry warm soil, is to be preferred. The object of 
this choice is to have as little heat as possible carried off, either by the 
evaporation of surface water, or by N., N. E., or N. W. winds. If the 
surface of the soil is hard and smooth so as to carry off the winter rains and 
thawing snows, without all owing them to sink into and cool the soil, so much 
the better. It is seldom, however, that these conditions can be fulfilled to 
their utmost extent ; because not only such situations are not frequent in 
nature, but that even where they do exist, the situation for the hothouses is 
determined by the artificial circumstances connected with the house, offices, 
and grounds. For ornamental structures the situation chosen is generally 
some part of the pleasure-ground, or flower-garden, not far from the dwelling- 
house ; and forcing-houses are generally placed in the kitchen- garden, or in 
some place intermediate between it and the stable offices (Sub. Areh. and Land- 
scape Gardener, p. 412). Wherever the situation may be, the soil and sub -soil 
ought to be rendered perfectly dry by drains so placed as to intercept all sub- 
terraneous water, from whatever direction it may come ; and by surface- 
gutters, or the surfaces of walks, &c., so arranged as to carry off the water 
of cold rains and thawing snows, without allowing it to sink into and cool 
the soil. The next point is to produce artificial shelter, by walls, or other 
buildings, so placed as to check the winds which blow from cold quarters 



J88 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

without obstructing the south and south-east winds, and the morning and 
evening sun. The amount of heat carried off by winds which are at a lower 
temperature than the surface they pass over, is great in proportion to the 
velocity of the wind, and the moisture of the surface, and hence the much 
greater ease with which the temperature of a greenhouse may be kept up 
when it is placed in a sheltered, rather than in an exposed situation ; for 
example, in the concave side of a curvilinear wall, rather than against a 
straight wall. 

482. The Form. The most perfect form for the admission of solar light 
and heat is that of a semi-globe of glass, because to some part of this form the 
sun's rays will be perpendicular every moment while he shines, and at every 
time of the year ; and by it a maximum of light will be admitted at those 
periods when he does not shine (281) ; but this form excepting under parti- 
cular circumstances, that, for example, in which there was a double glass 
dome, or in which only a temperature of a few degrees above that of the open 
air was'required to be kept up, would occasion too great a loss of heat, either 
for economy or the health of the plants ; for when heat is rapidly conducted 
away and rapidly supplied by art, it is found extremely difficult to obtain a 
sufficient degree of atmospheric moisture for healthy vegetation (267 to 271 ) . 
For these reasons a semi-dome is preferable to a semi-globe, because the 
glazed side being placed next the sun the other side may be opaque, so as to 
reflect back both heat and light, and it may be made so complete a non-con- 
ductor as not to allow the escape of any heat. There is an objection, however, 
to the general adoption of the semi-dome, because it is found (281) that the 
rays of light after passing through glass-roofs, lose their influence on the 
plants within in proportion to their distance from the glass. Hence for 
general purposes a long narrow house is the best ; and hence also herbaceous 
plants are grown best hi pots in frames ; and were it not for the quantity of 
glass that would be required, all shrubby and climbing plants would be 
grown to the highest degree of perfection if trained on trellises parallel to the 
glass roofing, and at no great distance within it. In pits and frames, herba- 
ceous or low plants are nearer the glass than they can ever be in large houses, 
in which, unless they are placed on shelves close under the roof, they are 
either at a distance from the glass, as in the body of the house, or they pre- 
sent only one side to it, as when they are placed near the front glass. 
There is another reason in favour of narrow houses where perfection of 
growth and economy is an object, which is, that a considerable portion of the 
heat by which the temperature of hothouses is maintained, is supplied by 
the sun. The power of the sun therefore will be great on the atmosphere 
within, inversely as its cubic contents, compared with the superficial con- 
tents of the glass enclosing it. Thus, suppose one house to be twenty feet 
high and twenty feet wide, and another to be twenty feet high and only ten 
feet wide, the contents of the former will be exactly double that of the 
latter ; at the same time, instead of containing double the surface of glass on 
its roof, it will contain scarcely one third more ; being nearly in the propor- 
tion of twenty-eight for the house of double volume, to not fourteen, or 
one half, but twenty-two, for the one of half the internal capacity. In 
the wide house every square foot of glass has to heat upwards of seven 
cubic feet of air ; in the narrow house only about four and a half 
feet (Gardeners Magazine, volume xiii. page 15). There are, however, 
plant-houses erected not merely for growing plants, but for walking into 
hi order to enjoy them ; and in these, other considerations interfere with 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 109 

rigid economy both in heating and lighting. The form of plant-houses, 
therefore, must be determined by the object in view, and the means at com- 
mand. For early and for late forcing, narrow houses with upright glass, or 
glass at a very steep slope, are preferable, as giving but a small volume of air to 
be heated, and as admitting the sun's rays at a right angle, atthose seasonswhen 
he is low in the horizon, and above it only for a short time. For summer 
forcing the angle of the roof may be larger, and of course its slope less steep ; 
for greenhouses and plant stoves, in which plants are to be grown all the year, 
there should be a portion of the roof with the glass very steep, or upright 
front glass, for admitting the sun's rays in winter. The roofs of such houses 
may be at a large angle, say from 35 to 45 with the horizon, which is more 
favourable for throwing off rain, and also for resisting 
hail, than a flatter surface. For growing herbaceous 
plants and } r oung plants, and for the general pur- 
poses of propagation, whether by seeds, cuttings, or 
laj'ers, a low flat house, in which the glass shall be 
near to all the plants, as in pits and frames, is the 
most convenient form ; though, when fruits are to be 
ripened in such houses in the winter season, the 
flatness of the glass, and consequent obliquity of the 
sun's rays to it, is a great disadvantage. Hence, 
when such plants can be conveniently grown in pots, 
as in the case of strawberries, or bulbous or other 
flowers, it is desirable to have very steep glass, and 
to place the plants on shelves immediately within it, 
as practised by Mr. Wilmot, and other market-gar- Fig .' 127 . ste ~~ fed houte 
deners, in such structures as fig. 127 ; or, when the for winter forcing of plants 
plants are climbers, as the cucumber and melon, in pott. 
training them up trellises parallel to the glass, and at a short distance 
within it, as in Ayres* cucumber-house. 

483. Curvilineal roofs. The ordinary form of the roofs of plant-houses is 
that of a right-lined plane, like the roof of any other building, but they have been 
also formed with curvilineal roofs, which, as compared with roofs having up- 
right glass with standards and wall-plates, more especially when the sash bar 
is of iron, admit much more light. The ends of plant-houses are generally 
vertical planes, but in curvilineal houses they are sometimes of the same 
curvature as the front, which adds greatly to their beauty, as well as being 
favourable to the admission of the sun's rays, morning and evening, and to 
the transmission of diffused light when the sun does not shine (282). The 
only disadvantages attending curvilineal ends to plant-houses, is, that the 
doors cannot be placed in these ends without some intricacy of construction ; 
but when such houses are placed against walls, as in fig. 128, they may be 

e 






Fig. 128. Curvilineal glass roofs. 

entered through a door made in the wall, to a recess taken from the back 
shed, as shown by fig. 129, in which a, a, represent the plans of portions of 

o 



J90 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

two curvilincal houses, 6, 6, back sheds to these houses ; and <:, lobby 
common to both. These houses may be ventilated by openings in the upper 





Fig. 129. Ground plan of a curvilineal plant-house, with the entrance through a lobby in tie back 

walls. 

part of the back wall, the orifice within being covered with pierced zinc, 
and wooden shutters moving in grooves sympathetically. Where a lobby 
cannot conveniently be made in the back shed, one door may be made in the 
centre of the front of each house, as at Messrs. Loddiges' ; and where the end 
is semicircular, a door might be made in it in a similar manner, or with a 
projection brought forward so as to form a porch : the mode represented in fig. 
129 is, however, greatly preferable, as occasioning no obstruction to light. 

484. Ridge and furrow roofs. Roofs formed in the ridge and furrow 
manner, and even glass sashes so formed for pits, were tried by us many 
years ago (Encyc. of Gard. 1st edit.) and the idea has been improved on, 
and applied in the happiest manner, by Mr. Paxton, at Chatsworth ; and 
adopted by Mr. Marnock in the Sheffield Botanic Garden ; Jedediah Strutt, 
Esq., at Belper ; William Harrison, Esq., Cheshunt ; John Allcard, Esq., 
Stratford-green ; and at various other places. The advantages of this descrip- 
tion of roof are : 1. That the roof does not require to be raised so high 
behind, in proportion to its width, as in flat roofs; because the descent of the 
water does not depend on the general slope of the roof, but on the slope of 
the ridges towards the furrows ; and the water in these furrows, being con- 
fined to a naiTow deep channel, and in a larger body than ever it can be on 
the glass, passes along with proportionate rapidity. 2. That the morning 
and afternoon sun, by passing through the glass at right angles, produces 
more light and heat at these times of the day, when they are, of course, 
more wanted than at mid-day. 3. The rays of the sun striking on the house 
at an oblique angle at mid-day, the heat produced in the house at that 
time is less intense than in houses of the ordinary kind, in which it is often 
injurious, by rendering it necessary to admit large quantities of the external 
air to lower the temperature. 4. More light is admitted at all seasons, on 
the principle that a bow window always admits more light to a room than 
a straight window of the same width (283). 5. The panes of glass, if crown 
glass be employed, may be smaller than in houses the roofs of which are in 
one plane, and yet from there being a greater number of them, admit an 
equal quantity of light ; from their smallness, also, they will cost less, 
and be less liable to be broken by the freezing of water between the laps. 
6. By the employment of sheet window-glass, which is much thicker than 
crown-glass, panes of three or four feet in length may be used, so that only 
one pane need be required for each division, and consequently no lap being- 
required, no breakage by frost can take place, and no heated air can escape. 
And 7. That wind will have much less influence in cooling the roof, 
because the sides of the ridges will be sheltered by their summits. Mr. 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 



191 




Paxton, to whom the merit of this mode of roofing is entirely due, 
has also adopted an improvement in the construction of the sash-bar, 
viz., having grooves for the panes instead of rebates (see figs. 130 and 131) ; 
the advantages of which grooves are, 
that less putty is required, and that what 
is used does not so readily separate from 
the wood, and thus admit the wet between 
the wood and the putty. The roofs of 
such houses are entirely fixed, and venti- 
lation is effected either by having the 
perpendicular ends of the ridges moveable 
Fig. 130. section of an O n hinges, or by the front glass and ven- 

! tilatora in the back wal1 - e ex P ense 

of this mode of roofing is doubtless greater 
than by the common flat mode, but not so much so as might 
be expected, because the sash-bar can be formed lighter, and *' e ' n t 

where crown-glass is used the panes may be much smaller, with grooves for the 
For plant-houses the advantage of admitting the sun's # toj - 
rays perpendicularly, early in the morning and late in the afternoon, will 
much more than compensate for any additional expense. In an archi- 
tectural point of view, the merits of this mode of roofing are perhaps as 
great as they are with reference to culture : the roofs being lower, are less 
conspicuous, and the common shed-like appearance is taken away by the 
pediments which form the ends of the ridges, and appear in a range as a 
crowning parapet to the front glass. Indeed, if it were desirable, the tops 
of the ridges might be made perfectly horizontal, and all the slope that was 
necessary for carrying the water from back to front, or to both the sides, 
given in the gutters between the ridges, as is done in roofing common 
buildings of great width. Fig. 132 is a perspective view of a house 





Fig. 132. Perspective vieiv of the original ridge and furroic house at Chatsicorth. 

erected by Mr. Paxton at Chatsworth, and fig. 133 a vertical profile of part 
of two ridges of the roof. It will be observed that the sash-bar is not in a 

o2 



192 



FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 



direction parallel to the pediments, but oblique to it. This is done to pre- 
vent the water from running down on one side of the glass, which it would 
do in consequence of the general slope of the ridge from the back to the 






Fig. 133. Vertical profile of part of a ridge and furrow roof. 

front if the bars were placed at right angles to the ridge. The angle at 
which the bars are fixed will vary with that formed by the slope of the ridge, 
and the mode of determining it, is to place the bars so that the lap of the glass, 
which is in square panes, may form, when the panes are fitted in their places, 
lines truly horizontal. There are many persons, however, who attach no 
great importance to causing the water to run down the middle of the glass 
instead of one side ; and they will, of course, place the bars for holding the 
glass, parallel to the pediments, in order to avoid the short bars at the ends 
of the ridges, as seen in fig. 133. For more minute details respecting this 
mode of construction, we refer to Paoetoris Magazine of Botany, vol. ii. 
p. 80; and Gard. Mag. vol. xx. p. 452, and also for 1841. 

485. The materials used in the construction of plant-houses differ in 
nothing from those used in other buildings, excepting that where as much 
light as possible is required to be admitted, the framework for containing the 
glass is formed of iron or other metal, as supplying the requisite strength 
with less bulk than wood. The proportion of opaque surface of an iron 
roof may be estimated at not more than 7 or 8 per cent., while in a wooden 
roof it is upwards of 20 per cent. ; both roofs being in one plane and of the 
ordinary construction (279 and 281.) Where sheet-glass is employed, and 
the panes made of more than ordinary length and width, as in the large 
conservatory recently erected in the Horticultural Society's garden, the pro- 
portion of light admitted in the case of iron roofs will be found still greater. 
Ridge and furrow roofs, if we take the area of the bases of the ridges as the 
total area of the roof, and then deduct from it the space occupied by the 
bars forming the sides of the ridges, and the ridge-pieces and gutters, will 
not appear to admit the same proportion of light as a roof in one plane ; 
but the practical result will be different, in consequence of the sun's rays 
being twice in the day perpendicular to one half of the roof, the advantage 
of which to the plants will far more than compensate for the obscuration 
produced by the greater proportion of sash-bars, which operating chiefly at 
mid-day and in very hot weather, is rather an advantage than otherwise. 
To prove this, it is necessary first to know the law of the reflection of light 
from glass. 

48G. The law of the reflection of light from glass was calculated by 
Bouguer, a French philosopher, in 1729, and is exhibited by the following 
figures ; the" first line representing the angles of incidence, and the second 
the number of rays reflected, exclusive of decimal parts. 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 193 

Angle of incidence 85, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10, 1. 

Per centage of rays reflected. 50, 41,22, 11, 5, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2. 
Now if we suppose a roof in one plane with the sun shining on it at six 
o'clock in the morning, and at six o'clock in the afternoon, at an angle of 85, 
which would be the case in March and September, fully one half the rays 
which fell on the roof would be reflected ; while, in the case of a ridge and 
furrow roof, if he shone on half the roof, that is on one half of each of the 
ridges, at any angle with a perpendicular not exceeding 30, at the same 
periods, only 2 per cent, of the rays would be reflected. Suppose, then, the 
area of the entire roof taken as one plane to be 100 square yards, and, to 
facilitate calculation, that only 100 rays fell on each yard, then the total 
number which would enter through the roof in one plane would be 50,000, 
while those which would enter through the ridge and furrow roof would be 
99,000, or very nearly double the number. If we compare a roof in one 
plane with the framework in wood, with a similar one with the framework 
of iron, and take the space rendered opaque by the wood at 21 per cent., 
and by the iron at 7 per cent., then the greater number of rays admitted at 
all times by the iron roof over the wooden one will be as three to one. 

487. Iron roofs have been objected to from their somewhat greater 
original expense, from their supposed liability to break glass by contraction 
and expansion, and from the iron being liable to conduct away heat in winter, 
and to become hot to such a degree as to be injurious to the plants in sum- 
mer. With respect to expense, that is, we believe, now considered the chief 
objection ; but though it may be greater at first, yet it is amply compensated 
for by the greater durability of iron houses, when properly constructed, and 
when the iron is never allowed to become rusty for want of paint. As a proof 
of the durability of iron houses, we may refer to the iron Camellia house at 
Messrs. Loddiges', erected in 1818, and the iron houses in the Horticultural 
Society's garden, which were erected, we believe, in 1823. The breakage of 
glass supposed to result from the contraction or expansion of the metal was 
at one time considered a very weighty objection ; but the severe winter of 
1837-8 did not occasion so much broken glass in iron as it did in wooden 
houses. A bar of malleable iron 819 inches in length, at a temperature of 
32, only increases in length one inch, when heated to 21 2 s ; but this differ- 
ence of 180 of temperature is more than plant-houses are liable to ; indeed 
50 or 60 are as much as is necessary to be taken into account. If we sup- 
pose the iron-\vork is fitted at a period of the season when the temperature 
is 55, then 50 lower would be within 5 of zero, and 50 higher would be 
105 ; extremes which the iron roof of a hothouse will seldom exceed. Now, 
according to the above data, a bar ten feet in length would extend or contract, 
by the addition or reduction of 50 of heat, l-25th of an inch as nearly as 
possible. An iron sash-bar, half-an inch thick between the two edges of 
the glass, would not expand in thickness, from 50 of heat, much more than 
one six-thousandth part of an inch. It may easily be conceived, there- 
fore, that the lateral expansion of sash bars, which are in general not quite 
half an inch in thickness, by any heat which they can receive on the roof of 
a hothouse, will never have any effect on the glass between them. To guard 
against all risk of breakage from this cause, however, it is only necessary 
not to fit in the panes too tightly. Indeed, the objection may now be con- 
sidered as given up by all experienced hothouse -builders. The liability of 



194 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

iron to conduct away heat in winter, and to attract too much in summer, is 
also found to be an objection more imaginary than real. It is true that iron, 
from its being a powerful conductor, is liable to undergo sudden changes of 
temperature, which must doubtless render it less congenial to plants that come 
in contact with it than wood or brick ; though plants do not appear to suffer 
when the iron is in small quantities, such as the rods to which vines are 
attached under rafters, wire trellis-work, &c. ; but when the rafters are of 
iron, and when plants are trained round the iron pillars used in supporting 
hothouse roofs, it may readily be conceived that they will be injured by 
them. This will also be the case, more or less, when tender plants are grown 
close under the glass in hotbeds or pits covered with iron sashes. Indeed, 
when we consider the much greater weight of iron sashes than wooden ones, 
and the constant occasion that there is for moving the sashes of pits and 
hotbeds, we would recommend them in most cases to be made of wood. 
The injury done to plants in the open air by iron coming in contact with 
them, can only take place when the iron is of considerable thickness ; because 
we do not find it in the case of cast-iron espalier-rails, or of dahlias, roses, 
and other open-air plants tied to iron stakes. In plant-houses it probably 
takes place after the iron has been highly heated by the sun, and then 
watered, when the chill produced by evaporation will contract the vessels 
and chill the juices. The greatest objections that we know to iron roofs are 
the expense and the difficulty of forming them with sliding sashes, which 
shall not rust in the grooves in which they slide : but this last objection can 
be obviated, either by forming the styles and rails, or outer frame of the 
sash, of wood, and the rafters of iron, or the reverse. In the greater pro- 
portion of plant-houses, however, sliding sashes in the roof may be dispensed 
with, air being admitted during winter through apertures in the upper angle 
of the house in the back wall, or by raising a hinged sash in the upper part 
of the roof; and in the hottest weather in summer, by these and the sliding 
sashes, or other openings in front. The materials used in the interior of 
plant- houses, such as shelves for supporting pots of plants, pathways for 
walking on, walls for enclosing tan or other fermenting matter in pits, are 
bricks, flagstones, slates, wood, and cast-iron. The paths are sometimes 
covered with open gratings of cast-iron, which admit of the soil under them 
being occupied with the roots of vines, climbers, or other plants. Mr. 
Paxton prefers a flooring formed of loose pieces of board laid across the 
path ; each piece as long as the path is wide, and about four inches broad, 
with a one-inch space between. One advantage of this plan is, that the 
dust and other matters lying on the paths when they are swept, descend 
immediately without raising a dust in the house to disfigure the leaves of 
the plants, and encourage the red spider, which dust deposited in the leaves 
is always found to do. 

488. Heat. The natural heat of the locality is retained in plant-structures 
by the roof and sides forming a covering which repels radiation from the 
ground ; and it is increased in them at pleasure, by fermenting substances 
applied within or externally, by the consumption of fuel, and the convey- 
ance of the heat so produced in smoke and hot-air flues, by steam, or by hot 
water in pipes or cisterns. In every mode of supplying heat artificially, the^ 
following desiderata ought to be kept constantly in view : 1. To maintain a 
reservoir of heat which shall keep up a sufficient temperature for at least 






PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 195 

twenty-four hours, under ordinary circumstances, in the event of the supply 
of heat from the consumption of fuel, or the action of the sun, heing discon- 
tinued from neglect or accident, or hy cloudy weather. 2. To provide means 
of speedily increasing the supply of heat, when the sudden lowering of the 
external temperature, or the action of high cold winds, or a cold humid 
atmosphere among the plants, requires it. 3. To provide the means, by an 
adequate surface of flue, or steam, or hot-water pipes, of supplying a suffi- 
ciency of heat in every house, according to the temperature required, not 
merely under the ordinary external temperature, but when that temperature 
shall fall as low as 10, or in situations exposed to very high cold winds to 
zero. 4. To make arrangements for supplying atmospheric moisture in pro- 
portion to the supply of heat, and for withdrawing this moisture at pleasure. 
5. Where no means can be provided for supplying extra heat on extraordi- 
nary occasions, to provide the means of conveniently applying extra external 
coverings for the same purpose. It is proper to remark, that in every plant- 
structure there is a reservoir of heat and of moisture, to a certain extent, in 
the soil in which the plants are grown, whether that soil is in pots or in a 
bed ; and that all the paths, shelves, and other objects within the structure, 
being heated to the proper degree, part with their heat, whenever the air of 
the house falls below the temperature of these objects. This source of heat 
might be considerably increased in houses where there is abundance of room : 
for example, below a greenhouse stage, by placing objects there of moderate 
dimensions and separated from each other ; such as parallel walls of four- 
inch brick- work, flag-stones set on edge two or three inches apart, or slabs 
of slate set on edge one inch apart. These, by presenting a great extent of 
surface, would absorb a powerful reserve of heat, and give it out whenever 
the other sources of heat were defective. 

489. Fermenting substances, such as stable-dung, tanner's bark, leaves, 
&c., are either applied in masses or beds under the soil containing the plants, 
as in the common hotbed ; or in casings or linings exterior to the soil or 
structure to be heated, as in M'Phail's and other pits. A steady reservoir 
of heat is thus provided, and instead of an extra supply for unexpected cold 
nights, extra coverings of bast mats or mats of straw are provided, for re- 
taining heat that would escape through the ordinary covering. An additional 
supply of heat for extra cold weather may also be obtained by different 
means. Where exterior casings of dung are employed, if the heat of the dung 
is admitted through a pigeon-holed wall to an inside flue with thin covers ; 
or if the dung is brought into close contact with thin plates of stone or slate, 
instead of the pigeon-holed wall, which, like the flues, is made to enclose 
the soil containing the plants ; then by keeping a part of these warm surfaces 
generally covered with soil, or with boards, or by any other means which 
shall operate as a non-conductor, when extra heat is wanted unexpectedly, 
all that is necessary is to take off the non-conducting covers. Even in the 
case of a common hotbed, heated only by the bed of dung beneath the plants, 
extra heat may be provided for by bedding a plate of stone, slate, zinc, or 
cast-iron, on the dung, in one or more places of the interior of the frame, 
according to its size, and covering these with boards, supported at the height 
of two inches or three inches above them, so as to enclose a stratum of air, to 
act as a non-conductor ; the sides being closed by a rim previously formed of 
cement, or brick-on-edge,on the stone or slate, or by a rim two or three inches 
deep, cast on the edges of the iron. By taking off the wooden covers, an extra 



196 



FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 



supply of dry heat will immediately be obtained, which may be rendered 
moist at pleasure by pouring on water. Another mode of obtaining an imme- 
diate extra supply of heat from a dung-bed, is, by sinking in it, when first 
made, an iron pipe of three or four inches in diameter, with the two extremi- 
ties turned up, and covered by flower-pot saucers. The length of the tube 
may be nearly equal to that of the bed, and the one end must be sunk a few 
inches deeper than the other, as in fig. 134. It is evident that by taking off 

the corners of this pipe 
there will be a draught 
created in it, in conse- 
quence of its sides being 
heated by the dung ; and 
an extra degree of heat 
will by this means be 
brought into the atmo- 

Fig. 134. Section of a dung-bed, with a tube . air. ^^ Qf ^ ^ y^ 

plan might also be adopted for putting the air of a plant-bed in motion, 
without the admission of the external air. 

490. Fermenting materials and fire-heat combined. In pits and low-forcing 
houses heated chiefly by dung, provision is frequently made for the supply of 
extra heat, by the addition of smoke-flues or hot- water pipes. Fig. 135 is a 





Fig. 135. Pinery' heated by dung linings. 

perspective elevation and section of a house, in which a bed of leaves within 
is heated by a dung lining placed on the outside of a pigeon-holed wall, and 

extra heat is provided for by 
three turns of a flue, one above 
the other, in the back path : 
o, is the pit in which the dung- 
lining is placed and covered 
with a hinged shutter ; 6, the 
surface of the bed of leaves, 
in which pine-apples, or cu- 
cumbers, or melons may be 
grown, or strawberry plants or 
flowers forced; c, door; d, 
flues; e, front pigeon-hole 
wall ; and J\ end pigeon-hole 
wall. Fig. ] 36 shows a mode 
of applying dung under a bed 
of soil without coining in im- 
mediate contact with it, and 
by which no heat whatever 

Fig. 136. Section of a vinery heate* by dung. Pduced by the dung is lost ; 

, is the bed of soil in which 




PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 197 

the vines are planted, and which is supported by cast -iron joists and Welsh 
slates ; and b shows the openings furnished with shutters by which the dung 
is introduced. Beds on the same plan, but wider, have been used for growing 
pine-apples and melons, and for various similar purposes. An extra supply 
of heat from the dung may be obtained by having panels of slate in the inside 
wall, c, to be kept covered by wooden shutters, except when extra heat is 
wanted ; or by tubes, as in fig. 134 ; or it may be rendered unnecessary by 
extra coverings. The first forcing which we read of in the history of British 
gardening was effected, as Switzer informs us, by placing casings of hot 
dung against the north side of walls of boards, against the south side of which 
cherries were trained. 

491. Heating from vaults, or from stacks of flues. The oldest and simplest 
mode of applying fire-heat to hothouses, was by means of a pit in the floor, 
or a vault under it. The vault was of the same length and breadth as the 
floor, with the chimney at one end ; or it occupied a smaller space in the centre 
of the floor, with a stack of flues rising over it, and forming a mass of heated 
material in the body of the house. The fire was of wood and made on the 
floor ; or of charcoal or coal, and made in an open portable iron cage, like that 
used by plumbers, when soldering joints in the open air, with a plate of iron 
over it to act as a reverberator, and prevent the heat from rising directly to 
the roof. The flue by which the smoke escaped had its lower orifice on a 
level with the floor of the vault, so that the air and smoke did not enter it 
until they had parted with most of their heat. These modes are capable of 
great improvement, and in various cases would perhaps be found more eligible 
and economical than any other, by a gardener who is aware of the importance 
of connecting with them an efficient means of supplying atmospheric mois- 
ture : by placing cisterns of water over the hottest part of the floor, or by 
having dripping fountains formed on the syphon principle, by inserting the 
ends of strips of woollen cloth in open vessels of water, and placing these in 
different parts of the house. See on this mode of heating, Mr. Forsyth, in 
Gard. Mag. for 1841. 

492. Flues. As the mode of heating by vaults could only be adopted when 
the plants were to be grown in pots or boxes, as soon as the practice of forcing 
fruit-trees trained against walls, and having their roots in the border or floor 
of the house, was introduced, flues in the wall against which the trees were 
trained, and afterwards detached flues along the front of the house, became 
necessary ; and when these last are properly constructed, and the dry heat 
which they produce is rendered moist by placing water over them, they form a 
convenient and economical mode of heating. The flue is always most efficient 
when carried along the front and ends of the house, because the air imme- 
diately within these is more liable to be cooled by the external air than that 
next the back of the house, the back being generally a wall of brick or stone. 
Where the house is glass on every side, as well as on the roof, the flues will 
be most efficient if carried round it, for obvious reasons ; while the air imme- 
diately under the roof, in every case, will be kept sufficiently warm by the 
natural ascent of the heated air from the flue, in whatever part it may be 
placed ; though when the flues are placed in the lower part of the house, 
there will be a greater circulation than when they are elevated ; and this 
arises from the greater number of particles which must be put in motion by 
the ascent of warm, and the descent of cold air. The quantity of flue 
requisite for heating a house to any required temperature has not been 



198 



FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 



determined. One fire with a flue in front, and a return in the back, 
is generally found sufficient for a greenhouse of thirty feet or forty feet 
in length, and from twelve feet to fifteen feet in width, and two fires, 
one entering at each end, for a stove or forcing-house of similar dimen- 
sions ; the flues in both cases being twenty inches high, and twelve inches 
wide, outside measure. Perhaps one square foot of flue for every two 
feet in length of iron hot- water pipes, found according to the rule given in 
Art. 500, would be a near approximation to the quantity wanted, reckoning 
the top and sides of the flue, but not the bottom. The furnace or fireplace 
from which the flue proceeds should be one or two feet lower than the level 
of the bottom of the flue, in order to assist in creating a draught, as that 
depends on the length and height of the space allowed for the heated air to 
ascend before it is allowed to escape into the atmosphere ; and the flue gene- 
rally terminates on the top of the back wall, for the same reason. The fire- 
place is generally formed behind the back wall for the sake of concealment : 
but when this is not an object, the best situation is at one end of the house, 
in a sunken area, which can be covered with shutters ; because the smoke 
and heat not receiving the check given by a turn in the flue made so near 
the furnace as it must necessarily be when it enters from behind the house, 
the heat is more equally diffused along the front. A very desirable arrange- 
ment for flues, where it is practicable, is to have two from the same furnace, 
with the power of throwing the whole or any part of the smoke and heated 
air into either flue at pleasure, w r hich is easily effected by a damper at the 

throat of the flue, close to 
the furnace, as shown in fig. 
137, in which o, is the upper 
or extra heat flue; &, the 
under or reserve flue; c, 
the damper ; d, the fur- 
nace ; e, the cover to the 
feeding hopper; and/, the 
ash-pit. One of the flues 
should be conducted 
through a solid mass of 
brickwork or masonry, or 
through a box or bed of 
sand, in order to produce 
a reservoir of heat ; and 
the other flue should have 



as thin covers and sides, and 
Fig. 137. Section of a furnace and double flue. j,e quite detached, in order 

to furnish an extra supply of heat, when the external air suddenly became 
much colder than usual, or at particular times to dispel damp, &c. Both 
flues ought to be near the front of the house, and, in most cases, the one 
might be over the other. Wherever flues are sunk below the level of the 
floor, they will be found to give out their heat very slowly ; or, if given out, 
to lose it in the adjoining ground, from the want of a current of air to carry 
it off. But this may generally be supplied by underground cross drains, as 
in fig. 138, in which g is the floor of the house ; A, the reservoir flue, three 
feet broad, which is sunk so that its top is on a level with the floor ; ?', an air- 
drain from the back of the house ; fr, an upper flue for additional heat ; /, 




PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 



199 




Fig. 138. Section of a greenhouse, with reserve flue and 
common flue. 



front path ; w, front shelf; n, stage ; and o, path on the upper part of the 
stage for watering the plants. 

493. The best materials 
for building flues are bricks 
and paving tiles, the latter 
for the bottom and top, and 
the former for the sides. 
The advantages of bricks 
over stone are their greater 
adhesion to the mortar 
their narrowness, by which 
little space is occupied, and 
their being greater non-con- 
ductors than stone, by which 
means the heat is more 
equalised throughout the 
length of the flue than it 
would be by the use of that 
material. A slight disad- 
vantage attending the use of bricks and tiles arises from the earth of which 
they are made ; clay absorbing and entering into chemical combination with 
the moisture of the atmosphere, especially when the latter is at a high tem- 
perature. This evil, however, can always be counteracted by placing water 
over the flues, or in some other hot part of the house. For this purpose, the 
covers of flues, whether of tiles or stone, ought to be made with sunk panels 
to contain water ; or, what is much better, a shallow cistern of iron, lead, 
or zinc, as in fig. 139, may be placed over them for the same purpose. In 
Germany the flues are sometimes entirely covered with plates of cast-iron ; 
and if these were formed with turned-up edges, they would serve at 
once as covers and cisterns. Flues are always detached from the ground, 
by being built on piers, either connected by low flat arches, or so close 
together as to be joined by the square tiles which form the floor of the flue. 
Neither the inside of the flue nor its outside ought to be plastered, when 
it is desired that they should give out a maximum of heat at a mini- 
mum of distance from the furnace ; but when the flue is to be of great 
length, plastering either in the inside or outside, or both, by rendering the 
walls of the flue greater non-conductors, tends to equalise the heat given 
out. Plastering is also useful to prevent the escape of smoke from the 
joints, which is liable to take place where the materials and workmanship 
are not of the best quality, and to prevent the absorption of moisture by the 
bricks. Narrow flues are preferable to broad ones, as occupying less hori- 
zontal space in the house, and also because as flues part with their heat 
chiefly from their upper surface, it is better equalised by a narrow flue than 
a broad one. Hence also narrow, deep flues are found to " draw" better 
than broad, shallow ones. The ordinary dimensions of narrow flues are eight 
inches in width, and fifteen inches in depth, which is formed by tiles one foot 
square for the bottom, and ten inches square for the covers, and three paving- 
bricks, which are only two inches thick, on edge, for each of the sides, as in 
fig. 139. The joints of the sides and covers are formed by lime putt}", and 
the bottom tiles are set on bricks on edge. In fig. 139, a is the brick on 
edge, which supports the one-foot tile ft, which forms the bottom of the flue ; 




200 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

c is the smoke chamber, and d the zinc cistern, over the ten-inch tile cover. 
The inside plastering should be of the best mortar, mixed 
with lime, but without sand, as being less liable to crack. 
494. The furnace, when built in the usual manner, 

/ [^ j\ should have double iron doors to prevent the escape of 

heat; and the fuel- chamber should be about double 
the area of that portion of it which is occupied by the 
bars or grate, in order that the fuel not immediately 
over the grate may burn slowly. A damper in some 
accessible part of the flue, and as close to the furnace as 
is practicable, affords a convenient means of regulating 
the draught ; and there ought always to be a register 
valve in the ash-pit door for the same purpose. Where 
cinders, coke, or anthracite coal only are burnt, no hori- 
zontal opening to the grate containing the fuel is neces- 
sary. It may be put in by an opening at the top, as in 
fig. 137, which will contain a supply for any length of 
time, according to the height and width of the opening' 
and the bars of the grate can be freed from ashes by a 

Fig. 139. Section of a com- hooked poker applied from the ash-pit. By this kind of 

line cistern*, llrit^ construction less lieat is l st than V anv other. Indeed, 
this kind of fireplace, with a reserve flue, will be found 
by far the most economical mode of heating hothouses ; but it will not answer 
where the practice is to depend on the sudden action of the flue, which is pro- 
duced by stirring up the fuel : in lieu of this, the damper must be drawn so 
as to admit the heated current into the extra heat flue. Whatever may be 
the construction of the furnace, no air ought ever to be admitted to the fire, 
excepting through the grating below it ; because air admitted over the fuel 
can serve no purpose excepting that of cooling the flue ; unless in very rare 
instances, where it might assist in consuming the smoke. Where this 
object is a desideratum, Witty's smoke-consuming furnace, described in 
Gard. Mag. vol. vii. p. 483, which roasts or cokes the coal, before it is put on 
the fire, may be had recourse to. This and various other details, however, 
must be left to the bricklayer or mason employed. All flues ought to have 
flag-stones of the width and height of the interior of the flue, or iron doors 
built into them at the extremities of each straight -lined portion, which may 
readily be taken out or opened in order to free the flue from soot ; an opera- 
tion which will require to be performed at least once a year in all houses, 
and in stoves twice a year, or oftener, according to the kind of fuel used. 

495. As substitutes for smoke-flues, earthenware pipes, or can- flues, as they 
are called, have long been in use in Holland and France ; and as the fuel 
used in these countries is almost always wood, which produces little soot in 
comparison with coal, they are found to answer as perfectly as brick flues. 
When they are only occasionally employed, the entire surface of the pipes 
is exposed ; but when they are used constantly, as in houses for tropical 
plants, they are embedded in a casing of dry sand, which forms a reservoir 
of heat capable of being increased to any extent, even to that of the entire 
floor of the house, over which a flooring for plants may be placed. Pipes 
of this kind might also be conducted through a bed of small stones, so as 
to form a very effective mass of heated material as a reservoir, while a portion 
of naked pipe might serve for raising the temperature on occasions of extra- 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 201 

ordinary cold. In country situations, where wood for burning is not very 
dear, or where coke from coal could be readily obtained, can-flues might be 
economically employed for drying up the cold damp of greenhouses, and for 
a variety of purposes. We have said more on the subject of smoke-flues 
than may be thought necessary at the present time, when they are being 
so generally substituted by hot -water pipee ; but our object is to prevent our 
readers from being so completely prejudiced against flues as not to have re- 
course to them in particular situations and circumstances. The principal 
reason why so much has been said against smoke-flues is, that gardeners 
till lately were not fully aware of the importance of supplying moisture to 
the atmosphere of plant-houses in proportion to the supply of heat, and of 
having reserve flues, in consequence of which excessive heat would not be- 
come so frequently requisite, and noxious gases would have less chance of 
being driven through the top and sides of the flue into the atmosphere of 
the house. 

496. Steam was the first substitute for flues employed in this country ; 
and, under some circumstances, it may deserve a preference to either flues 
or hot water. For example, where the heating apparatus must necessarily 
be at a great distance from the structure to be heated, steam can be con- 
ducted to it in a tube not more than an inch or two in diameter, which may 
be so encased in non-conducting matter as to occasion far less loss of heat 
than if either smoke or hot water were employed. The disadvantages 
attending the use of steam in ordinary cases are, the necessity of heating the 
water to the boiling-point, by which more heat is driven up the chimney 
and lost than if the water were raised to only half that temperature, and 
the want of a reservoir of heat when the steam is not in action. The last 
disadvantage has been supplied by passing the steam-pipes through brick 
flues filled with stones, through pits or other large masses of stones, or 
through tubes, cisterns, or tanks of water. By arrangements of this kind, 
steam can be made both to supply heat permanently and expeditiously. 
The various details of these modes of heating by steam will be found in 
the Gard. Mag. vols. viii. and ix. ; and in the Encyc. of Gard. edit. 1832, 
p. 593. 

497. Hot water is the medium of heating plant-structures now generally 
adopted, and it is without dispute far preferable to any of the preceding 
modes. Water is such an excellent carrier of heat, that a house warmed by 
hot- water pipes is not hotter at one end than at the other, which is almost 
always the case when smoke-flues are employed : none of the heat which the 
water derives from the fuel is lost, as in the case of flues, which when coated 
internally with soot convey a great part of the heat out at the chimney-top ; 
no sulphureous or other disagreeable effluvium is ever given out by hot-water 
pipes when they become leaky, as is the case with flues when they are not 
air-tight ; and the hot water in the pipes serves as a reservoir of heat when the 
fire goes out ; but smoke-flues, when the fire goes out, are rapidly cooled from 
within by the current of cold air which necessarily rushes through them 
till it has reduced the temperature of their tops and sides to that of the 
open air. Whether heating by hot water is more economical than heating 
by smoke flues, will depend chiefly on the kind of apparatus employed ; but 
in general we should say that it was not attended with any advantages of 
this kind. Mr. Rogers is of opinion that with a well- constructed and well- 
managed apparatus, the saving of fuel may amount to 25 per cent, over well- 



FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

constructed and well-managed flues ; but he allows that in a large pro- 
portion of the hot-water apparatus now in use the consumption of fuel 
greatly exceeds that of common furnaces. The cause of the circulation of 
water in pipes is the same as that which produces the ascent of the air in 
flues, viz. : difference of specific gravity produced by heat. In water, the 
particles at the bottom of the boiler being heated, become lighter and rise 
to the surface, while their place is taken by cold particles from the water 
in the boiler itself, or in the pipes that communicate with it, which are 
heated in their turn and ascend to the surface of the water in the boiler 
and the surface of that in the upper pipe. In like manner, the air heated 
by the consumption of the fuel in the furnace becomes lighter, and ascends 
along the flue, while its place among the fuel is supplied by cool air, which 
enters through the grating beneath it to supply combustion. Neither air 
nor water will move along readily in very small flues or pipes : for smoke- 
flues seven inches by ten inches are the smallest dimensions, and hot water 
does not circulate so rapidly in pipes under two inches in diameter as to 
give out heat equally throughout their whole length. 

498. The modes of heating by hot water are very numerous, and it would 
occupy too much room in this work to enter into a detailed description of 
them, which however is the less necessary as the best modes are sufficiently 
known for all ordinary purposes by most ironmongers ; and those who wish 
to make themselves masters of the subject will have recourse to Hood's 
Practical Treatise on Warming Buildings by Hot Water, published in 1837. 
The simplest form of applying this mode of heating is by having one 
boiler to each house in a recess in the back wall, or in some other situation 
where it will be out of the way, and an upper or flow-pipe proceeding from 
it on a level with an under or return-pipe, also on a level. Fig. 140 will 

give an idea of this mode 

jjjjj^^ O f circulation, a repre- 

JPP^pFJ^f^m-^^^ senting the boiler, b a 

Fig. 140. A hot-water apparatus for circulation on a level. cistern at the extreme 

end of the house to serve as a reservoir, and e the flue and return-pipes. 
When the water is to be circulated in pipes on different levels, or above 
the level of the boiler, or in different levels, but never below the level 




14-2 



Fig. 141. Boiler and furnace for heating by hot water in rising and falling pipes. 
Fig. 142. Apparatus for circulating water below and above the level of the boiler. 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 203 

of the bottom of the boiler, then a closed boiler is requisite ; or one open, 
but carried to a height equal to that of the highest point in the line 
of the pipes, as in fig. 141 ; and when water is to be circulated below the 
level of the boiler, a closed boiler with particular arrangements (see 
Hood's Treatise, figs. 10 and 11, pp. 44, 45) may be employed, or the form 
of open boiler shown in fig. 142 may be resorted to. In this figure, a repre- 
sents the boiler, b an open cistern at its top, in which the orifice of the 
heating-pipe terminates. Now it is obvious that when the water passes 
from the orifice of the boiler into the orifice of the pipe, the circulation 
must go on from the difference in the specific gravity between the water in 
the pipe at c, and that at d, provided that a small open pipe be placed at e, 
to admit of the escape of the air which will accumulate in that part of the 
pipe. Hot water has also been circulated on the syphon principle with 
great success by Mr. Kewley ; the advantage of which mode is, the rapid 
communication of heat along the whole length of the pipe, in consequence 
of which it is never necessary to raise the water in the boiler to so high a 
temperature as by any of the other modes ; and hence this mode of heating 
is the most economical of all in the consumption of fuel. Fig. 143 will give 
a correct idea of the 
system: ac e repre- 
sent the two legs of 
the syphon ; the up- 




per leg Commencing Fi - 143 - $yP h de "f circulating hot water. 

at c, being that through which the heated water ascends, and the lower leg 
being that by which it returns. The disadvantage of this system is, that 
after the pipes have been some time in use, they become leaky, and the 
slightest leak, by admitting the air, instantly empties the syphon ; nor is the 
leak easily discovered afterwards. The syphon mode of heating, were it not 
for this disadvantage, would deserve the preference over every other. Hot 
water has also been circulated in hermetically-sealed pipes by Perkins ; but 
this mode is attended with great danger, and the heat produced is much too 
high for the plants. All these, and other modes of heating, will be found 
impartially examined in Hood's Treatise. 

499. A reservoir of heat is very readily formed in heating by hot water, 
whatever may be the kind of apparatus adopted, by placing a cistern or 
series of cisterns at different parts of the house, either close to or at any 
convenient distance from the water-pipes, and connected with them by 
smaller pipes, having stop-cocks to interrupt the connexion at pleasure. 
When it is desired to heat the house with as little loss of time as possible, 
all connexion between the pipes and the reservoirs should be cut off by 
turning the stop -cocks ; and as the house becomes sufficiently heated, the 
connexion ought to be restored by opening the upper and under stop- cock 
of one cistern at a time. In some cases, the cistern might be a long trough 
about the bulk of a common flue, placed parallel with and close to the 

pipe, as in fig. 
144, in which 
a is the pipe, 

b the cistern, 

^ ; * and c the con- 

Fig. 144. Hot-water pipe, and reserve cistern of hot u-ntar. nectin " pipCS 

with stop-cocks. Fig. 145 is a cross section of the pipes and reserve cistern, 



204 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

which requires no explanation. Where the circulating pipes are below the 
level of the floor of the house, and where there is to be 
a raised pit for containing plants, a tank or cistern might 
be formed under it of the length and width of the pit, and 
of a depth equal to the distance between the upper and 
lower heating-pipes ; and with this tank the pipes might 



rig 145. Sedion of communicate by means of stop-cocks; so that whenever 

reserve cistern and there was more heat in the pipes than was wanted for heat- 

hot-water pipes. j n g ^he a j r O f the house, it could be transferred to the 

reservoir tank. To save the expense of stop-cocks where the cisterns could 

be wholly or partially uncovered, the orifices of the connecting pipes might 

be stopped by plugs ; and when the reservoir tank is above the level of the 

heating-pipes, the connexion between them might be made by means of 

syphons with stop-cocks. 

600. The pipes employed are generally of cast-iron, and round, as being 
more conveniently cast ; but any other metal and form will answer ; and 
when there is no great pressure on the pipes earthenware may be used, the 
joints being made good with cement ; and at the angles, where elbow-joints 
would be necessary, small cisterns could be employed, or elbows of earthen- 
ware might be made on purpose. For obtaining a large heating surface, flat 
cast-iron pipes have been used in some cases, placed vertically, and in 
others horizontally ; but round pipes of four inches in diameter are in 
most general use. When the object is to obtain a supply of heat in the 
shortest time, then the boiler and pipes should be of small capacity; 
and this is generally desirable in the case of greenhouses, where heat is 
occasionally wanted for a few hours in damp weather, not for the sake of 
raising the temperature, but for drying up cold damp : nevertheless, even in 
greenhouses it is desirable to have a reservoir of heat for supplies in very 
severe weather. In stoves in which fire-heat is employed the greater part 
of the year, both boiler and pipes may be of large capacity ; and this should 
also be the case in early forcing -houses. Whatever mode of heating or kind of 
pipes may be adopted, the pipes should always have a gradual ascent from the 
place where they enter the house, or are intended firstto give out heat, towards 
the farther extremity; otherwise, the circulation will be less rapid, and conse- 
quently the heat less equally distributed. The quantity of pipe required to 
heat any house depends on various circumstances ; such as the form and con- 
struction of the house, the temperature that is to be kept up in it, and the 
temperature of the external air. Various calculations have been made on the 
subject by different engineers, and more especially by Mr. Hood, who says, 
" It may be taken as an invariable rule, that in no case should pipes of a 
greater diameter than four inches be used, because, when they are of a larger 
size than this, the quantity of water they contain is so considerable, that it 
makes a great difference in the cost of fuel, in consequence of the increased 
length of time it will require to heat them, which is four and a half hours 
for four-inch pipes, three and a quarter hours for three-inch pipes, and two 
and a quarter hours for two-inch pipes, supposing the water to be at 40 be- 
fore lighting the fire, and the temperature to which the water was raised, 200. 
Pipes of two or three inches diameter therefore are to be preferred from green- 
houses, conservatories which only require fire-heat to be applied occasionally." 
After calculating the loss of heat from exposed surfaces of glass under dif- 
ferent circumstances and situations, Mr. Hood gives the following rules for 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 205 

determining the quantity of pipe as a sufficient approximation for ordinary 
purposes : " In churches and very large public rooms, which have only 
about an average number of doors and windows, and moderate ventilation, 
by taking the cubic measurement of the room, and dividing the number thus 
obtained by 200, the quotient will be the number of feet in length of pipe," 
four inches in diameter, which will be required to obtain a temperature of 
about 55 to 58. For smaller rooms, dwelling-houses, &c., the cubic mea- 
surement should be divided by 150, which will give the number of feet of 
four-inch pipe. For greenhouses, conservatories, and such-like buildings, 
where the temperature is required to be kept at about 60, dividing the cubic 
measurement of the building by 30, will give the required quantity of 
pipe ; and for forcing-houses, where it is desired to keep the temperature 
at 70 to 75, we must divide the cubic measurement of the house by 20 ; but 
if the temperature be required as high as 75 to 80, then we must divide by 
18 to obtain the number of feet of four- inch pipe. If the pipes are to be 
three inches diameter, then we must add one-third to the quantity thus ob- 
tained ; and if two-inch pipes are to be used, we must take double the length 
of four-inch pipe. 

" The quantity of pipe estimated in this way will only suit for such places 
as are built quite on the usual plan." (Treatise, <^c., p. 125.) The above 
calculations for heating are made on the supposition that the lowest external 
temperature will be 10 ; but in situations " exposed to high winds, it will 
be prudent," Mr. Hood observes, " to calculate the external temperature 
from zero, or even below that, according to circumstances ; and in very warm 
and sheltered situations, a less range in the temperature will be sufficient." 
Local circumstances, therefore, may require from 5 to 10 per cent, to be 
added to, or deducted from, the length of pipe found according to the fore- 
going rules. As a proof of the soundness of Mr. Hood's calculation, we may 
state that the great stove at Chatsworth is heated at the rate of one super- 
ficial foot of heated pipe to thirty cubic feet of air; and the temperature kept 
up during the severest weather of the winter of 1840-41, was 60", though 
there were frequently from 20 to 35 of frost during the night. This house 
is sixty feet high, with glass on all sides, exposing a surface of 60,000 feet, 
and enclosing 1,050,000 cubic feet of air. The quantity of coal consumed 
was about two tons per night. (Gard. Chron. April 17, 1841, p. 243.) 

501. The situation in which the pipes are placed is, in general, what we have 
stated to be that most suitable for smoke flues, (492), viz., along the front 
and ends of houses placed against a back wall, and entirely round, detached, 
or span-roofed houses. In the case of pits or frames with flat roofs, the pipes 
may be either placed in front or in the middle, always bearing in mind 
that heated air ascends, and that the quantity heated in a given time, will, 
all other circumstances being alike, depend on a regular supply to the 
heating body, by a current distinct from that by which the heated air 
escapes. Such a current is formed by the cross drains adopted by Mr. Penn, 
and exhibited in various other sections of plant-structures given in this work. 
For the same reason it is desirable, when practicable, and under certain circum- 
stances, to confine the pipes on each side, so that the air which passes up among 
them may not escape without being heated. To illustrate the effect of this 
arrangement, W T C may take Perkins's double boiler, and compare it with the 
common boiler. It would not occur to any person who had not reflected on 
the subject, that water could be boiled any sooner in one boiler than another, 




206 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

both boilers being of the same dimensions, made of the same material, set in 
the same manner, and with a fire beneath them of the same power. Yet 
such is the case ; and this exactly on the same principle that we recommend 
confining the sides of hot- water pipes, and supplying the air to be heated from 
a distinct channel. Suppose we have a common boiler, such as is used in 
common wash-houses, then place another boiler within it, of such a size as to 
leave only a few inches between the inner boiler and the outer boiler all 
round, and support it in this position by stays, as shown in fig. 146 ; let this 
inner boiler have a hole in its bottom about one- 
third of its diameter, and let its rim be two inches 
below the level of the water to be heated. These 
arrangements being made, and the heat applied 
below, a circulation instantly takes place and con- 
tinues, the water coming into contact with the 
heated bottom and sides of the outer boiler, rising 

Fig. 146. Perkins s double boiler. 

rapidly to the surface, and descending through the 

inner boiler, which thus necessarily contains the coldest portion of the 
liquid. (Gardener's Magazine, vol. xvi. page 325.) The heat commu- 
nicated by the fire to the bottom and sides of the outer boiler, is rapidly 
carried off by the current that is created, exactly on the same principle 
that wind, which is a current of air, cools any body exposed to it more 
rapidly than air at the same temperature but quite still. The under-ground 
drains should either have vacuities at the sides and over the top to prevent 
them from absorbing much heat, or they may be carried through the 
bottom of the tan- pit, where there is one. In general, we would not cover 
the heating-pipes, nor would we adopt the upright tubes which Mr. Penn 
originally used, but has since dispensed with. There may be situations and 
circumstances where it would be more desirable to have the heat of the pipes 
or flues carried off by radiation with the usual degree of slowness rather than 
by conduction ; such, for example, as when the attendant on the hothouse was 
likely to be a long time absent, or when some danger from overheating was 
anticipated ; and this can always be attained by covering the orifices by which 
the air enters to the cross drains. It is proper to state, that at the present 
time the opinions of a number of persons are against the use of air as a car- 
rier of heat in hothouses, on account, they say, of the difficulty of maintaining 
it in exactly the proper state of moisture. This, however, can be effected with- 
out difficulty, by keeping the bottoms of the cross-drains covered with water, 
or by having cisterns of water over the pipes, or both. A few years' experi- 
ence is probably required to set the matter at rest ; in the mean time, the 
reader who wishes to examine both sides of the question, may consult the 
Gard.Mag. for 1840-41, and the Gard. C/tron., more especially an article by 
Mr. Ainger, April 3d, page 212. Our opinion is, that the power of producing 
motion in the air, even though it should be only wanted occasionally, and 
obtainable at an extra expense of heat, is of so much value for setting blos- 
soms, equalizing heat and moisture in some cases, drying up damp in others, 
or producing a feeling of coolness, that no plant-structure of large dimensions, 
and where fire heat is employed, ought to be without it. To explain the 
manner in which the motion of heated air in hothouses produces a sensation 
of coolness, without being altered in its temperature, we make the following 
quotation from Lardner's Cyclopedia : " The air which surrounds us is 
generally at a lower temperature than that of the body. If the air be calm 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 207 

and still, the particles which are in immediate contact with the skin acquire 
the temperature of the skin itself, and having a sort of molecular attraction, 
they adhere to the skin in the same manner as particles of air are found to 
adhere to the surface of glass in philosophical experiments. Thus sticking^ 
to the skin, they form a sort of warm covering for it, and speedily acquire 
its temperature." Agitation of the air, however, ' continually expels the 
particles thus in contact with the skin, and brings new particles into that 
situation. Each particle of air, as it strikes the skin, takes heat from it by 
contact, and being driven off, carries that heat with it, thus producing a 
constant sensation of refreshing coolness." 

502. The boiler for heating by hot water need never be large, because no 
advantage is gained by having a large quantity of water in it, further than 
that of acting as a reservoir, which will be more conveniently and economi- 
cally placed within the house. A boiler of small capacity, and with a large 
superficies for the fire to act on, will be the most economical in first cost, and 
also in fuel. " The extent of surface which a boiler ought to expose to the 
fire should be proportional to the quantity of pipe that is required to be 
heated by it ; " and Mr. Hood has calculated a table, which, like various 
others in his excellent work, will be referred to by the intelligent inquirer, 
or by the gardener who intends to direct the construction and putting up of 
his own heating apparatus. By this table it appears : 

That 3^ square feet of surface of boiler exposed to the fire will heat 200 
feet of 4-inch pipe ; or 266 feet of 3-inch pipe ; or 400 feet of 2-inch pipe. 

That 7 square feet of surface of boiler will heat 400 feet of 4-inch pipe ; 
533 feet of 3-inch pipe ; and 800 feet of 2-inch pipe ; and so on in the same 
ratio. 

" A small apparatus," Mr. Hood observes, " ought perhaps to have rather 
more surface of boiler, in proportion to the length of pipe, than a larger one ; 
as the fire is less intense, and bums to less advantage, in a small than in a 
large furnace." (p. 71 .) 

503. The furnace, for a hot- water apparatus has also been subjected to 
calculation by Mr. Hood. For generating steam, an extremely brisk fire 
and rapid draught are required ; but a very moderate draught will suffice 
for heating a boiler where the temperature of the water is rarely required 
to be above 180 or at most 200. The following observations on the con- 
struction and management of furnaces are valuable both with respect to a 
hot water apparatus and the furnaces to common smoke flues. " The heat 
should be confined within the furnace as much as possible, by contracting 
the farther end of it, at the part called the throat, so as to allow only a 
small space for the smoke and inflamed gases to pass out. The only entrance 
for the air should be through the bars of the grate, and the heated gaseous 
matter will then pass directly upward to the bottom of the boiler, which will 
act as a reverberator, and cause a more perfect combustion of the fuel than 
would otherwise take place. The lightness of the heated gaseous matter 
causes it to ascend the flue, forcing its passage through the throat of the 
furnace with a velocity proportional to the smallness of the passage, the 
vertical height of the chimney, and the levity of the gases, arising from 
their expansion by the heat of the furnace." (p. 7,7.) After giving a table 
of the area of bars required for pipes of different dimensions and lengths, 
Mr. Hood observes : " In order to make the fire burn for a longtime without 
attention, the furnace should extend beyond the bars both in length and 



208 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

breadth ; and the coals which are placed on this blank part of the furnace, 
in consequence of receiving no air from below will burn very slowly, and 
will only enter into complete combustion when the coal which lies directly 
on the bars has burnt away." (p. 80.) 

504. Rogers s Conical Boiler and Hot-water Apparatus is believed to be 
the most perfect and generally applicable in the case of houses of moderate 
dimensions that has yet been invented, and as such we shall describe it 
somewhat in detail. It is the result of a series of experiments made by 
John Rogers, jun. Esq., F.R.S., &c., with the assistance of Mr. Shewin, iron- 
monger, Sevenoaks, Kent, who manufactures the apparatus for sale. The 
boiler was originally formed of tinned iron, afterwards of copper, and lastly 
it was cast in iron in one piece. 

Fig. 147 is a front view of the boiler as at present constructed in cast-iron. 
The interior, a sugarloaf-shaped cone (indi- 
cated by the dotted lines), being the furnace, 
which is filled with fuel through its upper 
orifice, a. A circular fire-grate is fixed just 
within the bottom of the boiler ; and the 
aperture &, seen in front, is intended solely 
to remove clinkers which may form, or fuel 
when the fire is extinguished ; at other times 
it is closed with a fire-brick plug, and should 
never be opened except when absolutely ne- 
cessary. For a side view of the boiler see 
fig. 150, where it is represented as attached 
to a range of pipe ; / and r are the flow and 
return pipes, and d a flange for examining 
and cleaning the boiler when necessary. 
Into this flange is fixed a small pipe, which, 
being connected upwards with the supply 
cistern e, and downwards with the cock or 
tap A, serves to fill and empty the apparatus. 
The supply cistern e acts also as an expansion cistern, to receive the volume 
of water increased by heat. 

Fig. 148 shows the most convenient mode of setting the above, exhibited by 



r- 




Fig. 147. Rogers'* conical boile 





Fig. 148. Mode of setting Rogers'* conical toiler. 

a front view. A solid base being built with an aperture in its centre open to 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 



209 



the front, as high as the desired depth of the ash-pit, the boiler is fixed upon 
it, and the brick-work carried up to its lower flange or rim. The side -walls 
should then be raised, in four-inch work, level with the top of the boiler, as 
represented in fig. 148 : a is the ash-pit, b the boiler, c the aperture in front 
of the boiler, closed with fire-brick, e e and d d two bars, one supporting the 
fire-brick plug, and the other fitting to the rim of the boiler to support a slate 
which closes the front as in fig. 149 ; ff, fig. 148, is the chamber around the 
boiler, filled with sawdust as a non-conductor of heat ; and a layer of saw- 
dust extends over the top of the boiler, under the slate slab g g, which is fitted 
over the brickwork, an aperture being cut in it to allow the throat of the fur- 
nace to pass through. 

Fig. 149 gives the same view farther completed : the front of the chamber 

is closed with a slab of slate, and on the slab 
which covers the boiler is erected a chimney, 
having a feeding- door, through which fuel 
is supplied, placed in its sloping face directly 
over the mouth of the furnace. This chim- 
ney must not exceed four or five feet in 
height, and its area must in no case exceed 
the area of the mouth of the furnace. That 
here represented, viz., a brick base, with a 
piece of four- inch iron pipe about three feet 
in length, will probably be found most con- 
venient, unless a moveable chimney be pre- 
ferred. This chimney should be fitted with 
a damper just below the iron part, to give 
greater command of the draught. The 
aperture of the boiler, which is closed with 
fire-brick, and the front of the ash-pit, 
should also be closed by a* door or blower, 
having a regulator to admit or exclude 
draught. A blower is preferable to a door, 
as hinges are always liable to rust, and 
then break or strain ; and it is important to 
be able to close the ash-pit pretty accu- 
rately. 

Fig. 149. Rogers'* toiler set, with the chim- Fig. 150 shows the relative position of 
ncy added ' the boiler and pipes, and the mode of at- 

taching and arranging them. In the first place, the whole of the pipes 
should, if possible, be above the boiler. One foot is sufficient, but when con- 
venient, the higher the better. When two or three-inch pipe is employed, 
the pipes may rise uniformly about one inch in twenty feet, from a and 6 to 
c; on which, being thus the highest point of the pipes, an air-cock is placed. 
But if four-inch pipes be employed, it is better that a should be the highest 
point, and the air-cock placed there ; and that the pipes should fall uniformly 
one inch in twenty feet from a to c, and from o to b : indeed this is generally 
the best arrangement, where not inconvenient. From b the return-pipe, r, 
should descend either perpendicularly, or with as steep an inclination as pos- 
sible, to the bottom of the boiler. The supply cistern, e, must be so placed 
that its bottom is not lower than the highest point of the pipes. The top of 
the steam-valve, v, should be level with the top of the supply cistern. Just 




210 



FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 



below the valve, on the steam- pipe, may be fixed a small cock, fr, connected 
with a pipe laid into the house, by which, whenever the water boils, the house 




s. ,. f . 


/" 

1 = 


lUL 


*"? 




150 151 

Fig. 150. Rogers'* boiler, with the healing-pipe joined to it. 
Fig. 151. Rogert's iubslitute for a stop-cock. 

may be steamed. In small apartments this will happen pretty frequently, but 
in large houses, in order to insure this advantage, a stopcock or sluice should 
be placed on the flow-pipe, /, by which, the circulation being intercepted, the 
water in the boiler may at any time be raised to the boiling point in a few 
minutes. 

Fig. 151 represents a contrivance which is not liable to any of the defects 
of stopcocks, which impedes the circulation less than any except large sluices, 
and which is comparatively unexpensive. The hollow plug g, fig. 151, is 
fitted with a valve, perfectly watertight. This valve is opened and shut by 
the handle sliding through a stuffing-box in the end of the plug. By closing 
it the gardener may at any time cause the water in the boiler to boil, when, 
by opening the cock A 1 , he admits as much steam to the house as may be de- 
sired. A small pewter pipe, three-eighths of an inch in diameter, is suffi- 
ciently large to conduct steam into the house ; and its flexibility renders it 
very convenient. Where this arrangement is adopted, the supply- cistern 
mnst be larger than is otherwise necessary, and should contain ten or twelve 
gallons. The steam-pipe, also, should be placed on the top of the boiler, and 
be of sufficient diameter to allow the water and steam to separate, that the 
former may not be blown out through the pipe along with the steam ; and 
the valve should be loaded with a few ounces of lead. 

Fig. 152 exhibits the apparatus, with the addition of a reservoir; this in 
small pits is very desirable. The letters indicate the same objects as in fig. 
150, except w, the reservoir, which may be formed of thin copper in the form 
of a cylinder, and should be packed in a wooden or brick case, in sand or saw- 
dust, which supports its shape, protects it from accident, and prevents the 
heat from escaping. All the communication pipes in this case may be of 
lead, and fitted with union joints, which renders the fitting exceedingly easy. 
In Mr. Rogers's apparatus a lead pipe of an inch and a quarter in diameter 
supplies forty feet of radiating surface, and his reservoir contains about four 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 



211 



times as much as the pipes. Reservoirs may be made of iron, but, though 
rather less expensive, they are so heavy and unwieldy that they could hardly 




/ _ -^ 



Fig. 152. Rogers's hot-water reservoir. 



be used ; and the expense of attaching the pipes would greatly exceed the 
cost of copper. Mr. Rogers has a seventy-two gallon reservoir, a cylinder 
four feet long by two feet in diameter, which cost complete, with two one- 
fourth-inch union joints, 5. 5s. 

The foregoing directions will enable any intelligent gardener to plan and 
put up an apparatus.for himself. 

It remains to say something respecting fuel : any sort except wood and 
caking coal may be employed. The best of all is anthracite or Welsh coal, 
but a little coke is necessary to light it ; the next best is coke ; and next to 
this, cinders. Mr. Rogers arranges them thus, in the order of their strength ; 
but for ordinary purposes no thing is better than cinders nay, even coke breeze, 
or small refuse coke, the value of which is next to nothing, may be burnt in 
these furnaces, but in that case they require eight or ten feet of chimney. 
Where it is required to produce strong heat rapidly, coke must be employed ; 
but it is not a good fuel to maintain heat, as it allows too much draught, and 
burns away. Welsh coal has not this fault, and is a very durable fuel, 
peculiarly well suited to these boilers. When the fire is first lighted it should 
be allowed to burn brisk and clear, till the fuel in the bottom is well ignited; 
it may then be filled up to the throat of the furnace, when it will last through 
the night. In filling, care, of course, must be taken that the fuel is not so 
small and dusty as to stop the draught. Where cinders are used they should 
be well sifted. The proper management of these boilers may be best secured 
by explaining the principle upon which they are constructed. As fuel can- 
not be consumed without air, if a furnace be constructed of considerable 
depth, and filled with fuel, and air be admitted only at the bottom, that fuel 
alone is consumed which lies immediately on the bars, and first receives the 
draught of air. The fuel above, provided it transmits the air, becomes red- 
hot, or nearly so, but does not consume until that below it is destroyed. In 
this manner, one of these conical furnaces being lighted and filled with fuel, 
that portion in the upper part of the furnace which cannot burn absorbs the 
heat of the burning fuel below, and radiates or transmits it to the water on 
every side. So perfect is this absorption of heat, that for several hours after 
the furnace has been filled up with cinders, though there may be a fierce fire 



212 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

below, little or no heat escapes by the chimney, the whole being taken up by 
the surrounding water. The economy, therefore, of fuel in such an apparatus 
is very great : and it is also evident that excess of draught must be carefully 
guarded against, so much only being allowed as will consume the fuel 
steadily, which is easily learned by experience. The necessity, also, of keeping 
the aperture in front close, so that air enters the furnace only through the ash- 
pit, is hence evident. The water, it will be observed, is in close and immediate 
contact with the red-hot fuel on all sides, no black smoking coals intervening, 
as in most kinds of boilers ; hence the great power in proportion to their size. 
Economy of fuel is not, however, the sole or principal advantage of these 
boilers ; their great recommendation is the long duration of steady heat which 
they insure without attendance. When properly managed, they may be 
depended upon for maintaining heat twelve hours untouched. This to many 
amateurs, who do not command the services of a resident gardener, is invalu- 
able. In the next place, they are applicable to houses and pits on the 
smallest possible scale ; a three-light pit may be kept at a temperature as 
uniform as that of the largest hothouse, without any trouble by night. It 
was for a purpose of this kind that Mr. Rogers was originally led to devise 
them, and he has for three years past cultivated Orchideae in a small house 
not twelve feet square in this manner. Mr. Rogers's gardener does not live 
on the premises ; and the temperature, as ascertained by a double self-regis- 
tering thermometer, rarely varies 6 during the night. 

It is to be observed, that, as the quantity of heat produced depends upon 
the quantity of fuel consumed, each boiler must contain, at one charge, fuel 
sufficient to supply the pipes to which it is attached with heat for twelve 
hours ; it is therefore necessary that the size of the boilers be proportioned to 
the work they have to do. They are cast in the following sizes, which have 
been found most generally useful : 

10 -inch furnace, working 40 ft. to 60 ft. 4-inch pipe, price 4 10s. 
13-inch do. do. 60ft. to 120 ft. do. price 6 Os. 
15-inch do. do. 120 ft. to 200 ft. do. price 7 10s.* 

Where the quantity of pipe exceeds the above amount, two boilers have 
hitherto been employed ; but there is no reason why an eighteen-inch should 
not be cast, if a sufficient demand arose for them ; boilers of this size have 
been found very effective in copper ; and a twenty- one inch, cast in iron for Mr. 
Wilmot of Isleworth, worked exceedingly well. The numbers affixed to the 
boilers above are such as they will work properly and efficiently at all times. 
Some boilers of the above dimensions have been found to do a good deal more 
work than is here allotted to them ; but this has only been by increasing the 
draught, and producing more intense combustion, a great deal of heat at the 
same time escaping by the chimney. When thus employed, the peculiar 
advantages of these boilers are lost; fuel is burnt to waste, and consumed so 
rapidly that they do not maintain their heat as long as is desirable. Duration 
of heat and economy of fuel are considered by Mr. Rogers as paramount objects. 

The only case in which stronger draught may be allowed is where the fire 
works into a flue in the house : but the objection of the rapid consumption of 
fuel is not thus removed ; nor can this arrangement be generally recom- 

* The fittings, comprising doors, dampers, &c., all things, in short, peculiar to the appa- 
ratus as above described, vary from U. 5s. to U. 15s., according to the size, and the 
articles required. The appendages for steaming the house are not included in this estimate. 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 213 

mended, though sometimes convenient. When the ten-inch boiler is em- 
ployed to small quantities of pipe, it must he fitted with a reservoir, as in fig. 
152. In this manner it may be made to work as low as fifteen or twenty feet 
of four-inch pipe. Four-inch pipe is taken as a standard, because each foot 
of it contains about one square foot of radiating surface. Of three-inch, one 
third more ; and of two-inch, double the quantity, may be considered as the 
equivalents of the above amounts. 

These boilers are so constructed that they can be cleaned out ; and, if ne- 
cessary, they can be taken to pieces, to remove any calcareous deposit which 
may in time take place in them. It is, however, particularly desirable, in 
these, as in all hot-water apparatus, that nothing but pure rain or pond water 
should be employed. Where the boilers are employed for steaming, this 
precaution is particularly important, otherwise calcareous incrustation must 
take place. To prevent leaves, dirt, &c., getting down the pipe of the supply 
cistern, it should be guarded by a double cap of pierced zinc ; one moveable, 
that the gardener may cleanse it if clogged, and the other fixed. 

The advantages of these conical boilers are no longer matter of speculation 
or experiment. Very many have been erected in the course of 1839 and 1840, 
and are highly approved ; although few of them possess all the advantages 
which experience has since combined in the form now described. They are 
peculiarly adapted for those purposes where perpetual heat is required ; for 
plant-stoves, pineries, and forcing-frames ; also for small propagating-houses, 
or preserving-pits. To pits in general, from their small size, and from the 
small expense incurred in setting them, a recommendation not heretofore 
noticed, they are peculiarly applicable, and have been extensively applied. 
Card. Mag., 1840, p. 139.* 

505. Rain-water should, as we have just seen, always be used in hot- 
water apparatus ; for hard- water deposits a sediment or incrustation, which 
if not removed, will form a coating of several inches in thickness, which 
acting as a powerful non-conductor, will allow the bottom of the boiler to 
become red-hot without sufficiently heating the water it contains ; and ulti- 
mately, from the cracking of the deposit in consequence of the greater 
expansion of the red-hot iron, the water comes in contact with the red hot 
metal, and an explosion takes place. (See Gard. Mag. vol. ix. p. 206.) 
Hence the necessity of having all boilers where hard- water is to be used 
constructed so as to admit of being readily cleaned out. As the deposit con- 
sists of calcareous matter, it may be removed by a weak solution of muriatic 
acid aided with a slight mechanical agitation : but it is much better to 
prevent its taking place by using only soft water. 

506. To prevent the water in the apparatus from freezing, salt may be 
added to it ; but this may be rendered unnecessary in the case of horizontal 
pipes by drawing off a portion of the water, so that they shall not be quite 
full, because in that case the water has room for that expansion which takes 
place when it passes into ice. The quantity of salt put into water to keep 
it from freezing, Mr. Hood observes, may vary from 3^ per cent., the quan- 
tity contained in sea- water, which will not freeze when it is above 28, to 
35 per cent., the greatest amount of common salt which water will hold in 
solution. With 4.3 of salt, water freezes at 27^ ; with 6.6 per cent, of salt, 
at 25 J ; and at 11.1 per cent., 21^. The effect which would be produced 
in cast-iron pipes and boilers by any of these quantities of salt, Mr. Hood 
states, would not be of much importance. As salt does not evaporate when 



214 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

a sufficient quantity was once added for the purpose required, the waste 
which takes place can be supplied by fresh water. (Hood's Treatise, p. 167.) 
507. Open gutters have been employed, either partially or wholly, instead 
of closed pipes, for circulating hot water in hothouses, and by a number of 
gardeners this is considered a very superior mode where great atmospheric 
moisture is required. The earliest apparatus of this kind is one which was 
put up in Knight's Exotic Nursery, Chelsea, in 1830, and described in the 
Gardener s Magazine for that year, pp. 374 to 376. It has since been 
erected by Mr. VTeekes at several places, and a patent was taken out for 
some modifications of it by Mr. Corbett in 1838. Instead of the upper or 
flow-pipe, an open gutter of iron, wood, slate, or stone, is employed ; it is 
placed on a level, from the boiler to the furthest point where it is carried, 
and it commonly returns to the boiler in a closed pipe. It can be carried 
over doors or similar interruptions by syphons, and under them by inverted 
syphons ; and the open gutter has covers which can be taken off and on 
at pleasure to diminish or increase the quantity of vapour admitted to the 
atmosphere of the house. (Gard. Mag. 1838.) There is an apparatus of 
this kind in Pontey's Nursery, Plymouth ; the boiler is one of Shewin's (Ro- 
gers's, 604) largest-sized conical ones, which appears to answer admirably. 
From the boiler the water flows in an open gutter, formed of slabs of slate, 
(jointed very neatly together), to the further end of the house, from which 
point it returns in a four-inch iron pipe back to the boiler. From having 
the gutter open they have a very humid heat, but by the use of slate covers 
they can regulate it so as to have little or much vapour, as circumstances 
may require. (Gard. Chron. Jan. 2, p. 6.) At Cowley, near Exeter, Mr. 
Corbett's open system has been put up, and the gardener there finds it the 
most simple and efficacious means of heating that he has tried. For orchida- 
ceous houses he particularly recommends it, and he has found it far superior 
to close pipes in the pine stove. Mr. Glendinning also considers it the best of 
all systems. It combines, he says, the simplicity of the good old level system 
with the grand advantage of diffusing through the house, without trouble, any 
quantity of moisture required, or entirely withholding it. The circulation 
of the water in the gutters is quite as rapid as by any other system, if not 
more so, even when left entirely open. The invention is divested of all 
intricacy, as the water may be exposed to full view from its leaving the 
boiler until its return, and the apparatus is not liable to go out of repair. 
Its effectual application to every description of forcing-house is at present 
without a parallel ; as, by the partial or entire removal of any number of 
covers, an unvarying degree of moisture, always governed by the tempera- 
ture maintained, can, with the greatest ease and accuracy, be communicated. 
This alone, to practical men, will secure to it a decided preference. Red 
spiders, thrips, and all other insects, will be readily subdued ; and an atmo- 
sphere, at once invigorating and refreshing, at all times maintained. (Gard. 
Mag. 1841, p. 57.) The opinion of Mr. Rogers is thus expressed : " For 
Orchideae, melons, and cucumbers, I .should think it excellent ; for stove- 
plants, at certain seasons, equally so ; but, for other garden purposes, its 
utility must depend upon the power of completely covering the troughs, and 
regulating the escape of moisture. For greenhouses, as well as for forcing 
grapes and pines, it would require two or three years' experience to satisfy 
me of its advantages ; especially for the two latter purposes. Heat is often 
employed in gardens more to dry than to warm buildings ; as, in greenhouses 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 215 

and late vineries, during damp weather in autumn. It is also necessary to 
obtain dry heat to ripen the wood of all forced plants ; and, though I have 
no experience of pines, I do not imagine they will ripen to be good for any 
thing, except at a high temperature and pretty dry atmosphere. In all these 
cases, then, it is absolutely necessary to prevent the escape of moisture from 
the troughs. If this can be done, the only remaining objection, is the diffi- 
culty and inconvenience of obtaining a perfect level for the troughs." (Gard. 
Mag. 1841, p. 152.) Where the level system of heating can be adopted, 
open gutters would appear to be preferable to closed pipes, as rendering more 
certain the supply of moisture to the atmosphere of the house, and super- 
seding entirely the use of cisterns, except in botanic stoves, for growing 
acquatic plants. 

508. Retaining Heat by Coverings. Whatever mode of heating plant- 
structures may be adopted, it should be constantly borne in mind that it is 
incomparably better for the health of the plants to prevent heat from escap- 
ing by non-conducting coverings during nights, than to allow it to be con- 
tinually given off into the atmosphere, and as continually supplied by fire- 
flues or hot- water pipes. Where coverings cannot be applied, and a high 
temperature must be kept up, reserve sources of heat, and abundant supplies 
of water to maintain atmospheric moisture, are the only means by which 
the plants can be kept healthy. " A weakly growth," Mr. Paxton observes, 
" is the sure consequence of a high temperature maintained by fire -heat, 
whatever plan of artificial heating be adopted." He therefore recommends, 
in all cases where practicable, the use of external coverings, by which, at 
Chats worth, a difference of from 10 to 15 is gained, and two-thirds of the 
fuel that would otherwise be necessary is saved. (Gard. Chron. Jan. 16, 
p. 40.) 

509. Atmospheric Moisture. The necessity of proportioning moisture to 
temperature, and the causes which render the climates of our plant-structures 
unnaturally dry, have already been pointed out (251 to 257). To give an 
idea of the quantity of moisture requisite for an atmosphere at a high tem- 
perature, Mr. Rogers has shown that a vinery twenty-five feet long by thir- 
teen feet six inches wide in the roof, maintained at 65 when outer air is 35, 
will condense on the glass in twenty- four hours 35^- gallons of water. (Gard. 
Mag. 1840, p. 232.) In devising the best method of procuring a constant 
supply of moisture for the air of a hothouse proportionable to the expendi- 
ture, Mr. Rogers finds the end may be most effectually attained by placing 
cisterns on the heating- pipes. As the temperature of the water in these 
cisterns would vary with that of the pipes, the evaporation from them would 
be greatest when the pipes were hottest ; when the greatest degree of arti- 
ficial temperature was being obtained, and consequently the greatest drain upon 
it by condensation. The cisterns may be made of zinc, with their bottoms 
fitted to the curvature of the pipes, at least six inches deep to the top of the 
pipes, and of the same lengths as the space between the rings by which the 
pipes are joined. Where two pipes are placed side by side on the same 
level, the form shown in fig. 153 may be adopted, and a single pipe may 
have cisterns fitted to it in the same manner, or it may be made to embrace 
the sides of the pipe and cover it entirely with water, as in fig. 154. In 
some cases shallow cisterns are cast on the pipes, but their power is insuffi- 
cient, and in general zinc cisterns may be considered the best. Cisterns so 
placed on pipes heated to 200 will contain water at 140 to 145; but this 



216 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

will not be the case unless they are properly fitted, and luted on the pipes 
with wet sand ; for the smallest interstice is found to make a great difference 

in the heat transmitted. Mr. Rogers 
finds that cisterns fixed in this manner 
with water, at a temperature of from 
120 to 146, evaporate about three 
quarters of a gallon per square foot of 





Fig. 153. Zinc cistern for double pipes. Fig. 154. Zinc cittern for a single pipe. 

surface in twenty-four hours. The proportion which he employs in an 
orchidaceous stove is about one square foot of evaporating surface to ten 
square feet of glass, and in stoves and forcing-houses, he is of opinion 
(Proceedings of the Horticultural Society, 1840, p. 149) that there ought 
to be one square foot of water for every fifteen square feet of glass. If 
houses heated by flues had this proportion of cistern placed over them, 
we should no longer hear so much of the dry disagreeable atmosphere pro- 
duced by this mode of heating. It is almost unnecessary to observe that 
the cisterns will be most effective where the flues are most effective ; or that, 
as the covers of flues have not interruptions like the joints of pipes, the cis- 
terns may be made of any length. Slate cisterns placed above the pipes 
may be advantageously used for increasing l;he moisture, serving at the same 
time as a reservoir of heat, and of water for watering the plants, and also 
for growing aquatics ; but as the water in such cisterns will seldom exceed 
the temperature of 80 to 85, a much larger surface is required than in the 
case of zinc cisterns accurately fitted to the curvature of the pipes. On 
smoke-flues the water in such cisterns will rise to a much higher temperature 
than on pipes, because the slate bottoms will come in close contact with the 
entire surface of the covers of the flue. 

510. Steaming, that is, the discharging into the atmosphere of a house, 
in large quantities, the steam of water heated to the boiling-point, has been 
adopted as a means of producing atmospheric moisture ; but it is objection- 
able on account of the high temperature of the steam, excepting in large 
houses where the volume of air affords room for the steam to part with heat, 
so as to be converted into vapour before it reaches the plants. Steaming 
may also be useful in combination with fumigation, or the diffusion in the 
atmosphere of matters noxious to insects. Mr. Rogers proposes the fol- 
lowing method of using steam in such a manner as not to prove injurious 
to plants. " A shallow cistern, about six inches deep, and carrying at 
least four square feet of area, with a false bottom of wire or pierced zinc 
about one inch from the real bottom, being provided, the steam-pipe from, 
the boiler should be introduced so as to discharge itself between the real and 
false bottom ; the cistern should now be filled with water nearly to its 
brim, and the steam laid on. The water will soon be raised to a pretty 
considerable temperature, and yield an abundant supply of innocuous 
vapour." The use of the false bottom is to prevent the water from boiling 
up and flowing over before it is converted into steam. 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 217 

611. Ventilation. Plants do not require large supplies of fresh air for the 
purpose of respiration like animals, because while the latter speedily render 
air impure, by depriving it of oxygen, and giving off carbonic acid, by the 
former oxygen is given off, and the carbonic acid of the atmosphere inhaled. 
A very small supply of air, therefore, is sufficient for any plant-structure, as 
far as the growth of plants is concerned, provided the air of the house be 
tolerably pure ; but where the air is heated by smoke-flues or by fermenting 
stable dung, it may be charged with sulphureous or other noxious gases ; 
and, in such cases, a frequent mixture of fresh air may be necessary. 
In greenhouses, and pits, and frames, where there is a large proportion of 
earthy and moist surface to a small volume of air, the latter may become too 
moist, and fresh air may be required to dry it ; while in every description of 
plant-structure it may be required to lower the temperature. Hence, for 
houses heated by smoke -flues, and for pits and frames heated by fermenting 
dung, a greater power of ventilation becomes requisite than for houses heated 
by hot water, in which, under ordinary circumstances, noxious vapours can- 
not be produced, or the temperature raised much above 80 or 90. In many 
cases the small quantity of fresh air required for such houses will find its 
way into the house through crevices in the roof or sides, and by the occasional 
opening of doors by the going hi and out of the gardener. Where larger sup- 
plies of fresh air are requisite, a portion of the roof or sides, or of both, must 
be made to open, and the extent to which this is effected will depend on the 
dimensions of the house, its uses, and other circumstances. The common 
purpose for which ventilation is employed, is to lower the temperature of the 
house, and this is generally done by opening sashes in front, and in the upper 
part of the roof, thereby creating a draught of cool air through the house, 
most injurious to vegetation, by the sudden chill which it produces, as well 
as its dryness (252, 260, 267). Only a small quantity of outer air is at most 
seasons requisite for lowering the temperature of a hothouse, and this can be 
admitted by opening sashes or ventilators in the upper part of the roof. In 
roofs with sliding sashes, the upper sashes along the whole line of roof may 
be let down uniformly, if the house be at an equal temperature throughout, 
and rather more at the hottest part, if it is of unequal temperature. The 
width opened need seldom exceed half an inch or an inch in the winter time ; 
but in summer it may be much larger, according to the temperature to be 
kept up in the house, and other circumstances. If the roof should be a fixed 
one, then a narrow opening might be made in the upper angle of the roof 
along the whole length of the house ; and the cover to this opening might 
be raised simultaneously and uniformly by lines and pulleys or other means, 
which need not be detailed. A portion of the heated air of the house will 
escape by this opening, while a portion of the outer air will enter to take its 
place, mixing as it descends with the heated air, and becoming, by this means, 
heated to a certain extent before it reaches the plants. The great object in 
ventilating houses which are kept at a high temperature is to avoid thorough- 
draughts, which are always produced when ventilators in the front and back 
are opened at the same time. Even in houses kept at a low temperature, 
such tis greenhouses and conservatories, it is always desirable in the winter 
season to admit the air from the roof only, and not from the sides. In sum- 
mer, when the temperature of the outer air is as high as that of the house 
ought to be, openings may be made in every direction at pleasure. In 
stoves the precaution of covering the openings of the upper part of the roof, 



218 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

by which air is given, with wire netting, might be taken, which, while it 
excludes wasps and flies in summer, would in winter act like Jeffrey's Respi- 
rator, in abstracting the heat from the heated air which escaped, and im- 
parting it to the cold air which entered ; or the double tube recommended by 
Dr. Amott in his Treatise on Warming and Ventilating, might be adopted, and 
probably with much more success than it can be in dwelling-houses. In hot- 
beds it is customary to leave openings for the escape of moist vapour during 
the whole of the night ; this is generally done by raising the sashes behind, 
but, as by this mode the steam from the dung is sometimes driven in, some 
gardeners have a narrow opening in the upper part of the sash, with a lid to fit 
to it, hinged along the upper edge. The only difficulty that can occur in 
ventilation, is in the case of houses heated to a high temperature by brick 
flues not air-tight, and in which the atmosphere is unavoidably more or less 
charged with noxious gases; but in this case, unless provision has been 
made for heating the air before it enters the house, we know of no better 
mode than opening the top sashes or ventilators more or less during the finest 
part of every day ; and if the parts to be opened are covered with very fine 
wire netting, it is presumed no chill will be given to the plants, and no greater 
dryness created than can be readily moistened by the water evaporated from 
the cisterns over the flues. The external air may be heated in the winter 
season before it is allowed to enter the house, by enclosing a part of the pipes 
or smoke flues, in a trunk or box with a communication at the lower part of 
one end with the open air, and at the upper part of the other with the air of 
the house. So long as the pipes are kept at a temperature considerably above 
that of the house, fresh air will flow in, and a corresponding quantity will be 
displaced by the accidental crevices of the roof. 

512, The agitation of the air in the house, with or without the introduc- 
tion of fresh air, may be effected by cross drains in Mr. Penn's manner, 
but omitting the covering of the pipes, and the upright tubes, and placing 
the pipes in the front of the house, or round it when it is glass on all sides. 
The cross drains, also, we would form of double sides and covers ; or of 
earthenware tubes nine or ten inches in diameter, placed within other 
earthenware tubes four inches wider, in order to retain a vacuity between 
them ; or, for a similar reason, the tubes may be placed in brick drains. The 
use of the vacuity is to prevent the loss of heat, w r hich would ensue from 
its absorption by the sides of the drains, when they were at a lower tempe- 
rature than the air of the house which passed through them. The inner 
tube may be covered with water, as in the case of the common brick drain 
used by Mr. Penn. 

513. Light is one of the elements of culture as essential as heat (278). 
When the object is merely to grow plants without fruiting them, the propor- 
tion of glass may be small, provided it be pretty equally distributed over the 
roof; but when the object is to produce flowers and fruit, the proportion of 
glass to the wood or metal of the roof ought to be greater. In nurserymen's 
houses for growing plants, the most economical size of panes, or width be- 
tween the sash bars, is five inches or six inches by three inches ; and the ordi- 
nary breadth for houses in which plants are to be flowered is from seven to 
nine inches. The panes in the latter case are generally made square, and in 
glazing one is made to lap over the other from one-eighth to one-fourth of an 
inch. In general one-eighth of an inch is quite sufficient ; the broader the 
laps, the greater is the quantity of water which they retain, and the more 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 219 

liable is the glass to breakage when the water so retained becomes frozen. 
This lap is sometimes entirely, and sometimes partially, rendered air 
and water tight by putty. In the former case it prevents the water which 
condenses on the inside of the glass from escaping to the outside ; and in the 
latter, while it allows the condensed water to escape, it also retains, by the 
attraction of cohesion, as much as fills the space between the lap ; and this 
water in severe weather is apt to freeze, and by its expansion when under- 
going that operation, the glass is broken. By having the laps uuputtied, not 
only is there great danger from breakage by frost, but much heated air 
escapes during cold weather, and rain is apt to be blown into the house during 
high winds in certain directions. It is better, therefore, in the opinion of 
most scientific gardeners, to putty the laps and render them water- proof ; to 
accomplish which in an efficient and economical manner, Mr. Forsyth 
proposes a lap three-eighths of an inch broad, (in our opinion a greater 
breadth than is necessary), with the space between filled in with soft putty 
in the usual manner, and then carefully to paint the joinings of the glass, 
both the under lap and the over lap, and also the putty between, in the fol- 
lowing manner : Let the upper edge of the paint on both sides of the lap 
run in the direction of d, e, in fig. 155, thus directing all the water which 




Fig. 155. Lap of glass panes puttied and painted. 

condenses on the inside or falls on the outside down the centre of the squares. 
The only disadvantage attending close-puttying the lap is, that the con- 
densed water, when the roof is very flat, sometimes drops on the plants : but 
if the house is kept at a proper temperature, the water that drops in this 
manner w r ill do little injury, and will be speedily taken up by the dry air 
which has just parted from it. In particular cases, where the drip falls on a 
plant, it may be directed to a point where it will do no injury, by a simple 
process pointed out by Mr. Rogers, viz., to fix at places where the drip will 
do no injury, small pieces of cobblers' wax or putty, which, by interrupting 
the descendant current, will cause it to drop down. The drip, however, is 
much more common from the bars between the glass than from the glass 
itself, and to these Mr. Rogers's plan is peculiarly applicable. One great 
argument for puttying the laps is, that the moisture of the atmosphere, 
though it may be condensed on the glass, is not, if proper means are taken 
to retain it at the bottom of the sloping glass, allowed to escape from the 
house, but must be reabsorbed by the air which deposited it, somewhat in 
the same manner that takes place in growing plants in closed glass cases. 
These cases being air-tight, when the temperature within is greater than that 
without, moisture is deposited on the glass, and after some time runs down 
and settles along the inside of the rim ; whence, when the temperature within 
is raised to the same height as before, it is again taken up and held in sus- 
pension in the form of elastic vapours. In the case of air-tight stoves, nearly 
the same process must be constantly going on ; but few have hitherto been 
built sufficiently air-tight for this purpose. One of the greatest improve- 



220 FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 

ments that have taken place in the glazing of plant-structures of every 
description, is the introduction of sheet window-glass, which, while it is 
nearly as thick and strong as plate-glass, is not much dearer than crown- 
glass. The thickness of this glass varies from one-eighth of an inch to 
something more than one-sixteenth, and either thickness may be used in 
lengths of from two feet to five feet. In the grand conservatory at Chats- 
worth, the panes are three feet nine inches in length, that being the length 
of the side of the ridge, and they are six inches in width, so that no occasion 
is required for a lap. Ridge and furrow houses, when this kind of glass is 
used, may be made nearly air-tight. In the grand conservatory in the 
Horticultural Society's garden, the same kind of glass is used, and the panes 
are sixteen inches by twelve inches. This house is remarkably well glazed, 
and the laps are all puttied. Indeed, if this were not the case, it would be 
almost impossible to heat such a lofty structure with glass on all sides ; 
but this glass being very even, as well as thick and strong, the laps are not 
more than three-sixteenths of an inch, and "do not retain any water, which, 
indeed, from the temperature within being seldom greater than that without, 
is not often deposited on it. 

513. Water is commonly supplied to plants in hothouses by hand ; but 
pipes, pierced with small holes, have been arranged under the roof, which in 
turning on water from a cistern above the level will throw down a shower 
at pleasure. For lofty houses, such as the palm stoves of Messrs. Lod- 
diges, the inventors of this system, this mode of watering is very eligible, and 
it might also frequently be adopted in conservatories attached to dwelling- 
houses, the cistern being in the upper part of the house. As a luxury, the 
noise of the artificial shower, and the drops of rain, in a warm summer's 
evening when all is arid without, will more than compensate for the expense. 
As water should never be applied to plants at a lower temperature than the 
mean of the atmosphere which they grow in, there should be a cistern in 
every house, of sufficient capacity to supply all the water which can be 
wanted at any one time, placed over the flues or hot-water pipes in such a 
manner as soon to be heated by them. In plant-houses these cisterns may 
be used to a certain extent for growing aquatics ; but in this case only a small 
portion of water should be taken from the cisterns at a time, so that the 
addition of cold water may not chill the plants. To prevent the rose of 
the watering-pot from being choked from the leaves or other matters in such 
water, watering-pots with the grating described by Mr. Beaton (425) should 
be used. 

514. The different kinds of fixed structures for plants, are the pit, the 
greenhouse, the orangery, the conservatory, the botanic stove, the pine stove, 
and the forcing-house ; and we shall conclude this section by shortly noticing 
the characteristic features of each of these, and their varieties. 

515. Pits are low buildings with glass roofs, but without glass in the sides 
or ends. The angle of the roof is between 15 and 25 with the horizon, 
and the surrounding walls are generally built of brick, and hollow, or in 
some kinds of pits, they are pigeon-holed, or with thin panels to admit the 
heat of exterior casings. The provision for heating varies from the mere 
power of retaining natural heat, by coverings of glass or other materials, to 
7f> or 80, or upwards of artificial heat, which may be supplied either by 
fermenting materials alone, by these and fire-heat combined, or by fire -heat 
alone. The cold pit is without any artificial source of heating, and in some 



PLANTS, WITH GLASS ROOFS. 221 

its walls are of turf or earth ; and instead of glass sashes, frames of reeds, or 
boards, or thatched hurdles, or other coverings, are substituted. The cold pit is 
used for protecting plants in pots not in a growing state, or for preserving culi- 
nary vegetables from the frost. In warm situations and dry soil, it has a thick 
mound of earth, or thick wall of turf, which in either case should be coped 
so as to be kept as dry as possible. Even in the case of brick pits, an outer 
casing of dry turf prevents to a very great extent the effects of frost, and 
sudden changes of temperature. The casing may also be made of boards, 
where great neatness is an object, leaving a cavity to be filled with coal- 
ashes, charcoal, dry sand, or other non-conducting materials. In pits of this 
kind, with glass sashes instead of opaque covers, many hard-wooded green- 
house plants, such as camellias, myrtacese, heaths, &c. may baserved through 
the winter without any artificial heat, care being taken to adapt the nightly 
coverings to the weather. The usual width of such pits is from six to eight 
feet ; height of the back wall, three to five feet ; and of the front wall, two 
to three feet. A pit to be heated by a bed of tan within, and exterior cases 
of dung, may be of the same or larger dimensions, with the back and front 
wall pigeon-holed or panelled, (490), and with boarded covers to protect the 
linings from rain and wind, hinged to the wall -plate. Instead of exterior 
linings for supplying extra heat, flues or hot- water pipes may be introduced 
along the front and ends, or entirely round the pit ; sometimes with a plat- 
form of boards over them for plants in pots, or even for a bed of soil, but more 
frequently separated from the bed of tan by a narrow wall, or by a partition of 
plates or flag-stones. The width of the bark-bed in such pits is seldom less 
than five or six feet, and eighteen inches of additional width is necessary for 
the front flue, or six-inch pipes ; and double these widths if the flues or pipes 
are carried round the house. For the more convenient management of pits, 
they are sometimes constructed sufficiently high behind to admit of walking 
upright there ; and a passage for that purpose is left at the back, of three or 
four feet in width, and a door made in one end. The roof over the 
passage is generally opaque and sloping to the north, as in fig. 157. To the 

possessor of a small garden, and 
an amateur, this is a very de- 
sirable description of pit, as in 
it he may grow almost every- 
thing, provided he does not 
attempt too many kinds of 
culture at once. The form is 
very economical, from there 

Fig. K6. Span-roofed pit, with the roof over the path opaque- being as IllUch SUl'faCC of pit as 

there is covering of glass ; and the interior is very comfortable to work in, as 
the operator need not stoop. If the ends were made of glass, it would be an 
improvement, by admitting the morning and evening sun : it would then, 
however, be entitled to be called a small house, instead of a pit. The sashes 
of all pits are made to slide between rafters which are fixed to the plates of 
wood, which form, partially or wholly, the copings to the walls. There 
should be a bolt to each sash for fixing it when shut, and also when let down 
for giving air, in order that there may be no risk of its being blown off by 
high winds ; and all the sashes ought to admit of being readily taken off, for 
the purpose of taking out, and putting in dung, tan, or other materials. 
When the pit is ten or twelve feet in width the sashes may be in two lengths, 

Q 





222 



FIXED STRUCTURES FOR GROWING 



the one sliding over the other; the upper sash sliding on ledges formed in the 
rafters, so as to render it independent of the lower sash. In general, short 
sashes for pits last much longer, and occasion much less hreakage of the glass 
than long ones, from their leverage being so much less. The roofs of all 
pits ought to have coverings, and the best material, hi our opinion, is boards, 
as, where glass is so flat as it generally is in pits and frames, it is apt to get 
dirtied by straw mats, unless these are put over a covering of bass mats. Fig. 
J57 is an excellent plan of a pit or small house, with a span-roof all of glass, 



a, Back path. 

6, Bark pit, 50 ft. long in the 

clear. 
c, Exterior pit for dung 

casing, to revive the heat. 
d d, Gratings to drains. 
e, Stink-trap to drain. 
Fig. 157. Ground plan of a pit to be heated in Mr. Corbett's manner. 

designed by Mr. Glendinning, for general purposes, and heated by Corbett's 
hot- water apparatus. Mr. Corbett's system appeal's to be better adapted 
for pits than for larger and longer houses, where its heating power would 
probably not be sufficient, or be unequal from the slowness of the circulation 
in consequence of the water-troughs being necessarily on a dead level. Mr. 
Glendinning's pit, however, may be heated by any mode, not even excepting 
a smoke flue. Fig. 158 is a section of this pit, showing : 

/,/, Glass roof. g, Bark pit. 

A, Back path. 

i, Pit for dung casing. *, Drain. 

Hinged cover of ledged boards, 

to protect the dung from the 

rain and wind. 
m, Ground lino. 
n, Suspended shelf for strawberry 

pots. 

o, Slate shelf for pots. 
p, Stink-trap communicating with 

the cross-drain (q) ,which leads to 

the main or barrel-built drain (k). 
r, Corbett's hot-water apparatus. 
s, Hollow wall of bricks on edge. 

Fig. 158. Cross section of a pit to be heated on CorbetCs system, or by smolsc-Jliies. 

Pits or low houses have been formed with glass on all sides, and span roofs 
(see Gard. Mag. vol. vii. p. 290) ; but from the great quantity of glass in 
proportion to the surface of floor enclosed, they become too expensive for 
general purposes, and, unless furnished with a warm covering, the extensive 
surface of glass occasions an injurious degree of radiation. 

516. The greenhouse is a light, airy structure, with a glass roof at an angle 
of 35 or 40 with the horizon, and upright glass in front and at the ends ; and 
with the means of heating sufficient to keep out frost, and in humid weather 
to dry up damp. The plants are grown in pots placed on a stage, or range 
of shelves rising one above another from a path in front, to within six or 
seven feet of the upper angle of the back wall. Between the front path and 
the upright glass, there is a broad shelf on a level with the lowest shelf of 
the stage, for small plants that require to be near the light. All the front 
and roof sashes are made to move, because it is frequently necessary to 
admit a free circulation of the external atmosphere ; and coverings are 
seldom applied, because a very little fire-heat is found to exclude the frost. 




PLANTS WITH GLASS ROOFS. 223 

This is the common or normal form of the greenhouse, when it ia placed 
against a wall, or the side or end of a dwelling-house, and facing the south 
or some point between south-east and south-west ; but much more elegant 
forms, of the curvilineal or ridge and furrow kind (483 and 484), may be 
adopted, and where the expense of fire-heat is not an object, it may face 
the east or west, or be constructed of glass on all sides. For placing against 
a wall in a flower-garden we should prefer a curvilineal structure, with ends 
of the same kind, and an architectural entrance, either in the back wall, as 
in fig. 129, p. 190, or in front ; but against a dwelling-house, and on a 
small scale, we should recommend the ridge and furrow construction, as 
from the ease with which the roof may be partially or wholly concealed, it is 
the most easily rendered architectural. 

517. The orangery is an architectural building, more like a living-room 
than a plant- structure, with large windows and narrow piers in front and at 
the ends, and with an opaque roof. It is used for preserving orange-trees 
and other large plants which are in a dormant state during winter ; and the 
power of heating is about the same as that for the greenhouse ; but, from the 
roof being opaque, less extent of flue or hot- water pipe is required. Plant- 
structures of this description are chiefly wanted in large establishments ; but 
as architectural appendages to a house they may sometimes be advantageously 
introduced in small villas, the area of the orangery being used in the summer 
time, when the orange-trees and other plants usually kept in it are set in 
the open garden, as a place for prolonging the beauty of plants in bloom, 
and for other purposes. 

518. The conservatory differs from the orangery and the greenhouse in 
being more lofty and architectural, and in having the plants growing in a 
bed of soil which forms the floor of the house. As the plants in a conserva- 
tory are generally kept growing through the winter, a power of heating is 
required greater than that of the orangery ; and when it is joined to a 
dwelling-house, and is to be frequently walked in by the inmates, greater 
than that of a greenhouse. The temperature during the night should not 
be under 45, nor need it be raised higher during bright sunshine than 55 
or 60. The forms, and other particulars relative to the construction and 
adaptation of conservatories, have already been given in the Suburban Archi- 
tect and Landscape Gardener. 

519. Botanic stoves are of various kinds; but with respect to temperature 
and moisture they may be reduced to the dry stove, the damp stove, and the 
intermediate or bark stove. The first requires abundance of light and a 
power of heating from zero to 60 in the winter season, and is chiefly used 
for growing succulents ; the second requires less intensity of light, but a 
power of heating equal to 80 in the winter season above the external air ; 
for although such will seldom be required, yet it is better to have too much 
than too little heating power. In the damp stove there must also be a power of 
saturating the atmosphere with moisture at all seasons ; as it is chiefly used 
for growing Orchidaceous plants and ferns. The intermediate or common 
botanic stove requires the same power of heating as the last, but more light 
and much more space, as it is used for growing the trees and shrubs of 
tropical climates. These are commonly kept in pots, and very frequently 
plunged in a bark -bed, whence this kind of house, before the use of damp- 
stoves, was called the bark-stove, to distinguish it from the dry-stove. 

520. The pine stove is a low structure, always with a bark or other bed 



224 EDIFICES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 

in which the pots are to be plunged, and differing in little from a large pit 
(515), excepting that it is generally arranged so as to admit of growing crops 
of grapes as well as pines. The glass roof is generally placed at some angle 
between 25 and 35, and the power of heating should be equal to 70 
during winter. A power of communicating atmospheric moisture should 
be at command as in the common botanic stove. 

521. Forcing-houses are chiefly employed for bringing forward early 
crops of grapes, peaches, cherries, or other fruits, and for producing early 
culinary vegetables of different kinds, or flowers. The power of heating 
varies with the season of forcing and the kind of fruit to be forced ; but it 
should not be less than 60, with a command of atmospheric moisture. 
Sometimes the trees are trained on trellises one or two feet within the glass ; 
and sometimes they are partly trained under the glass, and partly on the 
back wall. In either case, the narrower the house, the more readily is it 
heated either by fire or the sun. As these details vary with the kind of 
trees and plants to be forced, they belong more properly to the next division 
of this work. See Practice of Horticulture^ Forcing-Garden. 

522. A Plant-structure for all or any of the above purposes. The pit, 
fig. 157 in p. 221, or that shown in figs. 158 and 159, p. 222, will answer for 
any one of the purposes for which orangeries, greenhouses, and stoves are 
erected. Orange-trees and similar plants, in a dormant state, may be pre- 
served through the winter in such pits with ample coverings, and scarcely 
any artificial heat ; greenhouse plants, with very little heat ; dry-stove plants, 
with a little more heat ; damp-stove plants, with increased temperature and 
moisture ; other stove plants, till they attain a certain size ; pine-apples, to 
the highest degree of perfection ; and fruit-trees trained to trellises under the 
glass may be forced, as may be also every description of culinary vegetable, 
not excepting mushrooms, which may be grown in a portion of the bark-bed, 
or in shelves against the back wall, or in arched recesses or vaults under 
the tan of the pit. In short, there is nothing in the way of culture that 
may not be carried on to the highest degree of perfection in these pits, 
provided that all the large-growing plants are trained on trellises close under 
the glass ; but the airy elegance of the greenhouse, the grandeur and pictu- 
resque luxuriance of the conservatory, and the tropical aspect of the lofty 
botanic stove, are not to be expected from the^n. 

Subsect. 3. Edifices used in Horticulture. 

The edifices required in horticulture are chiefly the head gardener's 
house, the journeyman gardener's lodge, the fruit-room, the seed and herb- 
room, the root-cellar, the tool-house, and the potting and working sheds. 

523. The gardener s house, wherever there are many plant- structures, 
should be as near the garden as possible ; but it should by no means form an 
object in the scenery of the garden. Like what the house of every man 
ought to be, the occupant should possess it as his castle for the time being. 
It may be wholly or partially veiled by trees; but within whatever 
boundary it is placed perfect liberty should prevail; and this cannot be 
the case where the inmates are either constrained to remain in-doors, or 
when they go out be forced into contact with their superiors, to the 
annoyance of both parties. Besides a kitchen and sleeping-rooms, the gar- 
dener's house should contain at least one good parlour. All the fixtures and 



EDIFICES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 225 

principal articles of furniture should be the property of the proprietor of 
the garden, and valued to the gardener on his entering on the situation, and 
again valued on his leaving it ; he paying any difference in value which 
may have been occasioned by use. This is not the general practice, though 
it is fast spreading, and deservedly so, because it must occasion less pain to~ 
a considerate master to part with a married servant under such circumstances, 
and less inconvenience to the gardener when he leaves his place, without 
perhaps knowing where he shall find another. 

624. The journeyman gardeners lodge, and all the other edifices men- 
tioned, are generally included in the sheds behind the different plant- 
structures; because they tend to keep the latter warm, and because the 
high back wall of the hothouses existing at any rate, they can be erected 
there more economically than anywhere else. It has been observed, how- 
ever, by a number of gardeners, both hi England and Scotland, that living- 
rooms at the back of hothouses are not healthy ; and that those that are 
situated at the back of stoves are still more unhealthy than those at the 
back of greenhouses, or other plant-structures where less heat is required. 
Damp and want of ventilation are the probable causes ; for which reason we 
should recommend the journeyman-gardener's rooms to be separated from 
the back wall of the plant-house against which they are built by a vacuity, 
communicating above and below with the open air. The floor should be 
raised at least a foot above the general surface, and should have an ample 
vacuity below it, which on the one side may communicate with the vacuity 
between the walls, and on the other with the open air. This will ensure a 
current of air through both these vacuities, which will be sufficient to carry 
off damp, and to prevent the ill effects of the excessive heat from the plant- 
structure. Another point which ought to be attended to in the construction 
of living-rooms behind hothouses is, to have larger windows and more of 
them than is usual ; and always to have them carried up within a few 
inches of the ceiling, in order that air may be admitted from the top as well 
as from the bottom of the window. See note in the Appendix. 

525. The fruit-room should have a double roof, or roof with a ceiling, a 
hollow front wall, and double doors and windows, so as to maintain an 
equable temperature. It should be divided into at least two apartments, 
so completely separated from each other as to prevent the air of that in which 
the early ripening fruits are placed from contaminating that in which the 
late ripening sorts are deposited. Both apartments should be fitted up with 
broad shelves of open work of white deal, or of some wood without resin or 
other qualities that would give a flavour to the fruit ; and there ought to be 
bins or portable boxes for preserving fruit packed in sand, fern, hay, bran, 
kiln-dried straw, leaves or blossoms of the beach or chestnut, or other ma- 
terials. The fronts of the shelves should have a narrow ledge, on which 
temporary labels can be pasted, indicating the names of the fruits, and when 
they ought to be fit for use, &c. Where fruit is to be frequently packed 
for sending to a distance, there should be a third apartment for containing the 
packing materials, and for packing in. Where there is danger from damp 
or heat, the back wall and floor can have vacuities as in the journeyman's 
room, with stoppers to the outlets, to be used in severe weather. 

520. The seed-room should adjoin the fruit-room at one end, and the 
tool-house at the other. It should contain a cabinet fitted up with drawers 
for seeds ; an open airy case, with drawers for bulbs ; shelves for catalogues, 



226 EDIFICES USED IN HORTICULTURE. 

a book-case, partitioned off, because moths are apt to be introduced along 
with some kinds of seeds, for a garden-library, unless this is kept in the 
head gardener's house as a part of his furniture ; a press for compressing 
dried herbs into cakes, to be afterwards wrapped up so as to be air-tight in 
paper, and kept in drawers to be taken out as wanted for the kitchen ; 
and a variety of minor articles, some of which have been mentioned (389), 
and others will occur in practice. 

527. Root-cellar and other conveniences. Underneath the fruit or seed- 
room, if the soil is dry, there may be a cellar for preserving dahlia-roots, 
bulbs, potatoes, &c. ; though, on a small scale, the seed-room and some part 
of the sheds may serve as substitutes. A mushroom- house, and a house for 
forcing rhubarb and succory, and for producing early potatoes by a particular 
process which may be carried on in the dark, may also form part of the back 
sheds ; and a supply of water by a pump or well, or by a large cistern, sup- 
plied by an hydraulic ram, or other means; and conveniences for liquid 
manure, lime-water, &c., &c., must not be forgotten. In short, whatever is 
wanting for the cultivation and management of a garden, exclusive of plant- 
structures and the gardener's house, should be provided for in the back sheds ; 
and, as a general principle, it may be laid down that every plant-structure 
that has a back shed should have a direct communication with it by means of 
a door in the back wall. By means of this communication much time is 
saved in conveying articles from the shed to the house, and the contrary ; 
fires can be more promptly attended to, and, above all, plants in pots can be 
taken into the shed and examined or shifted, without exposing them to the 
open air. 

628. The tool-house should adjoin the seed-room, and should be fitted up 
as before indicated (389). The potting-sheds should contain, facing the 
windows, benches for potting on, and ample space for pots, crocks, potting 
trowels, stakes, ties, tallies, bell-glasses, and a variety of other articles. Soils 
are in general fresher, and in a better state, when kept in the open air ; 
but still there ought to be bins for sand, peat, leaf-mould, and some other 
kinds in constant use. 

629. Open Sheds. A portion of the sheds open in front ought to be set 
apart for tanner's bark, and other portions for hotbed-frames and such like 
portable structures, or articles that would be injured by exposure to the 
weather when not in use ; one for sticks for peas, props for plants, mats, 
coal or wood for fuel, and for other purposes. In short, there can hardly be 
too much shed-room ; for besides all the ordinary purposes mentioned, a 
portion of it may be sometimes required for preserving deciduous greenhouse 
plants through the winter for which there is not room in the plant-structures, 
such as large Fuchsias, Brugmansias, pomegranates, and many other plants 
which are turned out into the open garden during summer. If there is no 
regular mushroom-house, that vegetable may be grown in the open shed, on 
dung ridges covered with hay and mats. Tart rhubarb and sea kale, may 
be forced there, protected by mats supported on hoops ; peas and beans for 
early crops may be germinated before being transplanted into the open 
garden ; and indeed there is no end to the objects that may be effected 
within open sheds, while on their roofs onions may be dried in wet seasons; 
a practice very general in Scotland and in the north of England. 



HORTICULTURAL LABOURS ON T11E SOIL. 227 



CHAPTER III. 

OPERATIONS OF HORTICULTURE. 

THE operations of Horticulture are very numerous, but they may be all 
included under operations in which strength and mechanical skill are chiefly 
required in the operator ; those which imply a considerable degree of know- 
ledge of vegetable physiology ; those in which to a knowledge of plants and 
their culture requires to be added some acquaintance with the principles of 
design and taste ; and those in which is required a knowledge of the general 
principles of business. The first may be called Horticultural Labours ; the 
second, Operations of Culture ; the third, Operations of Horticultural Design 
and Taste ; and the fourth, Operations of General Management. 

SECT. I. Horticultural Labours. 

530. Labours differ from operations in being of a coarser and commoner 
kind, and hence requiring but a small portion of that skill which may be 
strictly considered as professional : they are, in short, such as every person 
living in the country ought to be able to perform, either as a matter of 
business, as in the case of the working man ; or as a matter of recreation, as 
in the case of a man of wealth or leisure. All mechanical labours may be 
resolved into the elementary movements of lifting, carrying, drawing, and 
pushing ; and in whichever way these are combined, or to whichever imple- 
ments they are applied, the result will depend on the quantity of matter in 
the implement, and the rapidity or motion with which it is lifted, carried, 
drawn, or pushed. 

SUBSECT. I. Horticultural Labours on the Soil. 

531. Object of labours on the soil. Before any labour on the soil is com- 
menced, the labourer, or his director, ought to bear in mind the relations of 
the soil to heat, air, and moisture, as laid down in Part I., chap. ii. The 
objects for which the soil is laboured are, pulverization, to render it more 
readily penetrated by the roots of plants, and by heat, air, moisture, and 
sometimes by frost ; to allow superfluous moisture to escape into the subsoil ; 
to mix the upper and lower parts of the upper stratum of soil together ; to 
mix the coarser and finer parts together; to add or mix in earths or 
manure ; to free the soil from root or perennial weeds, stones, or other ob- 
jects unfavourable for culture ; and to destroy surface or annual weeds. The 
grand sources of heat to soil are the sun and the atmosphere, including rain 
at a higher temperature than the soil ; and the sources of cold, or of the 
abstraction of heat are, rain at a lower temperature than the soil, frost, snow, 
ice, and where draining has been neglected, subterraneous water. The 
greatest degree of cold produced by these causes, excepting the last, will 
always be found on the surface of the soil, and the best mode of supplying 
the heat that has been abstracted will be by leaving the surface to the action 
of the sun and of the air. By digging or trenching down a cold surface heat 
is abstracted from the soil, the natural temperature of which will in that 
case be lowered ; and thus a plant grown in a soil so treated, will be, in so far 
as bottom heat is concerned, worse than if it were in a state of nature, in 
which heat abstracted by the air is always restored by it The average tem- 
perature of the surface soil in most countries is believed to be nearly the 



228 HORTICULTURAL LABOURS ON THE SOIL. 

same as that of the atmosphere ; but by considering all the causes that con- 
tribute to the warmth of a soil, there can be little doubt but in many cases 
its average temperature might be increased. The colour and texture of some 
soils is better adapted for absorbing heat than others, and the inclination of the 
surface of soil is of as much importance in deriving heat from the direct 
action of the sun's rays, as we have just seen (482) the surface of glass roofs 
to be. Hence the advantage of laying up soil in narrow ridges, which, when 
in the direction of east and west, very soon become much drier and warmer 
on one side than on the other. Rain, though in the cold season it abstracts 
heat from the soil, yet in spring and summer, being of the temperature of the 
atmosphere, it communicates heat more effectually than air, because, under 
ordinary circumstances, it penetrates deeper, in consequence of its greater 
specific gravity ; and as it requires 289 times as much coal to heat one cubic 
foot of water as would be required to heat the same bulk of air to the same 
degree, so is the quantity of heat which water of a given bulk will give out 
to soil greater than what will be communicated by the same bulk of air. 
Water, in a frozen state, though injurious as abstracting heat, is in many 
cases favourable by contributing to the pulverization of stiff soils, which are 
laid up in a rough state, in order to expose as large a surface as possible to be 
cooled and frozen during winter, and to be thawed and heated during spring. 
The retention of moisture by pulverization is an important object of labouring 
the soil. All properly cultivated soils hold water like a sponge, while in un- 
laboured soils the rains either never penetrate the surface, or they sink into 
the subsoil and are lost, or are retained by it and prove injurious. Wind, 
like rain, will communicate heat or abstract it from soil, according to its 
temperature and the rapidity of its motion ; but as in either case it carries off 
moisture in proportion to its dryness and velocity, it is in general in cold 
climates much more favourable than hurtful for soils, considered apart from 
the plants which grow in them. If possible no operation should be performed 
on the soil excepting when it is in a dry state, and when the weather is also 
dry. Moist soil cannot be dug without first treading on it, and thus making 
it into a kind of paste or mortar, which renders it unfit for being pierced by 
the fibres of plants, and prevents it from being penetrated either by moisture 
or air ; and water in the form of ice or snow, if dug in, abstracts that heat 
from the soil which, as we have already seen, it ought to derive direct from 
the atmosphere. u A pound of snow (newly fallen) requires an equal weight 
of water heated to 172 to melt it, and then the dissolved mixture is only of 
the temperature of 32. Ice requires the water to be a few degrees warmer 
to produce the same result. When ice or snow is allowed to remain on the 
surface, the quantity of heat necessary to reduce it to a fluid state is obtained 
chiefly from the atmosphere ; but when buried so that the atmospheric heat 
cannot act directly upon it, the thawing must be very slowly effected by the 
abstraction of heat from the soil by which the frozen mass is surrounded. In- 
stances have occurred of frozen soil not being completely thawed at midsum- 
mer when so buried. But this is not the whole of the evil : the moisture of 
the air which fills the interstices of the soil w r ill be continually undergoing 
condensation as it comes in contact with the cold portions, and these will be 
found in a very saturated condition, even after they have become thawed." 
(Robert Thompson in Gard. Chron. Feb. 6, 1841, p. 89.) All these and similar 
facts ought to be kept constantly in mind while performing the operations of 
digging, trenching, forking, hoeing, raking, and rolling. 



HORTICULTURAL LABOURS ON THE SOIL. 



229 



532. Marking with the garden line is an operation preparatory to various 
others, and it consists in stretching and fixing the line or cord along the sur- 
face of the ground, or sometimes, as in clipping edgings and hedges, at some 
distance above it. When the direction is straight, two fixed points at the 
extremities are sufficient ; but when it is curved, a number of intermediate 
stakes or pins are requisite to bend and fix the line to the proper curvature. 
Also, when the line is raised from the ground, as when stretched for cutting 
straight the top of a hedge, it must be supported at a sufficient number of inter- 
mediate points, otherwise a deflection will take place more or less in proportion 
to the distance between the extremities of the line, its degree of tension, and 
weight of materials. The ground or plants are next marked, cut, or clipped, 
in the direction of the line. 

533. Digging. The use of the lever and the pick, the former in moving 
large obstacles, such as stones, and the latter for perforating and raising up hard 
soils or subsoils, may be considered as preparatory operations for the more per- 
fect pulverization and mixture of the soil by digging. Previous to performing 
this operation, if tKe surface is uneven, it should be levelled ; but as we are 
treating of garden digging, we shall suppose that the surface is already in a 
fit state to be dug. The first step is to fix on those parts of the plot where 
the operation is to commence and finish ; which being done, a trench is to be 
opened at the former place, and the earth wheeled or carried to the latter. 
In most gardens where there is to be a regular course 
of cropping, the compartments are rectangular, and 
these are easily divided into smaller figures of the 
same kind for temporary purposes, the number of 
which divisions, with a view to digging or trenching, 
for reasons which will presently appear, must always 
be even. For example, a piece of ground of a square 
form, fig. 159, a, 6,c, d, may be thrown into two pa- 
rallelograms, a, /, and e, d, and the soil taken from 
the trench opened from a to e can be laid down from 
e to fe, where the operation will be finished, 
the plot been divided into three parallelograms, trenching. 
as in fig. 1GO, the soil must have been removed from g to /*, which would 
have more than doubled the labour of wheeling. A 
fourfold division would not, however, have been liable 
to the same objection, which confirms the rule, that 
the division ought always to be into equal numbers. 
Where a plot is circular or oval it may be divided into 
zones, and an irregular plot may be thrown into figures 
approaching as near as may be to regularity. In dig- 
ging for pulverization and mixture, the surface is re- 
versed by the operator, and broken at the same time, 
Fig. ico. A plot of ground &Q ^^ ft new gurface is exp0 sed to the air. When a crop 

disadvantageousiy marked * , - - 

off for digging or trenching, is to be sown or planted, this surface is broken more 
or less fine according to the kind of crop, and in very 

dry weather in summer, it is sometimes raked smooth as the digging 
proceeds, to lessen the evaporation of moisture. When the ground is not 
to be immediately cropped, it is commonly "rough dug," that is, laid 
up in unbroken spitfuls, so as to present as large a surface as possible 
to the action of the weather ; and afterwards, when a crop is to be intro- 



. 

TT , Fig. 159. A plot of ground pro- 

Had re riy marked off for digging or 



230 HORTICULTURAL LABOURS ON THE SOIL. 

duced on ground which has been " rough dug," it is " pointed," or slightly 
dug and smoothed on the surface. " Double digging " is in horticulture what 
subsoil ploughing is in agriculture ; the surface soil is kept on the surface, but 
the bottom of the trench is dug over as the work proceeds, and the soil turned 
over, but still kept in the bottom of the trench. By many this is called 
" bastard trenching." " Baulk digging" is an operation for rapidly exposing 
a large surface to the atmosphere, and consists in taking out a line of spitfuls 
and laying them on a line of firm ground, so that only half the ground is 
moved. It is only used where economy is a main object, and where the soil 
being tenacious, will be much benefited by exposing a large surface to the 
frost. When soil, compost, or manure is to be dug in, it is previously distri- 
buted over the ground in heaps, by the aid of the wheelbarrow, and spread 
over the surface in moderate portions at a time, if loss will be sustained by 
evaporation ; but if soil, such as sand or burnt clay, or a compost of lime and 
earth, is to be dug in, the whole may be spread over the soil at once ; as the 
drier it becomes before being dug in, the better it will mix with the soil (see 
172). In every description of digging the trench should be in a straight 
direction, from one side of the plot to the other, and equally wide throughout ; 
or if curved, the same curvature should be maintained throughout ; for if the 
trench is increased in length, it becomes lessened in capacity, and the soil can 
neither be moved to the proper depth, nor sufficiently mixed. It is unneces- 
sary to repeat what we have introduced as a general rule, viz., that digging 
ought never, if possible, to be performed when the soil is wet, or the surface 
frozen, or covered with snow or ice ; but it may be proper to add, that small 
stones or roots, or other rough porous bodies, ought seldom to be picked out 
of soils ; because the former retain moisture, and tend to consolidate light soils ; 
while the latter retain air, and have a tendency to lighten such as are too 
compact. Hence the practice occasionally resorted to, of mixing pieces of free- 
stone in peat soil, in which heaths are grown; and of digging in sawdust, spent- 
tan, or decayed branches and spray chopped up, in strong clays. Stones also 
having a greater capacity for heat than soil, form a source of that element, 
when the soil has been cooled by rain or other means. When stones lie on 
the surface of the soil they absorb more heat during the day than the soil will 
do, and give out more during the night, till they become of a lower tempera- 
ture than the atmosphere, when dew is deposited on them, and hence they 
become a source of moisture as well as of heat. 

534. Trenching. The object of trenching is to increase the depth of soil 
fit for plants, by which means it becomes a larger reservoir of air, mois- 
ture, and of manure, and in the case of plants which do not permanently 
occupy the soil, it admits of entirely changing the surface, so as to bring up 
fresh soil every time the ground is trenched. The plot to be trenched is 
marked out by a line, exactly in the same manner as in digging ; but instead 
of a narrow furrow which suffices for that operation, a trench at least as 
broad as the depth to which the ground is to be moved, say from two to three 
feet, is marked off and opened, the soil being wheeled to the place of finishing, 
as in digging. The next point to determine is, whether the whole of the 
soil to be moved is to be equally mixed together ; whether the subsoil only is 
to be mixed, and the surface soil still kept on the surface; or whether the 
surface is to be laid in the bottom of the trench, and the subsoil laid on the 
top. 

535. In trenching ground that is to be cropped with culinary vegetables for 



HORTICULTURAL LABOURS ON THE SOIL. 231 

the first time, the whole of the soil turned over should be equally mixed 
together, manure or compost being added and incorporated at the same time. 
When the ground of a kitchen garden has been originally trenched in this 
manner to the depth of three feet, a fresh surface may be exposed for cropping 
every year, by the following practice, recommended by Mr. Nicol : " Take 
three crops off the first surface, then trench three spits deep, by which the 
bottom and top are reversed, and the middle remains in the middle ; take three 
crops off this surface, and then trench two spits, by which the top becomes the 
middle, and the middle the top ; and take also three crops off this surface, and 
then trench three spits, by which that which was last the middle, and now- 
top, becomes the bottom, and that which is now the bottom, and was the 
surface at first, now becomes surface again, after having rested six years. 
Proceed in this manner alternately, the one time trenching two spits, and the 
other three ; by which means the surface will always be changed, and will 
rest six years and produce three." (NicoTs Scotch Gardener , 2dedit., p. 202.) 
536. In the operation of trenching, when the object is to reverse the surface, 
the firm soil is loosened, lifted, and thrown into the trench in strata, which, 
when completed, will hold exactly the reverse positions which they did in 
the firm ground ; but when the object is to mix the soil throughout, or when 
the surface soil is to be kept uppermost, the face of the surface of the moved 
ground must be kept in a sloping position, hi order that every spitful thrown 
on it may be deposited in the proper place, with a view to mixture. The 
simplest and best mode of trenching, with a view to this object, and provided 
only one man is to be employed for every other object of trenching, is to line 
out the ground into an even number of strips of three or four feet broad ; to 
open a trench at one end of one of the corners of the plot, and to proceed from 
one end to another of the strips till the whole plot has been gone over. This 
mode saves much wheeling of soil, and where the plot is already level, and 
care is taken to leave no firm ground between the strips, it is then unobjec- 
tionable. Where the spade only is used in trenching, the operator stands on 
the surface of the firm ground ; but where the pick is rendered necessary, he 
for the most part stands in the bottom of the trench. " Ridge trenching" is 
the term applied when the surface of the moved soil, instead of being smoothed 
and levelled, is laid up in the form of a ridge, in order to benefit by exposure 
to the atmosphere. Whatever mode of trenching may be adopted, it is of 
great importance that the bottom of the trenches should either be level, or form 
one or more regularly inclined planes, in order to carry off the superfluous 
water of the surface soil. In a very retentive subsoil, if the bottom is 
trenched irregularly, the places marked a, &, c, in fig. 160*, would retain 



Fig. 160* Section illustrative of food and bad trenching. 

stagnant water injurious to the roots of trees, c. ; but if the bottom were 
loosened so as to form a regular slope, as from d to e, the water would 
gradually follow that direction. 

537. Forking soil is simply stirring the surface with the broad-pronged fork, 
(fig. 84, in p. 135,) which is greatly preferable to the spade for working among 
the roots of growing crops. For working with litter or dung, the 'forks with 
round-pointed prongs are used ; the rotundity of the prongs diminishing fric- 
tion, both in inserting the fork in the dung, and in discharging the forkful. 



232 HORTICULTURAL LABOURS ON THE SOIL. 

Soil cannot be stirred with advantage by the fork when in a moist state, but 
littery dung may be turned during rain. 

538. Hoeing is a mode of stirring the soil on the surface, and at the same 
time cutting up weeds or thinning out crops ; and it is effected either by the 
draw hoe or the thrust hoe. Soil is also drawn up to, or taken away from, 
plants ; and drills, or narrow furrows, are drawn by the former tool, of which 
there are several kinds, more or less adapted for these different purposes. In 
no kind of draw hoe should the plane of the blade form a right angle with 
the handle, as at a, in fig. 161 ; but it should always be within a right angle, 
^ ___ more or less, as at & or c. If 

the ground be soft the angle 
should be more acute than when 

r - - 1 -- ~~ it is hard, or when its surface is 
\ much matted with weeds. This 

variable angle should be pro- 
vided for, partly in the forma- 
tion of the eye or socket of the 



Fig. 161. Diagram* showing the angle which the blades of j^g an( J part ly by the 

draw hoes ought to make with the handles. . 11 Va j.v v 1 

tion of a small wedge, the heel 

of which should be turned up, like those used for scythe-handles, in order 
that it may be driven out at pleasure. In short, the angle which the handle 
forms with the blade should be such, that when the latter is inserted in the 
soil to the required depth, the blade, in being drawn towards the operator, 
may retain that depth with the least possible exertion to his muscles in guiding 
it ; for whatever muscular exertion is required in this way, beyond what is 
necessary for overcoming the resistance of the soil, is a waste of power, 
When the blade is properly set, little more is necessary than simply 
drawing the tool ; but if badly set, it requires pressing down, or raising up, 
as well as drawing ; or, in order to keep the blade in a proper cutting direc- 
tion, one of the arms of the operator must be elevated or depressed out of its 
most effective position, which is, when the hands are never much below or 
above the centre of his body. The handle of the draw hoe should be held in 
such a position by the operator, as that the plane of the blade should coincide 
with the plane with which it cuts the soil to the proper depth, and with the 
least exertion of bodily labour ; and this plane will generally be found to be at 
some angle between 50 and 65 with the horizon. For this reason the handle 
of a hoe ought to be considerably shorter for a short person, or for a person 
stooping, than for one who is taller, or works in an upright posture ; or, in 

lieu of this, the short person should hold 
the handle nearer to the blade. For the 
purpose of cutting weeds, or thinning out 
crops in light sandy soil, a hoe with a broad 
blade may be used; and of these the best 
that we know is the Leicestershire or shift- 
ing-blade hoe, the blades of which are 
pieces of the blade of an old scythe. This 
hoe is shown in fig. 162, in which d is the 
head, consisting of a socket for the blade, 

162. The Jeicestershire or shifting- ^d a tubular Socket Or hose for the 

blade draw hoe. handle, without the blade ; 6, one of the 

blades not inserted in the socket ; c, the socket with the kind of blade 




HORTICULTURAL LABOURS ON THE SOIL. 233 

inserted which is used for general purposes, and more especially for hoeing 
between rows of drilled crops ; and a, a socket with the blade b inserted, 
which is used chiefly for thinning turnips. (See farther details of this hoe 
in Gard. Mag. for 1841, p. 311.) For working in strong soil, a hoe with a 
narrow stout blade is required ; and for very stiff soil, the Spanish hoe 
(fig. 21, in p. 132) is the best tool. For hoeing, with a view to cut weeds, 
the different descriptions of thrust-hoes are the most effective tools, espe- 
cially among tall plants, but they are not calculated for stirring the soil to 
any depth. A thrust-hoe with a shifting blade, like the Leicestershire draw- 
hoe, would doubtless be a valuable implement. 

539. Raiting is an operation used for separating the surface of soil from 
stones, roots, and other extraneous matters ; for rendering even dug surfaces 
or gravel ; for covering seeds ; for collecting weeds, leaves, or mown grass ; 
and, in general, for smoothing, covering, and collecting. The teeth of the 
rake are placed at nearly a right angle to the bar to which they are riveted, 
and somewhat bent towards the handle, so that when the operator keeps the 
handle at an angle of 45, the teeth will pass through the soil at nearly that 
angle, and consequently penetrate to nearly the whole length. The teeth of 
iron rakes should be made with a small shoulder, neatly formed, so as to rest 
flatly against the under side of the bar in which they are riveted. The 
holes made in this bar for their reception should be widened below to admit 
a thickening next the shoulder of the tooth, as shown in 
fig. 163, for there the stress lies, and there, in nine cases out 
of ten, the breakage occurs in the teeth. The rest of the 
perforation should be narrow, in order not to weaken the 
head-bar, a slight countersink only being required for the 
rivet or clench on the upper side. The neck of the tooth is 
exposed to a force, tending to bend or fracture it across ; but 
when once the neck is secured, the remaining part which 
passes through the head-bar has only a longitudinal tension. 
The two principal uses of raking are to prepare the soil for 
Fig. 1G3. Section of receiving seeds, and to render clean and even, surfaces among 
the head of a gar- plants which have been recently hoed to destroy weeds. 
AowtAetl'e'h^oM R^lng i s tne operation which gives the finish to most others 
be inserted m it. that are performed on the soil, and without which, and the 
besom, no garden could be kept in high order. One of the most.common pur- 
poses to which raking is applied, is covering small seeds sown broad- cast ; 
and this operation requires more care and skill in the operator, than any 
other which is performed with the rake. If the ground has been raked 
previously to sowing the seeds, its surface will be ribbed or covered with 
very small furrows left by the teeth of the rake, at regular distances and 
of uniform depth : the seed being scattered evenly over the surface, 
will fall one-half in the furrows, and one-half on the small ridges between 
them : if in raking afterwards the teeth of the rake could be made 
to split the ridges between the furrows and do nothing more, the seed 
would be perfectly and equally covered ; but owing to various causes, 
and principally to the unavoidable treading of the soil by the feet of 
the operator, it is next to impossible to effect this ; and in consequence of 
more raking being required in the hard and depressed places than in the soft 
ones, as well to loosen the soil as to raise it to the proper level, the seed there 
becomes too deeply covered ; and a part being drawn from the places from 




234 GARDEN LABOURS WITH PLANTS. 

whence the extra covering is taken, the seedling plants rise very irregularly. 
There are various modes of preventing this from taking place, the more 
common of which, when the surface of the soil is dry, is to " tread in " the 
seed by going over the plot with a kind of shuffling movement, holding the 
feet close together. Another mode is to roll the ground with a roller, more 
or less heavy according to the nature of the soil ; and a third is to form the 
ground into beds with narrow paths between, and to cover the seed with soil 
taken out of these paths. Perhaps the best of these modes for general pur- 
poses and on a large scale, is treading in, or rolling in, which is preferable to 
treading ; because raking in alone, if the soil is very dry and loose, even 
though the seeds should be covered equally, will admit the access of air and 
light to many of them in a greater degree than is favourable for germination 
(See Sowing, 552.") In raking off weeds, and in raking off short grass or leaves, 
the rake requires to be held in such a position as that the teeth shall form a 
much more acute angle with the horizon than in raking dug soil ; because the 
object in raking off grass or leaves is not to stir the soil, but merely to remove 
what is on its surface. All raking, excepting that of gravel, and newly mown 
grass, should be performed in dry weather. Wet weather is the most favourable 
for raking gravel, because if stirred in a wet state, and rolled afterwards when 
dry on the surface, it binds better; and wet weather is most suitable for 
raking grass, because the leaves when wet adhere better together than when 
dry. 

540. Rolling is applied to walks to render their surface smooth, firm, and im- 
pervious to rain, and it is always most effective when the gravel is moist below and 
moderately dry above. When dry gravel is laid over the bottom of a walk that 
is in a very wet or puddled state, rolling should not be attempted till the whole 
is uniformly saturated, either by rain, which is preferable, or artificially ; 
otherwise it will long remain unconsolidated. Grass lawns are also rolled to 
render the surface of the soil smooth and even, for which purpose they are pre- 
viously raked or scraped to destroy such inequalities as are produced by worm 
casts, or other accumulations that would interfere with the scythe, the 
uniform pressure of the roller, or the uniform smoothness and colour of the 
lawn. The scraping and raking are best performed in dry weather, and the 
rolling as soon after rain as the surface has become somewhat dry. Rolling 
dug grounds in order to break and reduce a cloddy surface, or to press in and 
cover newly sown seeds, can only be performed to advantage when both soil 
and weather are dry. Beating, which in many cases effects the same object 
as rolling, is also most effective when the body of the soil is moist and the 
surface dry ; and the same may be said of Ramming, and of every other mode 
of consolidating soils, turf, or gravel. 

541. Screening or lifting soil or gravel is best performed when these mate- 
rials are dry ; but excepting for sowing seeds, or planting very small or tender 
plants or cuttings, sifted soil is seldom wanted, it being found that pieces of 
turf, roots, and stones in soil are useful to plants, as forming vacuities for air, 
or for accumulations of decaying vegetable matter; or, more especially in the 
case of freestone, sources of moisture. 

542. Other labours on the soil are either not peculiar to horticulture, such 
as picking, shovelling, sweeping, inserting stakes by perforators (391); or they 
are peculiar to particular departments of gardening, such as cuffing, which is 
a nursery labour, forming loam edgings, which is a local practice, &c. 



GARDEN LABOURS WITH PLANTS. 235 

SUBSECT. 2. Garden Labours with Plants. 

543. Garden labours with plants may be reduced to sowing, cutting, 
clipping, mowing, and weeding ; all of which may be performed at most 
seasons, and during moist weather as well as dry. In the first three of 
these labours, it must be borne in mind that growing trees and large shrubs 
should not be deprived of their branches when the sap is rising in spring, 
on account of the loss of that fluid which would be sustained at that season ; 
that wounds can only be healed over when made close to a bud or shoot; and 
that the healing process proceeds from the alburnum and cambium, and not 
from the bark. For the operations of weeding and mowing with the scythe, 
wet weather is preferable to dry ; but the grass requires to be dry when the 
mowing machine is employed. Clipping may be performed in wet weather. 

544. Sawing is the most convenient mode of separating large branches, 
because it effects the separation with less labour than cutting with the axe 
or the bill, and also with less waste of wood. In sawing off large branches, 
whether close to the trunk, or at a distance from it, it is advisable to cut a 
notch in the under side of the branch, or to enter the saw for a few inches in 
depth there, and in the same plane with the proposed saw cut, in order to 
prevent the bark from being torn down when the branch is sawn through 
and drops off. It is also advisable to smooth over the section with a chisel 
or knife, in order that it may not retain moisture ; and to cover the entire 
wound with a cataplasm of some sort, or with putty, or with paint, in order to 
exclude the air, and by that means to facilitate the process of healing. 

545. Cutting and sawing are essentially the same operation; for the 
common saw is formed of a series of wedges cut in the edge of a thin plate 
of steel, and the knife only differs in having these wedges so small and so 
close together as not to be perceptible to the naked eye ; the asperities pro- 
duced in the edge of the knife by sharpening, acting in the same manner as 
the teeth of the saw. The blade of the knife thus becomes a sawing wedge. 
When a wedge is entered and equally resisted on both sides of the body 
separated, they are equally fractured ; but when it is so entered that the 
resistance is more on one side than on the other, the fracture will be 
greatest on that side which offers the least resistance. On these facts arc 
founded the operation of cutting living plants, whether with the axe, the 
bill, the chisel, or the knife. As in cutting living plants a smooth unbruised 
section will less interfere with the vital energies of the plant, and conse- 
quently will be more easily healed over than a rough one ; hence, in all 
cutting or amputating, the rough or fractured section ought to be on the 
part amputated. In separating a branch, or cutting through a stem, with 
an axe, bill, or chisel, the operation is effected by the obliquity of the 
strokes of the instrument to the direction of the body to be cut through, 
and with a knife by drawing it more or less obliquely across the shoot ; 
but principally by the non-resistance offered by the part of the shoot to 
be cut off. Hence, all shoots cut from living plants ought to have the cut 
made in an outward direction from the stem or root of the plant ; because 
if the reverse of this practice were adopted, as is sometimes done in plashing 
hedges, the fractured section would be left on the plant. Every cut made in 
a living plant ought to be sufficiently near a bud or a shoot to be healed 
over by its influence, and the section made should never be more oblique 
than is necessary to secure its soundness and smoothness. In general, 




236 GARDEN LABOURS WITH PLANTS. 

therefore, the separation of all branches from living plants ought to be 
made by cutting or sawing across at very nearly a right angle to the direc- 
tion of the stem, or branch, in order that it may be the more rapidly 
healed over. When due attention is not paid to this rule, and the cut is 
made very obliquely to the line of the shoot, a wedgelike stump is left 
protruding beyond the bud or branch as in fig. 1G4, a, which never can be 
healed over, and which, consequently, soon decays, and dis- 
figures and injures the tree, by retaining water and bring- 
ing on the rot ; but when the cut is made not more than 
the thickness of the branch above the bud or shoot, and 
nearly directly across as at &, the wound is healed over com- 
pletely and in the shortest possible time. It must be 
observed, however, that the distance of the cut above the 
bud must depend in a great measure on the porosity of the 
1 'Improperly M/';b a wo d f tne shoot, and the proportion of its diameter which 
branch cut properly, is occupied by the pith ; for if the raspberry and the vine 
were cut close above the bud, the shoot would dry up beyond the bud, and 
prevent it from developing itself. Hence, in all such cases, and even 
sometimes in common fruit-trees, it is customary to make the first cut an 
inch or more above the bud ; and when the shoot has grown and produced 
two or three perfect leaves, to cut off the remaining stump. This would be 
the best mode in every case, but as it occasions double labour, the risk of its 
not being attended to induces most persons to cut near to the bud at once. 
For the pruning of all branches, or the cutting over of all stems under two 
inches in diameter, the pruning shears which cut nearly directly across, 
and of which there are different sizes for branches of different degrees of 
thickness, are greatly to be preferred to the knife, bill, or axe. (See 
fig. 47, p. 130.) 

546. Clipping in gardening is chiefly applied to hedges, and to the edgings 
of walks or beds, when composed of dwarf box or under shrubs. The com- 
mon hedge shears differ from the pruning shears in crushing the shoot 
which is clipped, on both sides of the section (see p. 139), and hence clipping 
is not a desirable mode of pruning plants in general ; nor from the want 
of mechanical power are the common hedge shears applicable to any shoots, 
except those of one, or at most two years' growth. In clipping box or 
other edgings which are in a straight direction, a line is generally stretched 
close alongside the box at the height to which it is to be clipped. The 
top of the edging is then clipped down to the proper height, after which the 
line is taken up, and stretched along the centre of the top of the edging ; 
and the width of the top being determined on, the sides are cut accordingly, 
leaving the edging somewhat wider at the bottom than at the top. The 
height and width of edgings vary according to the width of the walks, or 
beds, and the taste of the gardener ; two inches wide and three inches high 
are ordinary proportions ; but some gardeners prefer having their edgings 
smaller, as less likely to harbour vermin. The ordinary time for clipping 
edgings is the spring ; before the shoots of the season are made ; but many 
gardeners prefer waiting till the shoots have been completed, and clip in 
June, after which the plants put out one or two leaves at the points of most 
of the shoots, which thus obliterate the marks of the shears on the other 
leaves. With box this appears to be decidedly the best mode. Where 
lines of edgings are not straight, they are of course clipped by the eye 



GARDEN LABOURS WITH PLANTS. 237 

without the application of the line ; a matter of no difficulty to an expert 
operator. 

547. Clipping hedges is generally performed by the eye without the aid of 
the line ; but in the case of architectural hedges in gardens laid out in the 
geometrical style, both the line and the plummet are occasionally resorted 
to, to prove the exactness of the work. In the case of lofty hedges, for 
example, the beech and hornbeam hedges at Bramham Park, Yorkshire, 
and the holly hedge at Moredun, near Edinburgh, scaffolding is requisite, and 
this is adjusted to different heights ; the operation of clipping commencing 
at the bottom of the hedge, and being continued upwards in successive 
breadths, much in the same way that mowing is performed by several men 
following one another at regular distances. Hedges are generally clipped in 
the summer season; immediately after the growth of the year has been 
completed. In some parts of the country instead of the hedge- shears, 
(fig. 46, in p. 139) the hedge-bill (fig. 42, in p. 138) is used. In this case, 
the ends of the shoots which form the surface of the hedge are not bruised 
as in clipping ; and hence they are not liable to rot, or to produce an exu- 
berance of small shoots, which, from the greater stimulus, are always more 
abundant from a fractured section, than from one cut smoothly over. That 
this result will take place is known to every cottager who has been in the 
habit of splitting the upper ends of the stumps or stems from which cabbages 
or other kale have been cut, in order to induce them to throw out sprouts. 
The width of a hedge at the base need seldom exceed two feet in gardens ; 
but where a strong fence is required, or where the height exceeds twelve 
or fifteen feet, three feet in width at least, will be required at the base ; 
for the closest and best clothed hedges are found to be those whose sec- 
tion forms the sides and base of a pyramid. If the sides are perpendicular 
the hedge sometimes gets naked at the bottom ; but if is wider at top than 
at bottom, no art will prevent it from getting every year more naked, till, 
at last, plashing, or otherwise securing the gaps, must be resorted to, and 
then its beauty as a live fence is gone. Another advantage is gained by 
sloping the sides of hedges, and that is, in respect of keeping them 
clean; for when so cut the twigs at bottom, sharing in the dews and light, 
thrive and grow so close to the ground that few weeds can rise below 
them. Again, in fields, the uniformity of surface which can be maintained 
with ease in hedges cut on the sloping principle, prevents animals from 
readily attempting to leap or make a breach in them. If they observe the 
appearance of a breach they make towards it, and, crowding together at the 
spot, the foremost is " put to the horn," if he attempts to turn away. Of 
two evils he finds it perhaps the best alternative to dash forward through 
the hedge, leaving an easier passage for those behind him ; some of them 
being hurried after him by force, and others by a sort of instinct. If a 
stone fence is built of a uniform height, a hare will not readily leap over 
it of her own accord ; but if the wall be heightened excepting in some places, 
the hare will attempt these apparently more easy places without hesitation, 
and certainly without being aware that those places are not in reality lower 
than they were formerly. 

548. Mowing, like cutting, may be described as a species of sawing ; and 
it is perhaps the most laborious work which the gardener is called on to 
perform ; every muscle of the human frame being by this kind of labour 

K 



238 GARDEN LABOURS WITH PLANTS. 

called into severe action. In mowing corn or long grass, the blade of the 
scythe may be moved along in a direction in which the plane of the blade 
forms an acute angle with the surface of the ground ; but in mowing short 
grass, the blade requires to be kept parallel to the surface, and, when the 
grass is kept very short, even to be pressed against it. The motion requires 
to be rapid and uniform, and the edge of the scythe to be kept very sharp by 
the frequent use of the whetstone. In the case of mowing lawns which 
contain scattered trees and shrubs without any dug space round them, the 
use of the grass-shears is required to cut the grass which comes in contact 
with the stems and branches. (416 and 417.) Mowing is chiefly used in 
lawns and pleasure-grounds, to keep the surfaces of grass short, smooth, and 
green ; but it is also employed to destroy weeds on grassy surfaces, and at 
the bottom of pieces of water, by cutting them over, as soon as they have 
advanced an inch or two in height in the spring, and repeating the opera- 
tion, with every trifling increase of growth during the season, and every 
succeeding one, till the roots cease to have the power of throwing up leaves. 
The scythe for mowing at the bottom of water ought to have an iron handle, 
in order that it may pass more readily through the water from its small 
diameter, and sink readily from its weight ; and it must not be forgotten 
that the time at which weeds must be mown is not when they are an inch or 
two above the surface of the water, but every time that they are an inch or 
two above the bottom of the pond or river. In mowing lawns, the mow- 
ing machine (442.) is often used on a large scale; and the common 
hedge-shears on a small scale for shortening the grass at the roots of 
shrubs or trees, which the mowing machine or scythe cannot conveniently 
reach. 

649. Weeding is simply the pulling up of weeds, or any plants that are 
out of place ; and it is generally effected by the hand, more or less aided by 
weeding implements of the different kinds before described (400) ; to which 
we may add, the Guernsey weeding prong (described in the Gardener's 
Chronicle, vol. i. p. 66), which appears well adapted for preventing stooping, 
and the touching the weeds and Drubbing in the soil with the fingers. The 
head of this implement (fig. 165). is in the shape of a claw hammer; with 
the one end flattened into a chisel, an inch wide, and the forked or clawed 
end, consisting of tw r o flat 

sharp prongs by which 

the weeds are grubbed == ""~7\ 

up and lifted at the same /J 

time. The length of the head from the extremity of the chisel end to that 
of the prong end is nine inches, and it is attached to a handle five feet long. 
A great part of the labour of weeding may in most gardens be performed by 
women and children ; and it will not only be lightened, but their hands will 
be kept clean, by the adoption of the Guernsey prong. 

550. Otherlabours with plants might be enumerated, but they are either such 
as are common to arboriculture, agriculture, and other arts, or belong more 
properly to garden operations. We may, however, here notice splitting 
the stocks or roots of trees ; as, though it belongs properly to the forester, it 
is yet a labour which a gardener may have occasionally to practise. It is 
effected by entering a wedge always more or less in the direction of the fibres 
of the wood. This wedge must be struck with a heavy iron hammer, with a 



PROPAGATION. 230 

sufficient force to overcome the inertia of the mass constituting the wedge. 
With a heavy wedge and a light hammer no effect will be produced ; 
because the impulse of the latter has not sufficient power to overcome the 
inertia of the former. 

SECT. II. Operations of Culture. 

Operations of garden culture may be arranged under the heads of propa- 
gation, rearing, preservation, and amelioration. 

SUBSECT. I. Propagation. 

551. Plants are propagated either by seed, or by division : the latter mode 
including cuttings, joints, leaves, layers, suckers, slips, budding, grafting, and 
inarching. All the modes of propagation by division are founded on the 
principle that a bud, whether visible or latent, is essentially the same 
as a seed, and will consequently produce a plant; and that, as there is 
a bud, either visible or in an embryo state, in the axil of every leaf, 
it follows that for every leaf a plant contains, a young plant may be 
originated by art. This, however, is not done with equal ease in every 
species, and perhaps with some it may be almost impracticable; but it 
holds good with the great majority of plants, and may therefore safely 
be laid down and acted on as a general principle (12, 114 to 116). 
There is an important difference between propagating by seed, and 
propagating by any of the other modes known to gardeners : viz., that 
in propagating by seed, the species in the abstract is propagated, while in 
propagating by any of the other modes, the species is continued with the 
habits of the individual parent. Thus, a shoot taken from a weeping ash, 
and grafted on a common ash, will produce a tree like the parent ; while 
a seed taken from a weeping ash will not in general produce a weeping plant, 
but an upright growing one like the species. Nevertheless this does not 
always hold good, even in such trees as the weeping ash, and the weeping 
oak ; and it does not hold good at all in the case of trees in a high state 
of culture, such as fruit trees ; or in the case of herbaceous plants in a 
highly artificial state, such as the culinary vegetables of our gardens, and 
the principal agricultural plants of our farms. The weeping ash was an 
accidental sport (16); but notwithstanding this, out of many hundred 
plants raised from seed collected from a weeping tree by a nurseryman at 
Berlin, one or two were found to exhibit the weeping characters of the 
parent ; and when we consider that all the common weeping ash trees in 
Europe have been propagated from one tree, that at Gamblingay, in Cam- 
bridgeshire, and that this tree is a female, so that the blossoms, when fertile 
seeds have been produced must have been fecundated by the male blossoms 
of some adjoining common ash, the small proportion of weeping plants 
raised is not surprising. The acorns produced by a celebrated weeping oak 
at Moccas Court, in Herefordshire, produce plants almost all of which 
have the branches drooping, though this tree is not farther removed from 
nature than the weeping ash, both having been found accidentally in a wild 
state. The stones of a green-gage plum, and the seeds of a golden pippin 
apple, will unquestionably produce plants, many of which will bear varieties 
of the green- gage and golden pippin ; and though these may vary from the 
fruit of their parents, yet they will not vary more than the produce of a wild- 
ing, such as a crab apple, or a wild plum, will sometimes do from its parent. 

B 2 



240 ON PROPAGATION BY SEED. 

The seeds of the cultivated varieties of cabbage, peas, wheat, oats, &c. it is 
well known, produce plants in all respects like their parents, or in horticul- 
tural language " come true." The seeds of trees, however, are not so much to 
be depended on, as those of herbaceous plants, and especially of annuals, in a 
high state of culture ; fora kernel out of the same apple which produced the 
Ribstone pippin produced another tree, the fruit of which proved little better 
than a crab. From these facts we consider it safe for the gardener to adopt it 
as a principle, that the seeds of trees, as well as of herbaceous plants, will 
not only reproduce the species, but, to a considerable extent, also the variety; 
though we cannot depend on this mode for reproducing the variety, with 
the same certainty as we can on propagation by division. 

1. On propagation by seed. 

552. The seed as we have seen (132), is of a mucilaginous consistency 
when young, and it becomes more or less solid when matured. Before 
germination can take place, the solid part of the seed must be rendered 
again mucilaginous, and soluble in water ; and this is effected by the mois- 
ture and heat of the soil, and the oxygen of the atmosphere. The absence 
of light, or at least, of much light, is also favourable to germination, but 
not essential to it ; for though, when seeds are sown, they are generally 
covered in proportion to their size, in order to maintain an equal degree of 
moisture, and to keep them in darkness, we also sow the smaller seeds, such 
as those of ferns and heaths, on the surface, and maintain the requisite 
moisture by means of a close covering of glass, only moderating the light by 
placing them in the shade. That the want of moisture prevents the germina- 
tion of seeds, though every other requisite should be present, is known to 
every gardener ; and indeed, were it otherwise, it would be next to impossible 
to preserve seeds from one season to another, since, though it is in our power 
to keep them dry, it is scarcely practicable to prevent the access of air and 
heat. That the want of air has an effect in preventing the germination of seeds 
is proved by the following experiment. If a number of seeds be put in a 
bottle with from ten to twenty times their bulk of water, and all communi- 
cation with the surrounding atmosphere be cut off, so that the water may 
not absorb any oxygen from it, the seeds will not germinate, though placed 
in a temperature suitable for germination ; but if the same experiment be 
repeated with a proportionately larger quantity of water, the seeds will find in 
the air which it contains sufficient oxygen to enable them to germinate. 
(Gard. Mag. for 1841, p. 482). That seeds will not germinate without 
the presence of a certain degree of heat, is rendered evident by the fact of 
self-sown seeds lying in the soil all the winter, and only vegetating when 
the temperature becomes sufficiently high in the spring. 

553. Process of germination. The first change which takes place in 
the germinating seed is seen immediately after the absorption of water, 
when its substance becomes softer, often assumes a greenish tint, and tastes 
sweetish. After this a lengthening of the radicle takes place, which 
receives its nourishment from the cotyledons, or the albumen. It then 
penetrates the testa or husk, through the micropylus or hiluro, (a very 
small hole in the husk of the seed, which corresponds with the point of the 
radicle,) and ruptures it at this spot, so that the embryo now bursts forth. 
The young plant is then nourished by the aliment laid up in the cotyledons, 
or in the albumen of the seed, till the root begins to branch. Hence, it 



ON PROPAGATION BY SEED. 241 

often happens, that when the cotyledons are ileshy, and are destroyed by 
insects or otherwise, the young plants are irretrievably lost. As soon as the 
testa or husk becomes soft and tender, the seed absorbs the surrounding mois- 
ture, and generally germinates very quickly, if it be not too old. If the husk 
be, on the contrary, hard, or, as in many cases, stony, the moisture penetrates 
only through the micropylus, and is communicated to the feculent part by the 
root. In these cases the seeds lie sometimes very long in the ground with- 
out germinating ; the absorption of moisture going on, in general, too slowly 
to effect a quick and strong development, which is absolutely necessary to 
burst those firm husks or shells which are bound together, as it were, by 
sutures. These seeds are often lost when they lie for many years ; and, to 
make sure of their germination, artificial means should be applied. To 
cause a rapid germination of the seeds of the acacia, soaking them in boiling 
water has been applied of late years with success; but, in general, this is a 
very unsafe means, and may do more injury than good. The safest and 
best way is to cut or file the hard shell, which it is only necessary to pene- 
trate at one spot to the albumen or cotyledons. From this spot the seed imbibes 
the requisite quantity of air and moisture, the radicle is quickly developed, 
and, with the help of the swollen tissue within it, bursts the sutures of the 
husk. In this way many hard-shelled seeds of monocotyledonous and 
dicotyledonous plants, such as canna, paeonia, acacia, abrus, erythrina, 
cassia, schotia, guilandina, adenanthera, bauhinia, and caesalpinia, have 
been made to germinate in a short time, mostly in from ten to twenty days. 
If the seeds be old, they should, after cutting, be laid for a few days in 
lukewarm rain-water, and, if they have any life remaining, this will sti- 
mulate it. Something similar also takes place with seeds which, besides the 
testa, or husk, are also enclosed in a pericarpium, or outer-covering. They 
lie either in fours, at the bottom of a dry hollow cup, as in the labiatae and 
boragineae ; or they are single, or several, surrounded with a thick fleshy 
cup, as in many species of the rosaceaa ; or single, or in twos, covered with a 
dry cup, as in compositae, umbelliferae, and their allied species. Lastly, in 
the gramineae, we find them only surrounded with the pericarpium, as true 
caryopsi. Many of these germinate as easily as naked seeds ; but this depends, 
in some measure, on the capacity or incapacity of the husk to absorb water 
in a natural state. We find seeds hard and stony only among the rosaceae, 
as in rosa, primus, cotoneaster, mespilus, cratae'gus, &c., and these require 
catting or filing, if intended to germinate quickly. The remainder are 
divided, according to their formation, into two groups; those possessing 
albumen, in which the embryo lies, and those that do not. This division is 
useful, for the cotyledons always imbibe the water first and easiest, whereas 
the albumen is less hygroscopic ; and hence the germination of those seeds 
which have none, but whose interior is entirely filled with the embryo and 
its cotyledons, as in the boragiueae, labiatae, compositae, &c., will be more 
easily effected. The gramineae and umbelliferae, on the contrary, possess 
albumen : in the former, the embryo lies outside of the albumen, on which 
account they easily germinate ; whereas, in the latter, the embryo is entirely 
surrounded by the albumen, for which reason, with the exception of most 
of the annual or biennial sorts, they are more difficult to vegetate. As 
these seeds cannot be cut with advantage, it is usual to sow them late in 
autumn, with other difficult-growing sorts ; so that when the universal 
period of germination comes, in the spring, they may be sufficiently pcnc- 



242 ON PROPAGATION BY SEED. 

trated with moisture. This method is very well suited for sowing on a 
large scale ; but as the seed often perishes during the winter, and the earth 
becomes soddened, or thickly covered with moss, the preferable way for 
valuable seeds which are to be raised in the open air, is to sow them in the 
spring, after they have been soaked for some days previously in warm water 
(Regel in Gard. Mag. for 1841, p. 485). Seeds that are to be raised under 
glass, with the aid of artificial heat, may be sown at any time. 

554. The period necessary to complete the process of germination varies in 
different seeds, though all attendant circumstances may be alike. The 
grasses generally vegetate most rapidly, and they are quickly followed by 
some of the cruciferous and leguminous plants; umbelliferous plants are 
generally slower, and rosaceous plants still more so. Adanson gives the 
following table of the period of germination in several seeds tried by him- 
self in France. 

Days. Days. 



Wheat, millet 1 

Strawberry blite, beans, mustard, kidney 

beans, turnips, radishes, and rocket g 3 

Lettuce, and aniseed . . . . 4 

Melon, cucumber, gourd, and cress . 5 

Horse radish, leek . . . 6 

Barley 7 

Oiache 8 



Purslane 9 

Cabbage 10 

Hyssop 30 

Parsley . . . . 40 or 50 

Cow-wheat, almond, chestnut, peach, 

and peony . . . One Year 

Rose, hawthorn, hazel, nut and 

cornel . . . . Two Years 



(Fam. des Plantes, vol. I. p. 84.) The same author found that the seeds 
which germinated in twelve hours in an ordinary degree of heat, might be 
made to germinate in three hours by exposing them to a greater degree of 
heat ; and that seeds transported from the climate of Paris to that of Senegal, 
have their periods of germination accelerated from one to three days. On 
the same principle seeds transported from a warmer to a colder climate 
have their period of germination protracted till the temperature of the 
latter is raised to that of the former. The seeds of annuals generally ger- 
minate quicker and with more certainty than those of perennial plants ; 
and they generally retain their power of germination much longer. 

555. The quantity of moisture most favourable to germination must depend 
on various circumstances, such as the degree of heat with which it is accom- 
panied, the vital power of the seed, and the nature of the species. The seeds of 
aquatic plants vegetate when immersed in water, and the plants live, and attain 
maturity in that element ; but those of land plants, though they will vegetate in 
water, yet if the plants be not removed immediately after germination, they 
will become putrid and die. In general, the most favourable degree of mois- 
ture for newly sown seeds, is that which a free soil holds in its interstices. 
Clayey soil will retain too much moisture for delicate seeds, and sand too 
little ; but an open free loam will attract and retain the proper quantity for 
all seeds, excepting those which are very small and very delicate ; and for 
these a mixture of peat, loam, and fine sand, will retain just moisture 
enough, and no more. With all delicate seeds it is better rather to have too 
little moisture than too much ; and with all seeds whatever, it is of great 
importance to preserve the degree of moisture uniform. For this purpose, in 
the open garden, newly sown delicate seeds are shaded or covered by different 
means, such as sowing them on the north sides of hedges or walls, interpos- 
ing hurdles placed upright or horizontally, between the sown seeds and the 
sun, covering with mats, or branches, or litter, or, in the case of very small 



ON PROPAGATION BY SEED. 243 

seeds, with moss. The more tender kinds are also sown in frames, or under 
hand or bell glasses, by which evaporation is prevented or checked, and a 
steady degree of moisture effectually maintained. 

556. The water requisite to cause old seeds to germinate should be more gradu- 
ally given to them, than that given to vigorous young seeds; because the power 
of absorbing water in old seeds is not diminished in the same proportion as 
their power of decomposing it. When old seeds are placed hi moist soil, they 
are consequently very liable to rot ; more especially, if the temperature be 
not somewhat higher than new seeds of the same species usually require. 
Hence, old seeds should be sown in a much drier soil than new seeds, and 
should be supplied with water much more sparingly, or left to absorb it from 
the atmosphere. Very old seeds will, however, sometimes germinate 
quickly by being steeped for some days in warm water ; and M. Regel men- 
tions an instance of this, with regard to some very old seeds of Umbelliferae. 
In the botanic garden at Bonn, in the spring of 1838, four pans were sown 
with seeds, full ten years old, of Ferula tingitana, />., in which the embryo 
seemed entirely dried up, and only those in two of the pans were previously 
soaked. The latter sprang up all together in from ten to twenty days, while 
of those in the other pans, which were left for trial, only a few plants came 
up in one pan in the spring of the following year, the rest of the seed having 
all rotted. (Gard. Mag. for 1841, p. 485.) 

557. The depth to which a need is buried in the soil has, for its chief object, 
the maintenance of a due degree of moisture, but another purpose is to exclude 
the light, and to give the future plant a better hold of the ground ; though 
there is no seed whatever that will not vegetate on the surface, if that sur- 
face be kept uniformly moist and shaded. It may be assumed that every 
seed will vegetate and establish itself in the soil, if buried to its own thick- 
ness ; but the experience of gardeners proves, that some large seeds, sucli as 
leguminous seeds, nuts, &c., make better plants when buried much deeper. 

558. The degree of heat most favourable for the germination of seeds may 
be considered as that best adapted for the growth of the parent plants ; and, 
hence, if the native country of any plant is known, it may be assumed that 
the seeds will germinate best in the temperature of the spring, or growing 
season of that country. Some seeds of cold climates, such as those of the 
common annual grass, duckweed, groundsel, &c., will germinate in a tem- 
perature little above the freezing point; but, in general, few northern 
plants will germinate under 40% and the most favourable temperature for 
germinating Dr. Lindley states to be for the seeds of cold countries, from 
50 to 55 ; for seeds of greenhouse plants, from 60 to 65 ; and for seeds 
of the plants of the torrid zone, 70 to 80. (Theory of Hort., p. 166). It 
may be remarked that though the seeds of warm countries will not vegetate 
in the temperature of cold countries, yet that the reverse of this does not 
hold true, as may be observed in the germination of British weeds in our 
stoves ; but the plants thus produced, unless immediately removed to the 
open air, remain weak and sickly. 

559. The degree of heat which the seeds of plants will endure has already 
been slightly noticed. Certain leguminous seeds, as those of some acacias, 
may be subjected to the boiling point for a few minutes without injury ; 
others may be allowed to steep and cool for twenty-four hours in water 
heated to 200. The seeds of Acacia Lophantha were subjected to boiling- 
water for five minutes, and the plants raised from them were exhibited before 



244 ON PROPAGATION BY SEED. 

the Horticultural Society, some years ago, by Mr. Palmer of Bromley, Kent. 
Messrs. Edwards and Colin found that wheat, barley, and rye could germinate 
between 44 and 45 ; that they were killed by remaining three days in water 
at the temperature of 95 ; that in sand and earth, at 104, they lived for a 
considerable time ; but that at 113 most of them perished ; and that at 122 
all of them perished ; but it was found that a higher temperature could be 
borne by these and other seeds for a shorter time. At 143, in vapour, wheat, 
barley, kidney-beans, and flax retained their vitality for a quarter of an 
hour ; in dry air these seeds sustained no injury at 167 ; but in vapour, at 
this temperature, they all perished. Dr. Lindley mentions the very remark- 
able case of the germination of the seeds of a raspberry, which had been 
picked from a jar of jam, and which, consequently, must have been subjected 
to the temperature of the boiling point of the syrup, which is 230. 

560. The degree of cold which seeds will endure differs according to the species, 
their native country, and their condition in respect to moisture. Dry seeds 
stand so high a degree of cold, that even the lowest temperature of the frigid 
zone does not injure them; but if they have imbibed any moisture they freeze 
according to the degree of growth which may have been excited, and the 
degree of cold to which they had been accustomed in their native zone. 

661. Atmospheric air, as we have seen (102), is as necessary to the ger- 
mination of seeds as moisture and heat ; and this is the principal cause why 
seeds buried to a certain depth in the soil do not vegetate. It also affords 
a reason for having the surface of the soil, in which seeds are sown, porous, 
and exposed to the action of the atmosphere, and to rain-water, which con- 
tains more air than the water of wells. Hence the rapidity with which seeds 
spring up in the open ground after the first warm spring showers. Hence, 
also, the propriety of giving fresh air to hot-beds, and to hand and bellglasses 
covering sown seeds, even though they have not come up. Old seeds are 
found to germinate sooner in pure oxygen than in atmospheric air : doubtless, 
because less efforts are required by the vital powers of the seed to assimilate 
the oxygen with its carbon, so as to form carbonic acid. 

562. The influence of light on the germination of seeds has been already 
alluded to (552). Bright light is found to be universally unfavourable ; 
because it has a tendency to decompose carbonic acid, and fix carbon ; 
whereas, as we have seen (553), the first step in the progress of germination 
is to render carbon mucilaginous and soluble in water, so to change it into 
carbonic acid. Light, therefore, ought to be excluded from all seeds which 
it is wished should germinate freely. 

563. Accelerating the germination of seeds. In ordinary practice this is 
chiefly effected by the application of a higher degree of heat, as by placing 
pots of sown seeds in hot-beds, or by immersing seeds in tepid water, or by 
cutting or paring nuts, or gently fermenting them in heaps of sawdust, as is 
done with chestnuts, walnuts, acorns, almonds, &c., by the Paris nursery- 
men. On a large scale, both in the field and the garden, the most common 
resource is steeping in warm water for a few hours, which is found to bring 
up the seeds of barley, turnips, beets, parsnips, onions, &c., when the soil in 
\vhich they are sown is very dry, much sooner than would otherwise be the 
case ; this is found to prevent them from becoming a prey to insects or birds. 
The sowing of some seeds before they are perfectly ripe has also been found 
to promote their early vegetation; but the experience of gardeners in this 
mode of acceleration is at present very limited. 



ON PROPAGATION BY SEED. 245 

564. Various experiments have been made to accelerate germination with 
different degrees of success. These all proceed on the principle that germi- 
nation cannot take place until the carbon of the seed is changed into carbonic 
acid ; and as this can only be done by extraordinary supplies of oxygen, the 
agents employed are such as have the power of supplying that substance in 
greater abundance than water or air, from which, under ordinary circum- 
stances, the plant obtains it by decomposition. Humboldt was the first to 
observe that watering with chlorine induced speedy germination ; and, as, 
according to the observations of Goppert, iodine and bromine, hi conjunction 
with hydrogen, produce a similar effect, it appears that both these matters, as 
well as the oxalic and other acids frequently applied for that purpose, hasten 
the process of assimilation. It cannot be denied that all these substances 
accelerate germination ; but to the practical gardener they must be considered 
as experiments unfit for general practice, for the young plants thus called 
into existence most frequently become sickly through the excitement, and 
die off, which cannot surprise us, as the same effect is seen when plants of 
cold climates are reared too warmly, and are not placed in a cooler situation 
after germination. Dr. Lindley, after quoting the experiments of Mr. Otto 
of Berlin, who, by employing oxalic acid, made seeds germinate which were 
from twenty to forty years old, and the statement of Dr. Hamilton, that he 
had found a like advantage from the use of this acid (see the details in 
Gard. Mag^vui., 19G and x,, 308, 453), makes the following remark, appli- 
cable also to the employment of a diluted solution of chlorine, as tried by 
Humboldt : Theoretically it would seem that the effects described ought to 
be produced, but general experience does not confirm them ; and it may bo 
conceived that the rapid abstraction of carbon, by the presence of an unna- 
turally large quantity of oxygen, may produce effects as injurious to the 
health of the seed, as the too slow destruction of carbon in consequence of the 
languor of the vital principle. (Theory, 6$c., p. 174.) 

5G5. Electricity and alkalies as stimulants to vegetation. "It has been 
ascertained," Mr. Lymburn observes, " that electricity is connected with all 
transformations or changes of organic substances, either as cause or effect ; 
when electricity is present, it accelerates or causes chemical decomposition ; 
and, according to Dr. Carpenter, when chemical decomposition takes place, 
electricity is always developed ; though, perhaps, in most instances, it is 
absorbed again by the new state of the compound. M. Maltueri, in experi- 
ments made some years ago with seeds, found that they germinated much 
sooner at the negative or alkaline pole of a galvanic battery, than at the 
positive or acid pole ; and, following up these discoveries by enclosing seeds 
in phials of alkalies and acids, he found they germinated quickly in the former, 
and with difficulty, or sometimes not at all, in the latter. Connected with 
the same subject are the recent experiments of Dr. Horner, on the differently 
coloured rays of the spectrum ; the violet or deoxidising end produces a 
chemical effect, similar to the negative or alkaline pole, and the red end pro- 
duces the opposite or acid effect, by the retention of the oxygen. Guided by 
these theoretical opinions, I was induced to try their effects on some very old 
spruce fir seed in 1836, which had been three years out of the cone ; the year 
before, 1835, some of the same seed did not produce one-sixth part of a crop, 
and I had good reason to suppose it would be worse the next. The year before, 
when the seed was damped to accelerate germination, it had a musty fungous 
smell ; and the seed leaves came up yellow, and, hanging by the ends in the 



246 ON PROPAGATION BY SEED. 

ground, had not strength to free themselves from the soil. In 1830, how- 
ever, after being damped, I added quicklime in the state of powder, which, 
besides furnishing an alkali, has a great affinity for carbonic acid, which is 
necessary to be extracted from the starch before it can be made soluble, and 
which produces heat by concentration of the oxygen and carbon when being 
extracted. After the seed was thoroughly damped, I sprinkled it with the 
powder of lime, and kept it damp by the use of a watering- pan, for ten or 
twelve days ; at the end of which time it had swelled off plump, and had all 
the sweet smell of the sugar formed in healthy seed when malted in this way : 
and, when deposited in the ground, it was not long in pushing up its seed 
leaves, as healthy, upright, and dark green hi the colour, as the first year it 
was sown ; and the seedling plants were strong and healthy. The reasons 
why I preferred lime were, its cheapness, and the affinity of quicklime for 
carbonic acid : as to its alkaline properties, soda is much more powerful, but 
lime seemed to be that which had produced most effect in the experiments 
of M. Payen and others on the same subject. The seed must be carefully 
kept damp till sown, as the dry powder is apt to corrode ; and seeds do not 
suit well to have their dormant powers brought into action without being 
sustained, which, if far forward and severely checked, may destroy life alto- 
gether. Since I experimented as above on the spruce fir seed, I have not had 
any other seed so long kept to make trial of; I have, however, tried lime on 
magnolias and other weak-growing seeds difficult to start, and found them to 
germinate sooner, and make stronger plants than usual. Some others who 
have tried it have also found it of benefit. It is to seeds containing their 
albumen principally in the form of starch, that it will be of most benefit ; 
and to those which have been hurt by long keeping dry, or being exposed to 
great heat : those which have been spoiled by dampness have their food de- 
composed and spoiled. It is difficult, also, to say how far the drying can be 
endured without being prejudicial, and when the organised tissue, the seat of 
life, may have its powers of resuming vital activity so far trenched on as to 
be considered dead. After this has taken place, any stimulus that can be 
applied can only hasten consumption, as the vital force which should preside 
over and direct the chemical force has fled." (Gard. Mag. for 1841, p. 520.) 

566. The length of time during which seeds retain their vitality varies ex- 
ceedingly in different species ; and the difference in this respect, even in the 
plants in common cultivation, as every seedsman knows, is very considerable. 
It is remarkable that the seeds of annual plants not only germinate in general 
quicker and with more certainty than those of perennials, but, also, that 
they retain their power of germination much longer. The greater part of 
the seeds of perennial plants and trees, when well kept, preserve their germi- 
nating powers for a long time; while certain oily seeds, like those of 
dictamus, magnolia, and myristica, &c., decay soon after ripening. Melon 
seeds have been known to retain their vitality for nearly half a century, 
kidney-beans for a century, and the seeds of the sensitive-plant upwards of 
sixty years. 

567. The length of time that seeds will lie in the ground without growing, 
is not less remarkable than the difference in their retention of vitality. 
Many seeds, which, when sown in spring, come up soon afterwards, will not 
come up the same year if sown in autumn. This is the case with many 
common annuals, which when sown immediately after ripening either do 
not come up at all that year, or come up sparingly and sickly, In May 



ON PROPAGATION BY SEED. 247 

1838, M. Regel, of Berlin, gathered seeds of Draba prae'cox, and sowed them 
in pots which were kept in a cold pit. Only two plants came up that year, 
of very stunted growth, and they never attained sufficient strength to 
flower; while next spring the remaining seeds came up very thick and 
strong, and flowered in the space of four weeks. On the other hand, the 
seeds of the greater portion of biennial plants, if sown immediately after 
ripening, come up freely, become strong plants before winter, and flower 
the following year. This is also the case with a great number of annual 
plants, especially those of California, which in their native country spring 
up before winter, and are preserved through that season by a covering of 
snow. The seeds of crataegus, mespilus, ilex, prunus, cerasus, and some 
others, if sown immediately after being gathered, will in part come up the 
following spring, but chiefly in the second spring, though some will not 
germinate till the third or fourth season. If these seeds, instead of being 
sown immediately after gathering, are dried and sown the same autumn, 
none will come up till the spring of the second year. This holds good also 
with the seeds of a number of trees and shrubs, among which may be 
mentioned daphne, ribes, rubus, rosa, potentilla, berberis, pseonia, &c. 
De Candolle mentions a sowing of tobacco which continued to send up 
plants in sufficient numbers to form a crop every year for ten years. It is 
a common occurrence to find plants, especially annuals, springing up in 
ground newly brought into cultivation, after it had been used many years 
for other purposes. Thus, a field of grass, that was ploughed up near 
Dunkeld, in Scotland, after a period of fourteen years in turf, yielded a con- 
siderable crop of black oats without sowing. Mustard-seed has sprung up 
in the fern lands, which must have lain there upwards of a century ; and 
white clover, it is well known to every agriculturist, springs up, on the. 
application of lime in soils, where it had not been before seen in the memory 
oilman. In pulling down old buildings, seeds capable of germinating have 
been found in the clay used as mortar. The seed of Veronica hederaefolia, 
-L., after heavy rains, has been known to spring up on the surface of fields, 
where previously no trace of that plant was to be found. At Gottingen, M. 
Regel found Alsine Segetalis, L. come up in great profusion, which had not 
been found there for more than twenty years. He also found Rumex mari- 
timus, Zr., and Cyperus fuscus, Z,., thickly overspreading the bottom of a 
pond that had been dried the year before no trace of these plants being 
to be found in the neighbourhood, and the pond having, for many years, 
been kept full of water (Gard. Mag. for 1841, p. 480). 

568. The season for sowing seeds is, in nature, when they are ripe, but 
in artificial culture it varies according to the object in view. The spring, 
however, is the most favourable period for germination, because at this 
season the vegetable kingdom awakens from the sleep of nature. Seeds 
removed from foreign countries, and also the seeds of any rare indigenous 
plant, should be sown as soon as they are removed or gathered, in a soil 
and situation favourable for germination and growth. For a succession of 
crops of annual culinary plants, or annual flowers, the gardener sows at 
different periods ; and in the case of biennial plants, he sows in the autumn. 
The following are the results of experiments made by Mr. G. Gordon, of 
the Hort. Soc. Garden, upon raising plants from seed : " All seeds from 
North America and California should be sown in the autumn as soon as 
ripe ; to defer the sowing them till the spring may in all cases be disadvon- 



248 ON PROPAGATION BY SEED. 

tagcous, excepting the case of annuals ; that Mexican and Chilian seeds 
succeed best if sown in spring ; that with regard to Europe, and the north 
of India, trees and shrubs should be sown in the autumn, and annuals or 
perennials in the spring ; that all seeds, of whatever kind, should be sown in 
dry soil, and not watered till they begin to vegetate ; in the case of old or 
sickly seeds, to water them at the time of sowing is to ensure their destruc- 
tion by rotting ; that shading is to be preferred to watering ; and that one of 
the best constructions for the purpose is a pit glazed with double sashes like 
one in the Society's Garden ; finally, that all seedlings should be potted or 
transplanted as soon as possible, except bulbs {Proceedings of the Hort. Soc. 
for 1840, p. 176). 

A69. The mechanical process of sowing is very simple ; whether the seeds 
are sown broad-cast, that is, distributed equally over an even surface, or 
deposited in drills or regular furrows, they are delivered from the hand, and 
not, as in agriculture, from sowing machines. Some rough seeds, such as 
those of the carrot, are mixed with sawdust or sand, to separate them so 
that they may drop singly, and other very small seeds, such as those of 
rhododendrons, and other ericacea, are mixed with fine sand to prevent them 
from falling too thickly. The smallest seeds of all, such as those of the 
ferns, and of some of the hardy orchideaB, are sown on the surface of pots or 
pans filled with well drained peat and sand, and placed in a shady place 
and covered with glass. American tree seeds of small size are generally 
sown in pans or boxes as soon as received, and kept under glass in a cold 
pit, and shaded during sunshine till they vegetate. Cape and Australian 
seeds, and in general all seeds from warm climates, are sown as soon as 
received in a mixture of loam, peat and sand, and placed in a temperature 
similar to that of the growing season in the country they came from. 

570. Sowing seeds in powdered charcoal has been tried in the Botanic 
Garden at Munich with extraordinary success. Seeds of cucumbers and 
melons sown in it germinated one day sooner than others sown in soil, 
and plunged in the same hotbed ; becoming strong plants, while the others 
remained comparatively stationary. Ferns sown on the surface of fine sifted 
charcoal, germinate quickly and vigorously ; and it seems not improbable, 
that this material may be found as useful in exciting seeds difficult to ger- 
minate, as it is in rooting cuttings difficult to strike. 

671. Sowing seeds in snow. This practice originated at Munich five or 
six years ago, and the following account of it was given by M. Lucas in the 
Garten Zeitung for 1841, and translated in the Gardener's Magazine for 
the same year : " For five years past I have been very successful in sowing 
seeds in snow that are considered difficult to germinate ; such as the follow- 
ing alpine plants : gentiana, ranunculus, anemone, &c. ; and in this manner 
1 raised several hundred young gentianas in Messrs. Hague's establishment 
at Erfurt. In our gardens in the north of Germany, it is a well-known 
practice to sow the auricula in snow, and this spring the idea struck me of 
making the same trial with exotic seeds, which are generally more difficult 
to germinate ; I therefore sowed a few of the seeds of New Holland plants, 
principally of the papilionaceous and mimosa kinds, also erica, rhodoraceae, 
cactaceas, cucurbitacese, &c., all of the most distinct families. I filled the 
pots with earth the most suitable to each kind of plant; I then put a layer of 
snow, then the seed, and covered it with another layer of snow. I set them 
in a box covered with glass, and placed it in one of the houses at a tempera- 






ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 249 

tui;e of from GO to 05 Fahr., in which the snow melted. I was not deceived 
in my expectations; some acacias, such as A. subccerulea and A. Cunning- 
hami, and several mammillarias, such as M. uncinata, germinated in the 
course of two days. These seeds not only germinated well, but in rapidity 
surpassed my expectations ; and I even succeeded in raising crotalaria pur- 
purea in this manner, which I had never been able to do before by any 
other method. When the snow had melted on the latter, I did not cover 
the seed with a little sandy earth as I had done with the others, but waited 
till the germ had fairly made its appearance, when I put the sand on ; and, 
from the success of both, I consider the practice is established as generally 
useful. When newly fallen snow is not to be had, that which is frozen in 
ice-cellars, and easily preserved till the month of Jnne, will do equally well." 
(Card. Mag. for 1841, p. 303.) 

572. The discoveries daily making in chemical science, promise to throw 
much light on the germination of seeds; but as they do not seem to be 
matured, and as much is expected from Liebig's edition of Turner's 
Chemistry, not yet published, we have deferred giving an epitome of the 
new doctrines on the subject of germination, till the preparation of our 
Appendix. 

2. On Propagation by Cuttings. 

573. A cutting is a portion of a shoot containing either leaf-buds, or leaves 
in the axils of which buds may be produced. It must at least be of suffi- 
cient length to have two buds or two joints one at the lower extremity to 
produce roots, and another at the upper end to produce a shoot. A portion 
of a stem with only one bud is not considered a cutting, but is techni- 
cally an eye or joint. Though propagation by cuttings is the most 
general of any of the artificial modes, yet it is not applicable to stem- 
less plants, such as the Primula family, nor to the greater number of 
monocotyledons, which are chiefly bulbous plants, without leafy stems. It 
is applicable, however, to all woody plants, and to all herbaceous plants 
which send up stems bearing leaves ; and it is the principal mode of propa- 
gation employed with woody plants kept in pots under glass. It is almost 
unnecessary to state that the cause of success is to be found in the analogy 
between a cutting and a seed ; the bud being the embryo plant, and the 
alburnum of the cutting containing the nutriment which is to support the 
development of the bud, till it has formed roots sufficient to absorb nutri- 
ment from the soil. The roots formed by the cuttings are protruded from 
the section at its lower extremity, and are, in fact, a continuation of the 
alburnous process, which, had the cutting not been separated from the plant, 
would have been employed in adding to its young wood and inner bark. 
Every cutting must either contain a stock of alimentary matter in its albur- 
num, as in the case of cuttings of ripened wood without leaves, or it must 
contain healthy leaves, capable of elaborating alimentary matter from the 
moisture absorbed from the soil joined to the alburnous matter already in the 
cutting. All cuttings may be divided into two kinds : those made and planted 
when the plant is without its leaves, as in the case of the common gooseberry 
or the willow ; and those made of shoots with the leaves on, as in the case of 
all evergreens and of many greenhouse plants, such as the geranium, the 
fuchsia, heaths, &c. In both cases the cutting, after being planted, is excited 
by heat, and supported by the moisture absorbed from the soil. In the case of 
the leafless cutting the buds are swelled, and in proportion as they develop 



250 ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 

their leaves, roots are protruded from the lower end of the cutting, just as the 
radicle is protruded from a seed ; while the moisture absorbed by the cuttings 
with the leaves on enables the leaves to continue performing their functions 
and ultimately to send down organisable matter to the lower end of the cut- 
ting, which sooner or later protrudes from it in the form of roots. In the pro- 
gress of this process, the organizable matter in many species first appears as 
a callosity on the lower end of the cutting, sometimes covering only that 
portion of it from which the roots are protruded, viz., between the bark and 
the wood, as is often seen in the cuttings of roses and gooseberries, and some- 
times covering the entire section, as in cuttings of geraniums and fuchsias. 
Though by theory all leafy-stemmed plants may be propagated by cut- 
tings, yet in practice this is found very difficult to effect with some species, 
and with a few that mode of propagation has never yet been accomplished; but 
this applies to so very few, that the exception hardly merits notice. Indeed 
such is the rapidly increasing skill in gardeners, that in a very short time 
there will probably be no exceptions whatever. The German gardeners 
have lately rooted cuttings in charcoal which could never be rooted before 
by any means. (See Gard. Mag. for 1841.) 

574. Selecting plants from which the cuttings are to be taken. Every plant 
from which cuttings are taken ought to be healthy, because in a diseased 
state the cutting cannot perform the functions necessary to produce roots ; 
and besides, excepting in the case of variegated plants and a few others, it is 
not desirable to propagate disease. It is found from experience, that cut- 
tings taken from the lower branches of plants which are near the soil, root 
more readily than such as are near the summit of the plant and are sur- 
rounded by drier air ; doubtless because the tissue of the wood which con- 
tains the nutriment is in a more concentrated and hardened state in the 
latter case than in the former. Hence the practice of putting plants which 
are difficult to strike into a warm moist atmosphere, and keeping them there 
till they have produced shoots sufficiently soft in texture to ensure their 
rooting. Hence cuttings of evergreens, such as the holly and laurel, strike 
more readily after a wet season than after a dry one, and better in the Irish 
nurseries than in those of England or France. Hence also the practice of 
nurserymen of forcing plants in pots for a few weeks before cuttings are 
taken off, in order to get young growing wood, or placing green-house plants 
in the open air during summer, in order to get succulent wood. The 
latter practice is sometimes used in the case of heaths, and the former in 
the case of the finer sorts of China roses, dahlias, and a great many green- 
house plants. On the same principle is founded the growing of plants 
from which nurserymen intend to propagate, in pits to which very little 
fresh air is given, and which are kept perpetually moist, so that all the 
wood produced, whether by the top or side branches, is equally soft and fit 
for making cuttings. Perhaps the most successful propagator of house 
plants by cuttings in Britain is Mr. Cunningham, of the Comely Bank 
Nursery, Edinburgh, and his success is principally owing to his growing the 
plants, from which the cuttings are to be taken, in a close, moist, warm 
atmosphere. Mr. Cunningham's plant- structures have in general no front 
glass, and indeed for the most part may be considered as pits ; many of 
them, however, on a very large scale. The closeness, it is obvious, is pro- 
duced by giving very little air at any time, and none except when the tem- 
perature is raised to an extraordinary degree by sun heat. The moisture is 



ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 25] 

produced by watering every part of the house ; and it is so great that the 
surface of the walls, of the stone shelves, and of the pots, is everywhere 
covered with lichens, mosses, hepaticae (such as marchantia), and even 
fungi. The warmth, it is needless to state, is produced by hot-water pipes 
or flues, and by the sun ; and it is carried to a considerable degree further 
than is ever done in growing plants for any other purpose than propagation. 
In short, every plant in Mr. Cunningham's propagating-houses enjoys the 
same close, still, moist, warm, unchanging atmosphere, which it would do if 
placed under a bell-glass. The more rare plants which are to be propagated 
are planted in a bed of sandy peat and leaf-mould, or of some such soil, 
where they are found to grow much more freely than in pots, and speedily 
to produce shoots, which are taken off in a young and tender state, and 
struck in sand. Various modes are adopted to induce the plants which are 
to be propagated from, to protrude young shoots, such as when they have 
small leaves, like heaths, &c., by bending down, twisting them, &c. ; and 
in the case of plants having larger leaves, such as the Statice arborea, or 
some of the more rare fuchsias, by cutting a notch in the stem above every 
bud, and inserting a wooden wedge in the notch to keep it open, in conse- 
quence of which the ascending sap being checked, every bud protrudes a 
shoot, which is taken off in a tender state, with or without the base of old 
wood from which it sprang, according to circumstances. In some cases the 
shoot is taken off, and the base left to produce other shoots from the latent 
buds ; in other cases, the shoot and its base are taken off together, and occa- 
sionally, before taking off the shoot and its base, a notch is made below the 
bud as well as above it, and the lower notch as well as the upper one is kept 
open by a wedge, till a callosity is formed on the upper edges of the lower 
notch, from which roots are very readily protruded, after the cutting (with 
its base attached) has been taken off and planted in sand. A stranger, in 
passing through Mr. Cunningham's propagating-houses, is at first oppressed 
with the excessive moisture of the atmosphere, and wonders that none of the 
plants damp off ; but this seems to be prevented by the high temperature. 
575. Selecting the shoot. The wood of the present or of the past year is 
almost invariably chosen for cuttings. In the case of plants which are not 
difficult to strike, a portion of the young shoot is cut off at any convenient 
distance from the branch from which it proceeded, and of such a length as 
may be considered most convenient for forming a plant. Thus in the case 
of willows, gooseberries, currants, &c., from nine to eighteen inches is consi- 
dered a suitable length ; and the points of the shoots of these and other 
kinds of easily rooting plants are cut off, as not being sufficiently ripened 
to have strong buds, or as containing too many small buds. In plants some- 
what difficult to strike, lateral shoots are chosen, and these are often drawn 
or " slipped " out of the wood, so as to carry with them the axillary forma- 
tion of the bud and the vessels of the leaf. This is the only way in which 
shoots covered with a woolly tissue, such as several gnaphaliums and heli- 
chrysums, can be made to root. This method is also very successful with 
plants that are difficult to root, and that have leaves surrounded with 
prickles, such as Mutism ilicifolia, Berkley a grandiflora, Logama floribunda, 
latifolia, &c.; also with those the leaves of which have stalks with very strong 
veins, or their circumference is very strongly defined, such as Banksm grandis, 
Berkleya ciliaris, the different species of Daviesia, Chorozema ovata, &c. ; 
or those that have winged stems, such as Acacia alata. The reason of the 



252 ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 

success is, that the heel being formed by the first, growth of the lateral, con- 
sists of wood more or less ripened ; and consequently, when it is planted, 
it is less likely to be damped off by the moisture of the soil than younger 
wood. When the heel is too ripe, the cutting will not strike. 

576. Shoots which have formed blossom buds ought in general to be avoided; 
because it frequently happens that all the assimilated nourishing matter has 
been laid up for their future support, and no root formation can take 
place. Many plants that have flower- buds at the points are, therefore, very 
difficult to propagate by cuttings ; such as Blaina ericoides ; whereas, with 
some others, it has very little influence, as .Erica tenella, and several species 
of Phylica. 

577. As general rules, it may be stated that cuttings made of the ripened 
wood of deciduous plants that have a large pith, succeed best when taken 
off with a portion of the preceding year's wood ; such as the gooseberry, 
currant, vine, fig, honeysuckle, elder, hydrangea, spiraea, syringa, philadel- 
phus, &c. Cuttings of hard wooded plants difficult to strike, such as Erica, 
Epacris, Burtonm, are best made from points of the shoots cut off where 
the wood is beginning to ripen, as in .Erica pinguis, aristata, ferruginea, 
Hartnelli, cerinthoides, empetrifolia, picta, /asiculata, vernix, &c. ; or 
from lateral shoots made from wood of the same year, as in almost all the 
more easily growing species of .Erica, left ; such are .Erica margari- 
tacea, rubens, ramentacea, mucosa, tenera, tenella, scabriuscula, Persoluta, 
pellucida, and all those of a similar growth. Cuttings of soft wooded 
plants, or of plants with woolly bark, such as Manulea, Mutisia, Gnaphalium, 
&c., are best made of lateral shoots beginning to ripen at the lower 
end, and drawn out from the main shoot with a heel. Cuttings of .soft 
stemmed plants which are easily rooted, such as Dahlm, Petunia, Geranium, 
&c. may be cut off from any growing shoots where the tissue is somewhat 
firm, but moderately strong shoots will be found the best. 

578. The time of taking off cuttings depends much on the nature of the 
plant to be propagated. In the case of hardy deciduous trees and shrubs, 
such as the gooseberry, poplar, c., any period between the falling of the 
leaf in autumn, and the swelling of the buds in spring, will answer ; but 
the autumn is preferable, because more time is given for the cutting to 
accommodate itself to its new situation and circumstances before the growing 
season. This it does by cicatrising the wounded section, and thus prevent- 
ing it from absorbing moisture in excess when the growing season com- 
mences. If the cutting be not taken off till spring, the buds on it will have 
been supplied with moisture from the roots, and the sudden cutting off of 
this supply will materially check the growth of the buds. Cutting of 
hardy evergreens not difficult to strike, such as those of the box, laurel, 
&c., may be taken off in the ripened wood in the autumn rather than in 
spring, for the same reason as given in the case of deciduous cuttings of 
ripened wood. Cuttings of house plants, whether deciduous or evergreen, 
such as Fuchsia, Aloysia, Camellia, &c., may be taken off at whatever 
season the wood ripens. Cuttings which are taken off in a growing state, 
or when the plants have nearly completed their growth, such as those of 
heaths, diosmas, epacrises, &c., and indeed the greater number of house 
shrubs, must necessarily be taken off when the plants are in a growing state, 
which is generally in spring or in the beginning of summer, or if not in a 
growing state naturally at that season, they can be rendered so by a slight 



ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 253 

degree of forcing. The advantage of taking off cuttings in spring is, that 
they can be well rooted before winter, and that as the days are then lengthen- 
ing, and the solar heat increasing, less artificial heat is required ; whereas when 
cuttings of growing shoots are made in autumn, artificial heat, or at least 
protection from frost, is required during winter, and the want of light and 
the presence of damp at that season often occasions their death. 

679. Preparation of the cutting. Before the cutting is taken from the 
plant, the propagator should determine in his mind the length which will be 
most suitable. In the case of fruit shrubs, such as the gooseberry, a long 
cutting is desirable in order that the bush may be raised from the ground, so 
that its fruit may be kept clean ; but in the case of shrubs which are allowed 
to form suckers, as the honeysuckle, or of trees which are to be formed by 
training up a single stem from the cutting, as the poplar, the length is of 
less consequence ; though the larger the cutting is the greater the quantity 
of nourishment which it contains for the buds. The length of cuttings made 
with the leaves on depends partly on the number of leaves which the 
cutting will support, and partly on the proportion of firm wood which is 
required on the lower end of the cutting, which varies in different plants, 
and can only be ascertained by experience. Jn the case of some cuttings 
which are difficult to strike, such as those of the orange tribe and the 
camellia, the cutting is made of such a length as that its lower extremity 
may touch the bottom of the pot, or of a sandstone placed there, or even 
a mass of sand. The use of the contact with the pot does not appear to be 
altogether understood, though it is probable from the fibres of plants always 
clinging to porous stones within their reach, that the pores may contain 
aqueous or gaseous matter in a state more acceptable to the spongioles than 
common soil. 

680. The number of leaves which are left upon the cutting. " The number 
of leaves which are left upon the cutting has much to do with the success 
of the propagator. When we take a cutting from its parent tree, we 
deprive it of the supply of nourishment which it formerly received; but 
notwithstanding this, its leaves, being still acted upon by the atmosphere, give 
out the moisture which they contain, and have drawn from the vessels of 
the plant which supplied them before the separation took place. If we 
could by artificial means still supply the leaves with this nourishment, the 
best plan would be to leave the whole of them on the cuttings, to 
elaborate sap, and send down roots for their more complete support. 
But we cannot do this, and therefore we must only allow as many 
leaves to remain upon the cutting, as we can supply w r ith nourishment. 
Any one may convince himself of the truth of these remarks by the 
following simple experiment : Take such a plant as Petunm violacea for 
example ; make one pot of cuttings from it nine inches long, and let all the 
leaves remain upon them ; make another set three inches, and allow only 
three or four of the top leaves to remain ; water both pots well, and place 
them side by side in a damp frame. The difference will soon be apparent 
those cuttings with all the leaves left on them will soon flag, while the 
others will scarcely be affected, and will go on performing their functions. 
This will be particularly apparent if the cuttings, from carelessness, 
or any other cause, are neglected. (J?. F. in Gard. Chron. for 1841, 
p. 467.) The cuttings of Cape Heaths and such like plants, observes the same 



254 ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 

intelligent gardener, are generally made quite short, not exceeding one inch, 
one inch and half, or 'two inches in length ; in order that the whole of the 
leaves which are left on may be supplied with food, and have their energies 
brought into action. The lower leaves of a cutting, when they can be kept 
on, have more influence on the formation of roots than the upper ones, 
because they expose a larger surface to the action of light ; and hence, when 
from their long petioles, or any other cause, they are not likely to rot, they 
should always be kept on. The leaves which are small and closely set, 
such as those of Erica, Brunia, &c., when covered with soil, soon begin to 
rot, and endanger the cutting, and they ought therefore to be taken off. 
This ought always to be done with a very sharp-pointed pair of scissors, and 
the greatest possible care should be taken not to lacerate the bark by the 
operation, or to bruise the end of the cutting in cutting it across with a knife. 
The cuttings of Pelargoniums, on the other hand, may be of any length and 
covered with leaves ; but short cuttings make the handsomest plants. 

581. In taking off a cutting, regard should be had to the healing of the 
section left on the plant, and therefore the cut ought to be made upwards 
or outwards, so as to leave a smooth unfractured section that will speedily 
heal over. The lower end of the shoot taken off in this case will be 
more or less fractured, and must therefore be cut a second time. The 
cut on the lower end of the cutting should be made with a very sharp 
knife, so as not to crush in any degree the vessels of the shoot, and thereby 
prevent them from cicatrizing, and forming a callosity. The cut should 
not be made through the joint, because the roots seldom proceed from 
the joint itself, but rather from its base, 
beneath the point of insertion of the pe- 
tiole of the leaf. Shoots that have oppo- 
site leaves should be taken off by cutting 
across at a right angle with the direc- 
tion of the shoot, either immediately 
under the base of the petiole, or where 
its combined vessels distinctly reach 
the stem. Shoots that have alternate 
leaves should have the knife inserted 
on the opposite side of the bud, under 
the node, and the cut should be per- 
formed in a slanting upward direc- 
tion from the base, or under that of 
the point of the insertion of the leaf, 
so as to convey away its combined vessels 
in as perfect a state as possible, which 
produces the same effect as when a lateral 
shoot is torn off and then cut clean. 
This practice is found very successful 
with many cuttings, such as those of 
camellias, banksias, and similar plants. 
The lower ends of stout cuttings of 
plants somewhat difficult to strike, such 
as the Orange, are sometimes cut direct Fi e- 166 - P^pared cutting of a shaddock. 
across, so as to rest on the bottom of the pot, and sometimes they are in 




ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 255 

addition split up for an inch or two, and the wound kept open with a wedge. 
This has been found by long experience greatly to facilitate the rooting of 
such cuttings, probably by increasing the surface by which absorption of 
moisture takes place, and at the same time insuring only a moderate supply 
of moisture; and perhaps, creating a greater demand for the action of the 
leaves to cicatrize the wound with granulous matter. See fig. 168, in which 
a cutting of shaddock is not only slit up at the lower end at a, where it is cut 
off immediately below a joint, but tongued or cut at the first joint at b. 

582. Treatment of cuttings from the time they are made till they are 
planted. In general, cuttings are no sooner made than they are inserted in 
the soil where they are to remain till they strike root ; but there are several 
exceptions, as appears by the following extract from M. Regel, already 
quoted from : As the crude sap in the cutting is not raised byendosmose, 
but by the process of evaporation, care must be taken that the surface of the 
cut does not become dry before being put in the earth, and air get into the 
lower end of the vessels ; for, as soon as this takes place, only very strong 
shoots are capable of drawing up moisture, as has been proved by the ex- 
periments of various philosophers. The cuttings should therefore be stuck 
in wet sand, if they cannot immediately be put where they are intended to 
remain, although it were better to avoid this. If, however, they are such 
as ought to lie a day or two, in order to insure success, such as some 
banksias, acacias, &c., it ought to be in a damp place ; and the precaution 
must be taken, if possible, to cut them again before planting. If cuttings 
of Dryandra, some banksias (B. integrifolia, B. Baueri, B. media, B. 
Caley?, &c.), most of the long-leaved acacias (A. longissima, A. pendula, A. 
brevifolia, A. glaucescens, A. longitolia, A. micracantha, &c.), and some 
sorts of Diosma (D. dioica, formosa and umbellata), be stuck in the earth 
immediately after being taken from the parent plant, the inner bark will 
become black in from fourteen days to four weeks, and the cutting will 
perish. This phenomenon appears to be in close connexion w r ith the form 
of the leaves of these plants, as those of the acacias have very small stomata, 
while those of the dryandras have none at all. In their stead, on the under 
side of the leaves of the latter plants are small dimples, lined with short 
hairs, which the diosmas also possess. Now, as the crude nourishing matter 
is drawn up through the open wood in its existing state, and received by 
the cutting, while the spongioles of the roots only imbibe it in a very 
thin solution, it appears that the above-named plants, on account of the 
peculiar formation of their leaves, cannot elaborate in any great quantity this 
gross nourishing matter ; and hence arise stagnation of the juices, and 
the before-mentioned appearances. The good effect of leaving these cut- 
tings lying, and thus interrupting the growing process, appears to be the 
prevention of the superabundant rise of the crude nourishing matter ; and this 
is the more probable, as it is usual, for the same purpose, to rub over the 
section with a piece of clay. 

583. Cuttings of succulent, or feshy., plants must also lie for a time before 
planting, and on no account in a moist atmosphere, that the surface of the 
cut may be sufficiently dried. They retain so many watery particles in 
their cellular tissue, that, when this is neglected, the face of the cut soon 
rots. The species of the families Melocactus, Echinocactus, Mammillaria, 
Opuntia, Cereus, &c., have an extremely thick bark, and a fine epidermis, 
with very few stomata ; on which account the process of evaporation is so 

s2 



256 ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 

slow, that they remain alive for a long time without receiving external 
nourishment. The dried cuttings of these plants, therefore, are generally 
planted in dry earth, and set in a bed or house filled with warm air, and are 
not watered till they have formed roots from the nourishing matter accu- 
mulated in themselves. The roots can scarcely ever penetrate the thick 
bark, and are produced on the section between the wood and the bark. In 
some of the Opuntia and Cereus species, however, they come out of the bark 
at the side. The other succulent and fleshy plants, such as the A'loe, 
Haworthifl, empervivum, Mesembryanthemum, Crassula, Plumieria, and 
its congeners, as well as all the Cacti, which form side roots, may be watered 
as soon as they are planted. Lastly, plants with milky juice require 
similar treatment, as they are equally liable to damp off. As soon as a part 
of one of these plants is cut off, the milky juice exudes in great quantities, 
covers the whole surface of the cut, and hardens like caoutchouc, by which 
the vessels are all stopped up, and the ascension of the moisture prevented. 
In the Munich garden, cuttings of .Ficus, and the dry roots of .Euphorbia, 
are put in water, where they remain twenty-four hours before they are 
planted in the earth. The same end is also attained when they are put in 
dry sand immediately after being cut, and afterwards the sand and the milky 
juice cleared away ; but the succulent and very milky euphorbias must 
lie for some time." Garten Zeitung, May 23rd, 1840. 

584. The soil in which cuttings are planted depends on the greater or less 
facility with which they emit roots. Cuttings of hardy trees and shrubs 
that root easily, are planted in common garden soil ; those that are somewhat 
difficult, in sand or sandy loam on a base of garden soil ; and those which 
are most difficult in sand covered with a hand-glass. Cuttings of house 
plants are almost always planted in pots or boxes well drained, and the 
drainage covered, first, with a layer of good soil, or leaf mould, or peat, ac- 
cording to the soil which the plants to be propagated naturally prefer ; next 

with a stratum of sand, in 
which the cuttings are 
planted. The sand retains 
as much moisture as is ne- 
cessary for the existence of 
Fig. 167. A cutting of a Cape^e cutting, and no more, so 

Heath, prepared and planted,- the that its loW'Cr end IS not 

dotted line in this and the follow- nk e iy to rot ; and the stratum 

ing figures of cuttings, represent- ".. . , pj ff jgg A cutting of an 

; nf rth* , Uf f af e of the *oii in the of soil below the sand sup- 

ing tne swja.ce oj me sou r Epacns prepared and 

pot. plies nourishment to the planted. 

roots as soon as they penetrate through the sand. The cuttings of Cape 
Heaths, and almost all plants whatever which are difficult to root, are 
planted in sand, which is quite free from soil, metallic oxides or salts, and 
of a pure white colour. 

585. The depth to which cuttings are planted varies according to the length 
and thickness of the cutting, but in general it should not be more than six or 
eight inches. On taking up large cuttings, or truncheons of willow or 
poplar which have been inserted in the ground in order to grow, it will be 
found that all the roots they have made are within little more than a foot of 
the surface, and that none have been produced from their lower ends ; more 
especially if the soil in which they stand should be compact and moist. The 
same thing will be found to take place with gooseberry cuttings, and those of 




ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 



257 




1C9. A cut- 
ting of the young 
wood of Achcia 
alata, prepared 
and planted. 



common trees and shrubs, which have been planted more than nine inches 
or ten inches in depth. This is quite analogous to what takes place with seeds ; 
when buried below a certain depth there is no sufficiency of either heat or air to 
cause them to germinate ; and the same want of heat and air, 
and probably excess of moisture, prevents roots from being- 
emitted from the lower ends of cuttings when inserted in the 
soil to a much greater depth than that at which seeds would 
vegetate. Hence all delicate cuttings, such as those of heaths, 
diosmas, acacias (fig.l 69), epacrises, &c., succeed best when not 
planted in sand more than from half an inchto an inch in depth. 
Some heaths root best when the cuttings are not above three 
quarters of an inch in length, with not more than a third of 
that length in the soil. 

686. In planting cuttings it is of importance to make them 
quite firm at their lower ends, by pressing the sand or soil to 
them with the dibber used in planting them ; or in the case of 
large cuttings, such as those of common laurel, which are 
planted in trenches, by pressure with the foot. In the case 
of Cape Heaths and such like cuttings planted in sand, the 
dibber or pricker, which need not be larger than a knitting 
needle, is taken in the right hand, while the cutting is held in 
the left, and the hole being made the cutting is inserted, 
nearly as deep as the leaves have been clipped off, and the 

pricker is again applied to close the sand round it, as closely and compactly 
as possible, without bruising the cutting. Large cuttings are planted pre- 
cisely in the same manner, but with a larger dibber. Large cuttings of kinds 
which are somewhat difficult to strike, when not planted in pure sand, are 
made to touch and press against the bottom or sides of the pot, which is 
found to facilitate their rooting probably on the principle already men- 
tioned (581). 

687. The distance at which cuttings are planted varies according to the size 
of the cutting, its leaves (either on the cutting, or to be produced from its 
buds), the season of the year, the length of time they require to root, and 
other circumstances. The object is to root as many cuttings as practicable 
in a limited space, and consequently to plant them as close together as can 
be done without incurring the risk of rotting or damping them off. Keeping 
these objects in view, it is obvious that cuttings which strike in a short time 
during spring or summer may be planted closer than those which require a 
longer period, or are put in in autumn or winter; and that short cuttings, 
such as those of heaths, may always be placed closer together than long 
cuttings. All cuttings whatever that are planted with the leaves on, require 
to be immediately well watered, in order to settle the soil about them ; and 
all those that are in a growing succulent state, and are at all difficult to 
strike, should be immediately covered with a hand- glass or bell-glass ; for, 
though the cutting receives as much moisture through the face of the cut as 
it loses in ordinary circumstances by evaporation, yet no sooner is it placed 
in very dry air or in a draught, or exposed to the sun's rays, than a dispro- 
portion takes place between the demand and supply. When this is the 
case, more watery particles are lost through evaporation, than are raised in 
the body of the wood, which is very easily perceived in large soft leaved 
cuttings. On this account plant structures are required, in which the outer 



258 ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS, 

air can be excluded, a moist temperature maintained, and in very warm 
sunshine a dense shade can be given. Even in these houses, bell-glasses 
should be placed over the more difficult cuttings, to protect them from 
all such external influences as might destroy them before they have made 
their roots. 

588. After treatment of cuttings. The hardiest sorts in the open garden, 
such as gooseberries, &c., require no particular treatment whatever, and 
need not even be placed in a shady situation ; but those which root less 
freely, such as box, holly, juniper, &c,, succeed best when planted in a shady 
border, in a sandy soil. Cuttings planted in pots or boxes require to be 
placed not only in a shady situation, but for the most part under glass, in 
order to diminish evaporation from the soil as well as from the cuttings. 
All the more delicate sorts of cuttings, such as heaths and most house plants, 
require to be covered with a bell-glass, and shaded during bright sunshine. 
In close moist warm atmospheres, such as that maintained in the propagating 
pits of some nurserymen (see 574), most kinds of cuttings will strike with- 
out bell-glasses over them ; but in general, these glasses are requisite, in 
order to maintain a steady moist atmosphere. All cuttings with the leaves 
on require to be looked over frequently, supplied with water when it is 
wanting, and such leaves as decay taken off, as well as any dead or dying 
cuttings removed. 

589. The most proper form of bell-glass for covering cuttings is that which 
gradually tapers from the base to the top ; as from glasses of this shape the 
moisture, which adheres to the inside in the form of drops, runs gradually 
off, without the dropping so injurious to cuttings. This disadvantage is 
found in all other forms more or less ; such as those that are round at the 
top, or cylindrical with the top bluntly truncated. The enclosed air under 
the glasses will soon lose its oxygen through the respiring process of the 
plants within, and also be vitiated by other exhalations ; and, if it is not 
changed, it generates mouldiness, and the cuttings lose their fresh appear- 
ance. For this reason the glasses, if possible, should be daily ventilated and 
wiped ; or, what is still better, as it will entirely renew the air, dipped in 
a vessel of cold water, and well shaken before being put on again, so that 
too many drops of water may not remain on the glass. Jn an extensive 
establishment this operation requires too much time, and therefore round 
holes, of about from ^ in. to f in. in diameter, should be made in the tops 
of the glasses ; and these will prove very serviceable, if the pans stand on 
hotbeds or other heated surfaces. In small gardens, where the cuttings are 
placed with other plants on the bed or shelf close under the front glass, 
bell-glasses, without holes, would be preferable. When the ground is 
warmed to about 55 Fah., it is better, with some few exceptions, such as 
the Z/aurus species, to place the glasses inside of the pots, so that the tem- 
perature within may not rise too high ; but when the warmth is not so 
great, they may, without injury, be placed on the outside of the edge of the 
pot. 

590. Watering cuttings is an operation requiring great care and judgment. 
The object is, to maintain as uniform a degree of moisture in the soil as 
possible, without occasioning mouldiness on its surface or rotting the leaves. 
Hence, the water is in some cases poured on the soil in such a manner as not 
to touch the leaves of the cuttings, and in others a reservoir of water is 
formed by placing a small pot in the centre of a larger one, the water being 



ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 



259 




left to ooze slowly through the porous sides of the pot, as shown in fig. 370, 

in which a, d, is a No. 60 pot, with the bottom 

closed up with clay, put into one of larger 

size ; 6, the drainage in the larger pot ; c, the 

sand or soil in which the cuttings are inserted ; 

and d, the water in the inner pot, which is 

prevented from escaping through its bottom 

by the clay stopping at a. Mr. Forsyth, the 

inventor of this mode of striking cuttings, 

proposes it to be used with hardy plants, such 

as pinks and wall-flowers, under hand-glasses 

or frames, in the open air, as well as for all 

manner of house-plants. The advantages, 

he savs, are the regularity of the supply of 

* ' y r Fig. 170. Forsyth s mode of striking 

moisture, without any chance of saturation ; cuttings. 

the power of examining the state of the cuttings at any time without 
injuring them, by lifting out the inner pot; the superior drainage, so 
essential in propagating, by having such a thin layer of soil ; the roots 
being placed so near the sides of both pots ; and the facility with which 
the plants, when rooted, can be parted for potting off, by taking out the inner 
pot, and with a knife cutting out every plant with its ball, without the 
awkward but often necessary process of turning the pot upside down to get out 
the cuttings. A common mode of supplying water, when the bell-glass is 
placed within the rim of the pot, is to pour on the water between the glass 
and the rim. However, where there is a sufficiency of heat, and the pots are 
properly drained, no harm results from watering over the tops of the cuttings, 
as the heat soon evaporates the water that falls over the leaves. No water 
but rain-water should ever be used, either for seeds or young cuttings. 
691. The temperature most suitable for cuttings may reasonably be 

expected to be that which 
is most suitable for the 
parent plants, when in 
the same state as to growth 
as the cutting. Hence, 
for all hardy plants the 
temperature of the open 
air will generally be found 
sufficient, though when 
they begin to grow a some- 
what higher temperature 
than what is natural to 
them will be advantage- 
ous. This, however, will 
be of no use, but rather 
injurious, when cuttings 
areplanted without leaves, 
or when evergreens with 
ripened wood are put in ; 

for a certain time is re- 
Fig. 171. A cutting of Rosa semperftoren* prepared and planted. quired for eyer y cut tmg 

to accommodate itself to its new situation. As a general rule for the tern- 




260 ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 

perature at which cuttings should be kept, that in which the respective 
plants from which the cuttings are taken are found to produce shoots of 
freest growth, is doubtless the best. The bottom heat should nearly equal, 
but not exceed, that of the atmosphere. If the shoot has, however, been 
much excited into growth by heat, in order to obtain the cutting (574), the 
latter must have that heat kept up in its new situation, otherwise its 
vegetation will be checked. For cuttings of all the difficult-rooting 
greenhouse plants, the best heat for the soil is from 53 to 60 Fah. ; for 
those of hothouse plants from 60 to 68 Fah., which should be as regular 
as possible. This regularity is of great moment to insure the success of the 
cuttings ; for if they are kept at a cooler temperature the greater part of 
them form a callosity, but, for want of the necessary heat to assimilate the 
deposited nourishing matter, do not form roots. The callosity continues to 
grow in many species, such as Quercus, Hakea, and Protect, and often 
becomes of so considerable a size, that it not only covers the face of the cut 
with a thick layer, but also penetrates between the wood and the bark. 
When this is the case, and the callus is not cut away, no roots are made, 
and the cutting often remains several years without dying. Where the 
propagation of house-plants by cuttings is carried on extensively, a pit or 
house should be formed on purpose, in which there should be a bed of 
gently fermenting matter, such as tan or leaves, or, what will in general be 
found preferable, of sand, or coarsely-powdered charcoal, heated by the 
vapour of hot water from below. Where dung beds are employed, great 
care is necessary to prevent the exhalations rising from the dung to contami- 
nate the air of the bed, which would destroy most cuttings. In general, 
all cuttings whatever ought to be kept in what may be called the winter 
temperature of the plant, for some time after they are planted, and only put 
into their spring temperature when they have formed a callosity, and are 
ready to grow. The cool period for cuttings put in without leaves, or with 
leaves, but with ripened wood, will, of course, be much longer than those 
put in with leaves, and in a growing state, such as geraniums, petunias, 
dahlias, and even heaths. 

Cuttings of the plants in common cultivation in British gardens may be 
classed as under : 

592. Cuttings of hardy deciduous trees and shrubs, such as the gooseberry, 
currant, willow, poplar, &c., are easily rooted in the open garden, and the 
same may be said of the vine and fig. As it is desirable that the gooseberry 
and currant should not throw up suckers, and should have a clean stem, all 
the buds are cut clean out, except three, or at most four, at the upper end 
of the cutting. The cuttings are planted erect, about six inches deep, and 
made quite firm by the dibber at their lower extremity. Cuttings of honey- 
suckles, syringas, ampelopsis, art&nisza, atragene, atrlplex, baccharis, ber- 
cherm'a, bignonta, calycanthus, ceanothus, chenopodum, clematis, China 
roses, fig. 171, and the like, are rather more difficult to root, and succeed 
best in a shady border and a sandy soil. 

593. Cuttings of hardy evergreens, such as the common laurel, Portugal 
laurel, laurustinus, arborvitse, evergreen privet, and a few others, may be 
rooted in common soil in the open garden ; being put in in autumn, and 
remaining there a year. Cuttings of frupleureum, ftuxus, /uniperus, rhamnus, 
holly, sweet bay, aucuba, c., require a shady border and a sandy soil. 
They are put in in autumn, of ripened wood; but young wood of these and 



ON PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS. 



261 



all the kinds mentioned in this and the preceding paragraph will root freely, 
if taken off in the beginning of summer, when the lower end of the cutting 
is beginning to ripen, and planted in sand, and covered with a hand-glass. 

594. Cuttings of all the Conifera and Taxdcece may be taken off when the 
lower end of the cutting is beginning to ripen, arid planted in sand, with a 
layer of leaf mould beneath, in pots well drained, in the month of August 
or September, and kept in a cold frame, from which the frost is completely 
excluded, till the growing season in spring, when they may be put into a 
gentle heat. It is not in general necessary to cover these cuttings with bell- 
glasses. Taxodium is an exception, as it roots best in water. 

595. Cuttings of hardy or half-hardy herbaceous plants, such as pinks, 
carnations, sweet-williams, wall -flowers, stocks, dahlias, petunias, verbenas, 
rockets, and in general all herbaceous plants that have stems bearing leaves, 
root readily in sand under a hand-glass, placed in a shady border, or in a 
gentle heat, if greater expedition is required. All the cuttings must be cut 
through close under a joint, or in the case of pinks, carnations, or sweet- 
williams, the operation of piping may be performed. 

59G. Piping can only be performed with plants having tubular stems, 
and it is only with a few of these that gardeners 
are accustomed to practise it. The operation is 
performed when the plant has flowered, or soon 
afterwards, when it has nearly completed its 
growth for the season. The shoot chosen is held 
firm by the left hand, to prevent the root of the 
plant from being injured, while with the right 
the upper portion of the shoot is pulled asunder, 
one joint above the part held by the left hand. 
A portion of the shoot is thus separated at the 
socket formed by the axils of the leaves, and 
the appearance is as in fig. 172. Some propa- 
gators shorten the leaves before planting, but 
others leave them as in